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Ra'fatul Bri

(Vol - 1)

Sharah - Sahih Bukhari

Dr. Rafiq Ahmad

Kitabul Imaan - Chapter 1 - 8, Hadith 7 - 14

Contact:- drrafiqahmad@islaminkashmir.org

Chapter 1  
Chapter 2  
  Hadith No. 7
Chapter 3  
  Hadith No. 8
Chapter 4  
  Hadith No. 9
Chapter 5  
  Hadith No.10
Chapter 6  
  Hadith No. 11
Chapter 7  
  Hadith No. 12
Chapter 8  
  Hadith No. 13
  Hadith No. 14

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Kitabul Imn

 

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Title of the chapter ( )

Chapter (Bb) 1: The statement of Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) that Islm is based on five things and it is both a saying and an action. It increases and decreases. Allh says: That they may add faith to their faith  (48:4) And Allh doth increase in guidance those who seek guidance(19:76) But to those who receive guidance, He increases  their guidance and bestows on them their piety and restraint (from evil) (47:17) And the believers may in their faith (74:31) which of you has had his faith increased by it, yea, those who believe their faith is increased (9:124) And it only added to their faith and their zeal in obedience(33:22). And the love and hate for Allhs sake is a part of Faith; and Hadhrat Umar bin Abdul Aziz wrote to Hadhrat Adi bin Adi, faith includes Faraidh (duties), Sharai'ah (laws), Hudood (Allhs boundary limits between lawful and unlawful things) and Sunah (i.e, Prophets (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) way of living and traditions) and whoever follows all of them has complete faith and whoever does not follow them completely (does not act on them), his faith is incomplete and should I live I will tell you all about them and should I die, I am not anxious to have your company and Hadhrat Ibrahim (AS) said: Yea; but to satisfy my own heart (2:260) And Hadhrat Mu'dh bin Jabal (RA) said, "Let us sit for a while so that we may dedicate that period to Imn" and Hadrat Abdullah bin Mas'ood (RA) said that whole of Yaqeen (conviction) is Imn and Hadhrat Abdullah bin Umar (RA) said that A person will not reach true sense of piety unless and until he removes all suspicious things from his heart. Mujhid says, while commenting on following verse of the Qur'an: "Oh, Muhammad, We had given you and Nuh the same testament." Hadhrat Ibn Abbas (RA) said that in the Aayat Shir'a means the Islmic way and Minhaj means the Sunnah and traditions of Holy Prophet (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam)".

Purpose of the Tarjamtual bb

Imm Bukhari is of the opinion that the Imn is the name of sayings and action ( ). As per him the deeds or actions are also part of Imn, hence it increases and decreases as the deeds can be more or less and also good or bad. He has tried to prove his  point strongly by quoting various verses of the Qur'an, Hadith and also the comments of Sahbah al Kirm. Tbaeen and others as mentioned above. By selecting the first Hadith, which says that  Islm is based on five things, for this chapter he wants to stress again on the same point that the deeds are part of the Imn and  that Imn increases and decreases as different people will have different quantity and quality of deeds.

 

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Chapter (Bb) 2: Your invocation is your faith (invocation means belief). Allhs saying: Say (to the rejecters) My Lord is not un easy because of you if ye call Him or not (25:77)

 

Hadith No. 7

   

 

Narrated by Hadhrat ibn Umar (RA)

Allhs Apostle (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) said: Islm is based on (the following) five (principles):

To testify that none is worthy of worship but Allh and Muhammad is Allh's apostle.

To offer the (compulsory congregational) prayers dutifully and perfectly.

To pay Zakh (i.e. obligatory charity).

To perform Hajj (i.e. Pilgrimage to Mecca).

To observe fast during the month of Ramadhan.

 

NarratorHadhrat Ibn Umar (RA)

Hadhrat Ibn Umar (RA) is the son of Hadhrat Umar bin Khattab (RA) and the brother of Ummul Mumineen Hadhrat Hafsa (RA). He embraced Islm along with his father at a very young age and migrated to Madinah (Hijrah) with his father. He could not participate in the battles of Badr and Uhad because of young age but participated in all later Gazwas. He earned martyrdom in 73 Hijrah. May Allh be pleased with him and elevate his rank.

 

Comments

In this Hadith example of Islm has been given like that of a tent which is erected on a central pillar and four corner pillars. Shahdah is the central pillar of the building or tent of Islm and Salh, Zakh, Saum and Hajj are the four corner pillars. If the four corner pillars of the tent will fall, it will still remains standing, but if the central pillar falls then it will come down. Similarly, so far as Shahdah is there in ones heart, he will remain Mumin even if he is weak in Salh, Zakh, Saum or Haj, The reverse will not be true. Second reason for comparing Islm with the tent is that so far as one remains in a fortified tent, one is safe from enemies. Similarly, one who stays in the tent of Islm, he is safe both from internal enemy like Shatan and external enemies as well.

 

Ibadah (Worship) is of two kinds

Dos: Those things which Shari'ah wants us to do.

Don'ts: Those things which Shari'ah does not want us to do.

Do's can be either lingual deeds () or practical deeds  (), and the donts can be either bodily or financial deeds.

Saum (Fasting) belongs to Don'ts, as in this type of worship one is told not to do certain things like eating, drinking etc. Rest four types belong to Do's.

By reciting Shahadah, one accepts the Oneness and Supremacy of Allh Tal and the prophethood of Rasulullah (AS) as the last divine guidance for the mankind. Having realised ones own dependence on his Creator and Cherisher i.e., Allh Tal, one bows before Him in Salh in such a way that one feels His nearness. With this one gets the feeling that whatever he has, belongs to Allh Tal, so he uses his wealth also for getting the pleasure of Allh Tal, and one form of that is paying of Zakh. Having started to taste the nearness of Allh, one realises  that one has to cleanse his inner self in order to get perfection in the spiritual progress, so he abstains from all sinful things and even curtails Hall things for sometime, in the form of Saum (fasting). This purifies ones inner self and takes him to the heights of spirituality. Now he becomes eager to go to the centre of spiritual blessings i.e., Haj. Only those, who go there with pure and sincere inner self, know what one gets while performing Haj.  This is the reason as to why these five things are labelled as the base of Islm These five things include almost all types of Ibadah, may it be by tongue, bodily parts, heart and soul or charity.

Salh and Zakh depict the Jall and Supremacy of  power of Allh as the bondsman bows before Him and spends his earnings as per His commands. Saum and Hajj depict the Jaml of Allh, and in its (i.e, Jaml) love the bondsman goes in ecstasy, forgets his food (while fasting) and his homeland (while Haj).

 

ImnWhat is Imn?

Imn means to believe, to accept. It is derived from the Arabic word Aman which means peace. Mumin (one who believes) gives peace to the believed (i.e., by believing in Allh and His Messenger (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) from refuting and falsifying and the Mumin or believer also gives peace to other creatures, in other words Mumin is full of peace.

In Shariah, Imn means to believe in totality all that what was presented by Prophet Muhammad (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) and Kufr (infidelity) is opposite of Imn which means to deny any of the things presented by Prophet Muhammad (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam). True Imn is believing the truthfulness of Prophet Muhammad (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) in totality i.e., believing him as a true Prophet hundred percent, whereas one becomes Kfir if he denies Prophet Muhammad (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) even partly. It is a matter of great concern for those Muslims who believe in Shariah but try to modify or change some of its laws which they are unable to understand. They should know that by doing so they no longer remain Muslims even if they believe in majority of laws of Shariah.

Imm Rzi (RA) says, if someone neither believes nor disbelieves Prophet Muhammad (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) he also is a Kfir. Shah Abdul Aziz Delhvi says, Imn means to believe Qurn and Sunnah and to interpret it in the same way as Qurn and Sunnah interprets it. For example, if someone believes in Jannah and Jahannam but misinterprets it by saying that Jannah means happiness and Jahannam means misery, he also is a Kfir as it amounts to refusal of the interpretation of Qurn and Sunnah.

Hadhrat Allmah Anwar Shah Kashmiri says that Imn means to believe Prophet Muhammad (Sallallhu Alaih Wasallam) with complete trust upon him. If someone says that he will accept only that law of Shariah, which is logical to his mind, he is not a Muslim. Actually Imn means to believe Prophet Muhammad (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) as the last true Messenger of Allh (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam). So, whatever he (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) says is true whether ones mind understands it or not. As per Sheikh Abdul Qdir Jeelni (RA) and Shah Walli-Ullah Delhvi (RA), Imn has an external appearance (Surat) and also an essence (Haqeeqat). To say with tongue, to believe with heart and to act with bodily parts is its external appearance or Surat.

 

Haqeeqat of Imn

To make the (baser self) Nafs completely subordinate, obedient to Shariah so that it likes the same thing what Shariah has commanded as Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) says in a Hadith:

No one amongst you can be a believer (Mumin) unless and until he makes his baser self subservient to what I have come with

When one achieves this status of Imn, it is said that he tastes the Haqeeqat of Imn. His nafs achieves the status of Nafs-i-Mutmainnah. Such a Nafs gets solace in Shariah only. For him the laws of Shariah become like water for fish. When Nafs is at a lower level it is called Nafs-i-Ammarah, such a Nafs feels uncomfortable with the laws of Shariah and feels solace in sins i.e., breaking the laws of Shariah. This is why Sahbah al-Kirm felt a minor sins weight as if of a huge mountain whereas we people do sins as huge as mountains but still we don't even feel its weight equal to a small piece of cotton. Our Nafs is at the stage of Nafs-i-Ammarah while as the Sahbah had attained the status of Nafs-i-Mumainnah.

 

Imn of Mariyah Qabtia (RA)

Hadhrat Mariyah Qabtia (RA) was one of the wives of Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam). Hadhrat Ibrahim was born to her who died at a very young age. One day Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) saw Mariyah gloomy and he asked her the reason behind it. She replied that she was gloomy as she didnt know whether her son was in Jannah or Jahannam after death. Wahy was revealed to Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) in which he was told that all those Muslim children who die at a young age go to Jannah. Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) told Mariyah that there was good news for her and that her son was in Jannah and further asked if she wanted to see her son in Jannah. It is this reply of Mariyah which I want to convey by narrating this incident here. She said, no, she does not want to see him. You can imagine that a mother who has lost her child at a very young age and then she is being told if she wants to see her son, that too in Jannah, how jubilant any mother would have been. But intelligent and vigilant Mariyah says that if she had said yes, she would have become Kfir. Do you know why? When Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) informed her that her son was in Jannah, she straight away believed it as her Imn was of very high status. If she would have said yes, after having been informed by Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) that her son was in Jannah, this would have indirectly meant that she did not completely believe Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) and wanted to confirm by seeing with her own eyes. She said instead, that her eyes may see what is wrong but statement of Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) cannot be wrong. This is the degree of Imn that is required from a Mumin.

 

Complete faith on Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) is must for Imn

  Hadhrat Abdullah bin Salm (RA) was a great Jewish scholar before embracing Islm. After embracing Islm, one day he was sitting in the company of Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) with other Sahbah. In the meantime camels milk was served to all those present there. Hadhrat Abdullah bin Salm did not take the milk. Since camels milk was Harm in the Sahriat of Hadhrat Mus, he thought that though it is Hall in Islm but not necessary to take and if he wont do it, it would make no difference. At this very moment Allh Tal revealed the following verse of Qurn to Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam):

O ye who believe! Enter into Islm wholeheartedly (2:208)

It clearly shows that any one who wants to have the fruits of Imn has to believe in it in totality. Piece-meal acceptance or selective acceptance will not serve the purpose.

 

Value of Imn

The value of the least possible part of Imn equal to just a speck, is Jannah. There is consensus amongst the Ulema that any person having the lowest degree of Imn will ultimately go to Jannah. He may remain in Jahannam for sometime but ultimately he will be taken out of Jahannam and allowed to enter Jannah.  His entry into Jannah will be due to that speck of Imn which had been in his heart. So, it means that the value of lowest degree of Imn is Jannah and one cannot imagine the value of higher degrees of Imn.

 

To know is not Imn, to believe is Imn

Imn means to believe by heart in the truthfulness of Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam). If anyone knows that Prophet Muhammad (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) is truly the last Messenger of Allh but does not believe him, he is not a Mumin (believer). Abu Jahal, one of the worst enemies of Islm, knew that Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) was the true Messenger of Allh but he did not believe him, so, only knowing this didnt benefit him of Imn, he died as Kfir.

Allh Taals says in Qurn:

These (non-beleivers) recognize him (i.e, Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam)) the way they recognize their children (2:146)

 

Imn and Islm

These two words are many times used as synonyms but are also used with separate meanings. Imn is a deed of Qalbto have faith in Allh and His Messenger (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) by heart is called Imn. The place of Imn is Qalb. To utter the same faith of heart by the tongue is a condition necessary for labelling a person in this world as a Mumin and for enacting Islmic laws upon him as a Muslim. If someone utters the article of faith by his tongue and there is no Imn in his heart, he is not a Muslim but a Munfiq who as per Qurn will be thrown into the deepest part of the Hell. If someone has faith in his heart but dies before uttering the words by tongue or is dumb, he is a Mumin by consensus. Uttering of article of faith by tongue helps in this world and faith in heart will help in Hereafter.

 

What is Islm

When the Imn, which resides in Qalb, is expressed by different bodily deeds like Salh, Saum, Zakh etc, it is called Islm. Islm is related to different external bodily deeds whereas Imn is a hidden treasure of heart. If someone performs deeds as per Islmic Shariah, he is called a Muslim, he may not be necessarily a Mumin in case Imn is not in his Qalb i.e., every Muslim is not a Mumin but every Mumin is a Muslim.

Allh Tal says in Qurn:

The desert Arabs say "We believe." Say, Ye have no faith; but ye (only) say We have submitted our wills to Allh.' For not yet has Faith entered your hearts. But if ye obey Allh and His Apostle He will not belittle aught of your deeds: for Allh is Oft-Forgiving Most Merciful." (49:14)

There were some villagers who performed deeds like Muslims but did not have Imn in their hearts, they behaved as Muslims because they wanted to get worldly benefits from Muslims. They came to Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) claiming that they were Mumin. Allh Tal sent Wahy to Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) in which he (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) was told that these people were Muslims and not Mumin as Imn had not penetrated their hearts.

 

Constituents of Imn

In general Imn is said to have three constituents viz.,

Uttering article of faith by tongue.

Having faith in heart.

Performing good deeds.

Imn is primarily related to heart. There has always been a debate amongst the Ulema whether Aamal (deeds) form a part of Imn or not. There is a consensus amongst the Ulema of Ahli-Sunnat Wal Jamt that one who has Imn in heart and also commits sins, remains a Mumin. By committing sins, one becomes fasiq but not Kfir. Such a person will be treated as a Muslim and will be buried in a Muslim graveyard. Those Ulema amongst the Ahli Sunnat Wal Jamt who consider good deeds as part of Imn, actually mean that without good deeds Imn is incomplete and it is essential to perform good deeds to attain excellence in Imn. If anyone has Imn in heart but does not do any good deed,   nobody from amongst the Ulema of Ahli Sunnat Wal Jamt believes that he will become a Kfir. Such a person will remain Mumin though his Imn will remain defective. As per Imm Abu Haniefah, good deeds are not part of Imn, Imm Shfaee and Imm Bukhari regard these are part of Imn. As mentioned above this difference is only superficial because of the fact that what Imm Abu Haniefah is referring to is essence of Imn and what Imm Shfaee is referring to is the excellence of Imn, hence no difference.

 

Belief in Allh

It means to believe in Oneness and Uniqueness of Allh Tal both in His Essence and His Attributes. To believe in His Self Existence and that His Existence is not dependent upon the existence of any other thing whereas the existence of every other thing is dependent upon His Existence. Imn in Allh means to acknowledge His bounties, His Mercy and the extreme excellence of all His attributes as is worth His Jall and Jaml.

Different people have Imn of different grades. Common people recite the article of faith i.e., Kalimah by tongue while having faith in their hearts whereas the people possessing higher grade of Imn find themselves in the presence of Allh thus forgetting the world and remain busy in preparation for Hereafter. Those people having even higher state of Imn, get so much enlightenment from Allh that they even forget themselves and the dualism is lost to them.

Allh is the name of Essence of Allh, the other names like Ar-Rehmn, Ar-Rahim, Al-Gaffr are the names of His Attributes. So, in His name i.e., Allhall His Attributes are also included i.e., when one calls Him by the name of Allh, he is calling Him by all His Attributes. Allh alone is worth worshipping, as He alone is the Creator of every creature. He has no partners, no children and no parents, there is none like unto Him. He knows everything and listens everything at the same time. To listen one thing does not make Him unable from listening others. Similarly, seeing one thing does not make Him incapable to see others. He is Omnipotent and does not need any advisers or helpers. He is beyond human comprehension. He is present everywhere but cannot be seen in this world. He has no beginning or end, everything other than Him has a beginning and an end. Nothing happens in this universe out of His Knowledge and Will. He created things from nothing. He says, be and it becomes. He is the Real Creator, Designer, Planner and Operator of the whole universe and what is beyond that. No slumber seizes Him nor sleep. Nothing is beyond His kingdom. He is nearer to man than his jugular veins.

His Attributes are also beyond our comprehension. When we say Hand of Allh, it does not mean something like our hands, similarly when we say He sees, listens or speaks, it does not mean that He has eyes, ears and tongue like ours, but these words are used only for our easy understanding otherwise nobody can comprehend their real meaning, as the way He is Unique in His Essence so is He in His Attributes. His Attributes cannot be compared with that of His creatures. As is the difference between the Creator and the creation, so is the difference between the Attributes of the Creator and the creation, e.g., difference between our seeing and listening and His seeing and listening.

Allh is beyond time and space as these are created things. There is no present, past or future before Him, these are things for the creatures. One cannot attribute a particular direction to Him, as He is everywhere. It is not proper to attribute words like ascent or descent to Allh. It is narrated in some traditions that Allh descends to Aasman-i-Duniya (lowest heaven) during the last part of the night and also during Shabb-i-Qadr. By this descent it should not be understood that Allh descends physically down as ascent and descent are not worth His Excellency. This word descent again is from Mutashabiht and Ulema say that by this word descent is meant that Allh pays special attention towards the world.

Nothing can make him helpless or overpower him. Allh Tal says in Qurn:

It is Allh Who has created you, further, He has provided for your sustenance; then He will cause you to die; and again He will give you life. Are there any of your (false) partners who can do any single one of these things? Glory to Him! and High is He above the partners they attribute (to Him)! (30:40)

And Allh is not to be frustrated by anything whatever in the heavens or on earth: for He is All-Knowing, All-Powerful.(35:44)

For accomplishing any task one needs two things, power to do that task and the knowledge; Allh has both, hence can do anything and everything.

Our eyes can see material things only and our minds can understand those things only which are related to matter and can be felt. Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) said that Jannah is such a thing which no eye has seen, no ear has heard of and its idea has not passed through anybodys heart as to what it exactly looks like. When we cannot see or comprehend Jannah, which is material thing and also created one, how will we be able to see or comprehend Allh who has no material body? Hadhrat Junaid Baghddi (RA) has well said: Whatever idea come to your mind about the being of Allh, think that He is not like that, as He cannot come in our minds and is above all these imaginations.

Allh Tal says:

No vision can grasp Him (6:103)

And they shall not compass it with their knowledge (20:110)

There is nothing whatever like unto Him, and He is the one that hears and sees (42:11)

Nothing is like unto Him neither in essence nor in attributes, nor in deeds. His Knowledge is not like our knowledge, His seeing in not like our seeing, His listening is not like our listening. His being on throne is not like our being on throne, His laughing is not like our laughing and His power is not like our power. In short, there is nothing that can be compared with Him or can be given as an example.

 

Allh is the Creator free of needs

Allh Tal says:

() () ()

I have only created Jinns and men, that they may serve Me. No, sustenance do I require of them, nor do I require that they should feed me. For Allh is He Who gives (all) sustenance, Lord of Power, Steadfast (forever).

O ye men! it is you that have need of Allh: but Allh is the One free of all wants, worthy of all praise (35:15)

 

Allh provides sustenance to all with utmost ease.

For Allh is He Who gives (all) sustenance, Lord or Power, Steadfast (forever) (51:58)

 

Allh destroys without fear

He says:

() ()

Then they rejected him (as a false prophet), and they hamstrung her. So, their Lord crushed them for their sins and leveled them. And for Him is no fear of its consequences. (91:14-15)

When creatures take some decision, they think of consequences that can be against them but Allh being the Creator, can create at will and there can be no question of any such apprehension in His case.

 

Resurrection is easy for Allh

He says:

()

It is He Who begins the creation; then repeats it; and for Him it is most easy, To Him belongs the loftiest similitude (we can think of) in the heavens and the earth; for He is Exalted in Might, full of Wisdom (30:27)

In the first instance Allh created every creature from nothing, when He can create everything from nothing, then how can it be difficult for Him to give life again to dead ones.

()

The unbelievers think that they will not be Raised up (for Judgement), say: Yes, by my Lord, you shall surely be raised up: then shall you be told (the truth) of all that you did. And that is easy for Allh (64:7)

 

Allh is Qadeem so are His Attributes

Qadeem means without beginning, as His Essence is Qadeem so are His Attributes. His Attributes cannot be separated from His Essence. He was Creator (Khliq) even before creating anything. Act of creation did not add anything to His Essence or Attributes. He will remain Creator even after the creation is no more there. He did not become Creator after creating the creations. He was Creator before that as well. When He created or creates anything, at that time He is active Creator whereas before creating, He was potential Creator. A writer remains a writer even when he is not writing. When he is not writing, he possesses the potential or ability to write, so does not cease to be a writer. Similar is the case with all other attributes of Allh like seeing (Baseer), Listening (Samee) and Knowing (Aleem) etc. These all Attributes were with Him always even before creating the creation and there will be no loss in them even after the creations will remain no more.

 

Tawheed (MonotheismOneness of Allh)

Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) once when asked about Islm by Hadhrat Jibraeel (AS) said that Islm means to testify the article of faith, La-ilaha-il-lal-lah Muhammad-ur-Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) ( ), which means that there is no god but Allh and Muhammad (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) is His Messenger. First step in Islm is La which means nothing i.e., first step in Islm is to achieve the state of nothingness. There are some religions like Buddhism which talk of nothingness. They, after shunning away the world, meditate in solitude to achieve this state of nothingness but they achieve nothing  except some illusive imaginations. On the other hand a Muslim has to achieve state of nothingness practically while living an active practical life. A Muslim, by way of this article of faith, believes very firmly that there is nothing but Allh, He is the only being Who has His own existence and the existence of everything other than His, is dependent upon His existence. No one has any power, strength or existence of its own and whatever anything has, that has been given to it by Allh. So a Muslim observes the hand of Allh in the essence of everything and in every action. He sees that any deed performed by anyone is actually commanded by Allh, so, he gets so much engrossed in the thought of Allh that he thinks, he feels and he sees that there is none but Allh. At this stage it is said that this Muslim is tasting the Tawheed. Imm al-Ghzali (RA) says that there are two outer kernels and two inner fruits of Tawheed. To utter the faith of article, the Kalimah, with the tongue is the outermost kernel and to have its firm faith in the heart is the next kernel. One fruit of Tawheed is that the secret of Tawheed gets manifest with the help of Divine Noor (illumination) to such an extent that such a person sees Allh as the Ultimate cause of all actions that are taking place around him and sees His Ultimate Causative Hand in all the effects. The other inner fruit of Tawheed is that one does not appreciate existence of anything except that of Allh and such a person gets engrossed in Allh to such an extent that he forgets every other thing.

Imm-al-Ghzali (RA) gives an example of this as, there was a clean sheet of white paper and something was written on it with a black pen. Someone asked this sheet of paper as to what made your face black, you were just now clean white and now you look black. The paper replied that I was all done by ink and better ask the ink. The ink was asked as to why you blackened the face of white paper. Ink said, I was at rest in my home (i.e., inkpot), the pen came and pierced my body and took me away from my home and then spread me on the paper. You better ask the pen. The pen was asked about the complaint of the ink. It replied, I was at my home (i.e., tree), a hand came, brutally broke me away from my parent (tree) and skinned me off and cut my tongue with a sharp knife (the tip of wooden pen is cut in the centre). Now the same hand is making me to walk on the paper headlong. What is my fault, you better ask the hand. The hand was asked about the pens complaint against it. The hand replied, I was resting quietly and the will (Irdha) came and asked me to do it. I dont do anything unless commanded by will to do that. I am helpless, what is my fault, you better ask the will. The chain of these question - answers continues till it ends with Allh Tal. The person, who has been bestowed upon with the blessing of Tawheed (of higher degree), observes Allh Tal even in the ink which is being spread on a sheet of paper with a pen. Same way such a person observes Allh Tal as the Ultimate cause of every deed that is being executed by him or around him.

 

Fan and Baq

There comes a time when I (self) is lost in He (Allh). I no more remains there and there is only He. Sufis call it Fan and Baq. Fan means that I no more commands, that means - that such a person does not act as per the commands of I. Baq means that one acts as per the commands of He and not I. It does not mean that I is replaced by He in body and soul as some ignorant pseudo mystics believe, such a belief is Kufr (infidelity). It simply means that evil instincts of I or baser self get completely suppressed and it no longer incites for evil. These evil instincts are replaced by pious instincts and it becomes very easy for such a person to do good deeds, rather it becomes his nature to do good and to follow the commands of Shariah in letter and spirit.

 

Wahdat-ul-Wujud (Unity of Existence)

When it is said that nothing exists other than Allh, ignorant people take it as if everything is god, so they worship everything, which is an evident Kufr. These people call it Wahdat-ul-Wujud (Unity of Existence); such an interpretation is totally wrong and unfounded. One may ask a question as to what is the meaning of nothing exists other than Allh? Well, it means that nothing exists itself other than Allh. The existence of every other thing is dependant upon the existence of Allh and latter is not dependant on anything other than Himself. We see millions of stars in the sky during night, when sun rises in the morning, we see no stars. Where have they gone? They are very much there but in the presence of the sun they become invisible, though they do exist during day as well. Similarly, we can say that the existence of creatures becomes insignificant in the presence of the existence of Allh, though all living creatures do have their existence. So, to say that creatures are actually creator is not correct.

Some saintly people sometimes experience a wonderful state in which they loose all demarcations of self and non-self and get absorbed in the Reality to such an extent that it becomes difficult for them to differentiate between the one who looks and the one who is looked upon. This state is a momentary state and does not last long. Such an experience is something extra-ordinary and cannot be described in words, only those who experience it can understand it, for others it is wastage of time to discuss such things.

 

Salh

Establishment of Salh is next to the article of  faith i.e., Kalimah. After having firm faith in Allh and His Messenger (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam), the next most important constituent of Islm is the establishment of Salh. Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) said in a Hadith that one who deliberately leaves Salh, does an act of Kufr and that Salh distinguishes a Muslim from a non-Muslim. Salh is the most complete and the best form of worship one can think of. It involves all faculties viz., mental and spiritual for the act of worship in the real form. Best way of asking somebody about Mercy and Kindness is to stand in front of him quietly, nicely with folded hands and one may bow before him in reverence and extreme form of physical respect is shown by prostrating before him, placing ones head of pride on the ground. Since Islm teaches that the only Helper, Merciful and Benevolent is Allh, so it has banned from bowing in front of any other being other than Allh. Islm teaches that Allh alone fulfills all needs from the smallest to the biggest, so a Muslim is asked to bow before Allh only and this he does in Salh, in the form of Qiym, Ruku and Sajdah. The contents of Salh, the Qurn and other words which one is supposed to recite in Salh, express greatness of Allh, His countless bounties and gratefulness for the same with Tawheed (monotheism) and Ikhlas (sincerety) and in the remaining part the bondsman, the performer of Salh, prays to Almighty Allh with full respect from the core of his heart and asks His help and Mercy. The wording is such that it looks as if the bondsman is having a direct conversation with Almighty Allh. It is for this reason that Salh is called Meraj-ul-Mumineen. In Meraj Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) was taken up into the Heavens even above them where he got the highest nearness to Allh and talked to Allh at the closest range, it was at this moment that Allh gave Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) Salh as a gift for his Ummah, so that the Ummah can get nearness of Allh and His pleasure in Salh.

 

Aqeem-us-Salh

Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) used the word Aqeem-us-Salh which means to establish the Salh and did not say to offer the Salh. Ulema say that establishment of Salh means to offer Salh along with all its ideal conditions, for example, to offer Salh in time with proper cleanliness of mind,  soul, body, clothes and place. To offer Salh slowly with grace and not in haste manner, and with presence of mind humility, with fear and love of Allh and in Jamat (congregational) etc.

 

Zakh

Third constituent of Islm after Salh is to pay Zakh (poor tax). Every Muslim is supposed to pay two and a half percent of his/her yearly savings as poor tax if that exceeds the prescribed limit. Zakh is an Arabic word which means purity, so this tax has been imposed on wealthy Muslims so that the rest of their wealth gets purified from the impurities of sins etc. The tax is so much less that it becomes very easy to pay. The main difference of Islmic Tax of Zakh and that of modern taxation is that former is on saving while the latter is on income. It is easy to pay from saving than from that income which has already been spent.

For those who strive for higher states of Imn, the word Zakh means something more. For them it means to purify the exterior (Zhir) and interior (Btin) by shunning away wealth and spending that for the pleasure of Allh and to purify the Qalb from everything other than Allh so that it can perceive the rays of Divine light.

 

Saum

Fourth constituent of Islm is to observe fast (Saum), during the month of Ramadhan. It is obligatory for Muslims to observe fast from dawn to sunset for the whole month of Ramadhan every year. The benefits of Saum for the physical health are numerous which can be seen in the books written on this subject. It has immense spiritual benefits as well. It weakens the bestial instincts in man and strengthens in him the Angelic instincts. Man comes closer to the Angels and his Qalb begins appreciating the fine subtleties of nature.  The one who observes fasts is very much loved by Allh to the extent that Allh has promised that He will Himself reward the doer of this act

 

Haj

The fifth constituent of Islm which Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) stated in this Hadith is Haj. Hajj is obligatory once in a life time for those Muslims who can go to Makkah-al-Mukarramah either on foot, camel or horse etc or have enough money to arrange for other means of transportation, accommodation and meals and can support their dependants monetarily back home. Hajj is performed once in a year from 8th to 12th Zil-Hajj at Makkah-al-Mukarramah. The details can be seen from the various books on Haj.

 

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Chapter (Bb) 3: (What is said) in the matters of faith, and the saying of Allh:

 

It is not Al-Birr (piety, righteousness, and every act of obedience to Allh) that you turn your faces towards east and (or) west (in prayers); but Al-Birr is (the quality of) the one who believes in Allh, the Last Day, The Angels, the Book, the Prophets and gives his wealth in spite of love of it, to the kinsfolk, to the orphans, and to al-Masakin (the poor) and to the wayfarer, and to those who ask, and to set slaves free, performs As-Salat (Iqamat-as-Salat) and gives the Zakh, and who fulfil their covenant when they make it, and who are patient in extreme poverty and ailment and at the time of fighting (during the battles). Such are the people of the truth and they are Al-Muttaqun (the pious).  (2:177)

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"Successful indeed are the believers those who offer their Salat with all solemnity and full submissiveness. And those who turn away from Al-Laghw (dirty, false, evil vain talk, falsehood, and all that Allh has forbidden). And those who guard their chastity (i.e., private parts, from illegal sexual acts). Except from their wives or that their right hands possess, - for then, they are free from blame. But whosoever seeks beyond that, then those who are transgressors; those who are faithfully true to their Amant (all the duties which Allh has ordained, honesty, moral responsibility and trusts) and to their covenants; and those who strictly guard their (five compulsory congregational) Salawt (prayers) (at their fixed stated hours). these are indeed the inheritors who shall inherit the Firdous (Paradise). They shall dwell therein forever." (23:1-11)

 

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Hadith  No. 8

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Narrated Abu Hurairah (RA)

The Prophet  said, "Faith (Belief) consists of more than sixty branches (i.e. parts). And Hay (modesty) (The term "Haya" covers a large number of concepts which are to be taken together; amongst them are self respect, modesty, bashfulness, and scruple, etc.) is a part of  faith."

 

Purpose  of Tarjamatul Bb

In previous Hadith Imm Bukhari mentioned  five basic pillars of Islm and now he is presenting a Hadith related to  the branches of  Islm, that is why he has labelled  this chapter as "things related to Imn". Imm Bukhari also wants to convey that  Islm is not confined to five things only but there are so many other things as well. The other thing which Imm Bukhari wants to prove by getting this Hadith here is his view point that Imn is the  name of  beliefs and deeds .

 

Purpose of quoting verses of the Qur'an here

Imm Bukhari has quoted two verses here, one from Surah Baqarah (2:177) and other from Surah Muminoon (23:1-11). First verse mentions the things related to Imn and the second verse states some qualities of believers (Mumineen). Hfiz Ibn Hajar has quoted Abdur Razaq  on  the  authority  of  Mujhid that  once  Abu  Zar (RA) asked Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) about  Imn and  Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) recited the same Aayat, viz.,

It is not Al-Birr (piety, righteousness, and every act of obedience to Allh) that you turn your faces towards east and (or) west (in prayers); but Al-Birr is (the quality of) the one who believes in Allh, the Last Day, The Angels, the Book, the Prophets and gives his wealth in spite of love of it, to the kinsfolk, to the orphans, and to al-Masakin (the poor) and to the wayfarer, and to those who ask, and to set slaves free, performs As-Salat (Iqamat-as-Salat) and gives the Zakh, and who fulfil their covenant when they make it, and who are patient in extreme poverty and ailment and at the time of fighting (during the battles). Such are the people of the truth and they are Al-Muttaqun (the pious).  (2:177)

 

Are the things mentioned in this Aayat included in Imn?

In this ayat it is said,   Such are the people of truth the Muttaqun (pious). Muttaqun (those who fear Allh) are those who refrain from Shirk (Polytheism) and sins, so such qualities are included in Imn. When Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) was told  by Allh Tal to take Khnah Kabah as Qiblah instead of Baitul Maqdis, the enemies of Islm raised their voices, some objected, what kind of Prophet is Muhammad (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) that one day he taking one Qiblah and the other day another. Others were  telling  the  Muslims  that Baitul  Maqdis was the  Qiblah of  thousands of  prophets then how is he changing  that Qiblah if he is the Prophet. On this occasion Allhu Tal sent down this Aayat:

It is not Al-Birr (piety, righteousness, and every act of obedience to Allh) that you turn your faces towards east and (or) west (in prayers); but Al-Birr is (the quality of) the one who believes in Allh, the Last Day, The Angels, the Book, the Prophets.

True Imn is the spirit of obedience towards Allhu Tal, whatever He commands, is to be obeyed without showing any reluctance. Hypocrites also used to offer Salh (prayers) and  other  deeds but it was of no use to them as they lacked the necessary spirit of Imn.

This Aayat represents the Shariah in a comprehensive way. The Shariah in general consists of three aspects , viz.,

 

Aqaid (Beliefs)

True beliefs constitute the basis of Imn, This is mentioned as:

It is not Al-Birr (piety, righteousness, and every act of obedience to Allh) that you turn your faces towards east and (or) west (in prayers); but Al-Birr is (the quality of) the one who believes in Allh, the Last Day, The Angels, the Book, the Prophets

 

Good morals and good social etiquettes

After having the true and correct beliefs one needs good morals and good social etiquettes, these are mentioned as:

and gives his wealth in spite of love of it, to the kinsfolk, to the orphans, and to al-Maskin (the poor) and to the wayfarer, and to those who ask, and to set slaves free,

 

3. Self  reformation and spiritual progress

It has two aspects, one, the relation of the bondsman with Allh Tal, it is mentioned as:

"performs As-Salat (Iqamat-as-Salat) and gives the Zakh,"

Second, the relation of man with other creatures, it is mentioned as:

"and who fulfil their covenant when they make it, and who are patient in extreme poverty and ailment and at the time of fighting (during the battles)"

So, one can easily understand the comprehensiveness of this Aayat.

Second ayat which Imm Bukhari has quoted here is:

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"Successful indeed are the believers those who offer their Salat with all solemnity and full submissiveness. And those who turn away from Al-Laghw (dirty, false, evil vain talk, falsehood, and all that Allh has forbidden). And those who guard their chastity (i.e., private parts, from illegal sexual acts). Except from their wives or that their right hands possess, - for then, they are free from blame. But whosoever seeks beyond that, then those who are transgressors; those who are faithfully true to their Amant (all the duties which Allh has ordained, honesty, moral responsibility and trusts) and to their covenants; and those who strictly guard their (five compulsory congregational) Salawt (prayers) (at their fixed stated hours). these are indeed the inheritors who shall inherit the Firdous (Paradise). They shall dwell therein forever." (23:1-11)

These verses vividly describe the attributes of a Mumin.

According to the Hadith The Prophet  said,

"Faith (Belief) consists of more than sixty branches (i.e. parts) and Hay (modesty) is a part of  faith."

 

NarratorAbu Hurairah

Abu  Hurairah (RA) is one of the famous companions of Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) who was Faqih, Hfiz  and a great  narrator of Hadith. He embraced Islm in seven Hijrah and since then remained glued with Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) in order to learn Qur'an and Hadith. He has narrated around Five thousand, three hundred and seventy Ahdith. It is said that once Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) saw Abu Hurairah with a cat in his lap and he called him "Ya Abu Hurairah, since then he got famous with this name. His real name as per the majority of Ulema was Abdul Rehmn. He died in 57 Hijrah and was buried in the graveyard of Baqee in Madinah.

Comments

The meaning of the word Bidh'un:

Bidh'un in arabic means from three to nine as per majority, some say that it means from one to nine, while some say that it means from three to ten.

 

Difference in the narrations

In some narrations the word Saboon (seventy), has  while in some other,  the word Sittoon (sixty) has been narrated. Imm Bukhari has mentioned the word Sittoon as the lower figure (i.e., sixty) is the sure figure out of two. Others say that such words like Saboon or Sittoon in arabic do not  mean any definite number but these are used to denote a multiple number.

 

Branches of Imn

Imm Abu Hatam Ibn Hibban has  tried to collect the various branches of Imn from  Qur'an and Hadith. Hfiz Ibn Hajar was unable to find his book so he divided these branches into three  main groups, viz.,

Deeds  related  to  Qalb:- These are 24 in number.

Deeds  related  to  Tongue:- These are seven in number.

Deeds  related  to  body:- These  are  38 in number.

Allh Tal says in the Qur'an:

"Seest thou not how Allh sets forth a parable? a goodly Word like a goodly tree whose root is firmly fixed and its branches (reach) to the heavens"   (14:24)

In this Aayat the Kalimah Tayyibah (goodly word) has  been compared with a tree and the  deeds with its  branches. Similarly  in  this  Hadith the Imn has  been  compared with the tree and  the deeds with its branches.

Branches  of  Imn ( quoted  from Fruoo' ul Imn by Ashraf Ali Thnvi, English translation by the author):

 

Thirty branches of Imn related to Qalb

1. To believe in Allh.

2. To believe that everythiung other than Allh is created and Makhlooq.

3. To believe in Angels.

4. To believe in all His books.

5. To believe in all His Prophets.

6. To believe in Taqdeer (Predestination).

7.To believe in the day of judgement (Al-Qiymah).

8.To believe in Jannah.

9.To believe in Jahannam.

10.To love Allh.

11. To love somebody for the sake of Allh and to hate somebody for the sake of Allh.

12.To love Prophet Muhammad (Sallallhu alaihi Wasallam)).

13. Ikhls (Sincerity).

14. Toaba (Repentance).

15. Khouf (Fear)

16. Rij (Hope)

17. Hay (Modesty)

18. Shukr (Gratitude, Thanks giving)

19. To fulfill the promise.

20. Sabr (Patience)

21. Tawdhu (Humility)

22. Kindness to mankind.

23. To be happy with (Qadha-Ilahi) predestination

24. To have Tawakkul (Trust in Allh)

25. To leave Ujb (self-conceit , vanity)

26. To leave Keena (hatred)/.

27. To leave Hassad (Jealousy).

28. To leave Anger.

29. To leave evil-wishing

30. To leave love of the world.

 

Other branches related to other parts of body

1. To obtain Tahrah (cleanliness). This includes cleanliness of body, clothes, place, ablution, Ghusl, post coition and for menses, all gets included in this.

2.  Establishment of Salh. It includes Fardh, Nafl, and Qadha all of them.

3.  Charity:- It includes Zakh, Sadqa Fitra, Charitable meals (for poor) and invitation for meals in honour of the guests.

4. Fasts (Roza): - Fardh and Nafl.

5. Hajj and Umrah.,

6. Aetikf:- It includes searching of Shab-i-Qadr.

7. To go to some other place in order to serve Deen. It includes Hijrah also.,

8. To fulfill Nazar (vow)

9. To take care of Oath.

10. To pay Kaffarahh (expiation for sins).

11. To cover one's body (clothes) in Salh and outside Salh.

12. To offer Qurbani.

13.To participate in funeral procession (Janzah), Tajheez (Shrouding), Takfeen and Tadfeen

14. To pay the debt.

15. To be honest in one's dealings and avoid unconditional dealings.

16. To bear true witness and not to conceal it.,

Six related to one's family and subordinates

1. To obtain chastity with marriage (Nikah).

2. To fulfill the rights (give dues) to one's family. It includes kindness with servants and subordinates as well.

3.  Service of parents and not to tease them.

4. To bring up children.

5. To behave nicely with relatives.

6. To obey the orders of the master.

 

Eighteen related about the common Muslims

1. To do justice with the government

2. To follow the party (of majority) of Muslims.

3. To obey the rulers.

4. To reform the people. War against the Khwrji's and in it are included rebels, as getting rid of the rebellion becomes cause for reform and peace.

5. To help in things of virtue.

6. To say a word of righteousness.

7. To forbid from bad words

8. To participate in Jihd, it includes the protection of borders as well.

9. To pay the entrusted thing (Amnat). It includes taking of Khumus' also.

10. To lend money to needy.

11. To respect the neighbours.

12. Honest dealing.

13. To spend the money at the right moment for the right thing. It includes avoidance of extravagance also.

14. To answer the Salm.

15. To answer one who sneezes, when he says Al-Hamdulillah, say Yarhamakallah.

16. Not to tease people.

17. To avoid useless and false things.

18. To remove harmful objects from the road like corn, stone etc.

 

And Hay (modesty) is a part of  faith

                   Haya is also a branch of  Imn, then why  is  it  mentioned separately?

The reason is that Hay is such a branch  that is helpful  in obtaining all  other  branches  of  Imn. Imm Rgib has defined Hay as

to prevent oneself from evil, corrupt, immoral etc., things and to leave them"

A  person possessing Hay is able to refrain from all bad  things and will perform all those duties he is supposed to do. As such Hay is helpful in obtaining all other branches of Imn and hence mentioned separately in order to show its significance. Some people say that Hay is  inherent in the very nature  of  man and hence natural, so it should not be a branch of Imn. It  is true that the Hay is inherent in the very nature of man but many people do not act upon this natural instinct due to the  influence of  the baser self. One has to oppose the instincts of baser self  and  to act  upon  the natural instinct, for this one has to exert, that is why Hay is regarded as a significant branch of Imn.

Tirmidhi has reported on the authority of Abdullah bin  Masood (RA) that Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) said:

"Owe Hay of Allh as He deserves the same, the Sahbah said, Thanks  to  Allh, they  do  owe  Hay of  Allh."  Rasulullah said, "It is not like  that what you think, the Hay of Allh as He deserves it is to protect your head (including every organ it possesses like brain, eyes, ears etc.) from sins, and  to protect  the baser self (Nafs)  from Harm."

 

Essence  of  Hay

"Indeed your Lord should not catch you in  a position from which He has prohibited  you"

 

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Chapter (Bb) 4: A Muslim is the one who avoids harming Muslims with his tongue and hands

 

Hadith  No. 9

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Narrated Abdullah bin Amr

The Prophet said, A Muslim is the one, who avoids harming Muslims with his tongue and hands. And a Muhjir (emigrant) is the one who gives up (abandons) all what Allh has forbidden.

 

NarratorAbdullah bin Amr

 Abdullah bin Amr bin al Aas is a famous Sahbi who had sought permission from Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) for writing the Hadith and had compiled a collection of Hadith named Saheefa as-Sdiqa

 

Tarjamat-ul-Bb

Imm Bukhari first selected the Hadith that mentions five things which constitute the base of Islm, then he took the Hadith mentioning that Imn is not confined to these five things only but has many branches and out of those Hay is the most significant  branch of Imn. Hay is between the bondsman and Allh. Now  Imm Bukhari wants to convey that the next most important and essential constituent of Imn is, to be very sympathetic to the whole of creation and to protect the same from any kind of harm and that, one cannot be a perfect Mumin unless other Muslims are safe from his harms. The selection of the sequence of Ahdith in this great book of Imm Bukhari exhibits extraordinary skill of Imm Bukhari, admitted by one and all the scholars of Islm, both ancient and recent. Here Imm Bukhari has utilised the words of the Hadith for the Tarjamat ul Bb as well, this is another beauty of his great skill. Sometimes he uses  the word Imn and sometimes the word Islm, conveying thereby the two are  synonymous.

 

Comments

 This Hadith says :

A Muslim is the one, who avoids harming Muslims with his tongue and hands .

Here Alif Lm is used as prefix for the word Muslim. Ulema  have  elucidated different explanations about this. Some say that here Alif Lm denotes, only that person is a perfect Muslim by whose tongue and hand others remain secure. Allmah Anwar shah Kashmiri (RA) says  that  here  Alif  Lm  is  Jinsy which  means  that  only  that  person is  worth calling a Muslim  who does not harm others, in  other  words  it  means that Islm and harmless nature of a man is synonymous. This should serve as an eye opener for those who label Muslims as terrorists and things like that. It is worth mentioning here that the literal meaning of Islm is peace.

Note: To possess basic Imn is a precondition of being a Mumin. After possessing the basic Imn it becomes obligatory  upon a Mumin to become beneficial for others as much as possible. Perfect Imn and harmful nature do not go together.

 

Is it permissible to harm non-Muslims?

No, it is not permissible in Islm to harm non-Muslims. In Islm harming or injuring even animals or insects is prohibited,  not to speak of human beings whether Muslims or non-Muslims. Islm means the service to humanity. If you think about any Islmic principle, you will observe that it will be nothing but for the betterment of humanity. Now, the question arises, why in this Hadith security of Muslims is only mentioned? Ulema say it is because Muslims usually stay with Muslims and their day to day dealings are usually among themselves. Secondly the non Muslims are of two types, one, those are in peace with Muslims, to harm them is not permissible. Second group are  those  who at war with Muslims, their matter is obviously different.

 

Harming with Tongue

Tongue is one of those human organs which is misused  most. Although small in size, but deeper are the wounds caused by it. It  is  more often used than the  hands for harming others, that  is  why it is mentioned first. It is said;

 

Wounds caused by  the teeth do heal

Wounds caused  by the tongue do not heal.

 

Is it permissible to harm with other organs?

No, harming with other organs is also not permissible. Here tongue and hand are mentioned because these two organs are  more frequently used for harming others than other organs. Harms of tongue include all things like abuses, undue criticism, false allegations and back biting etc.

Second part of Hadith

And a Muhjir (emigrant) is the one who gives up (abandons) all what Allh has forbidden

The second part of the Hadith says that a Muhjir (emi-grant) is one who runs away from sins. Muhjir means the one who performs Hijrah. The Hijrah means to leave ones homeland for the sake of  Allh i.e., if  one is unable to perform his religious obligations freely in his homeland, then he migrates to such  a  place where he can live an Islmic life comfortably.

Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) and his Sahbah  migrated from Makkah to Madinah because of the same reason.  In this Hadith the other type of  Hijrah is mentioned which means to run away from the obedience of baser self or Nafs towards the obedience of Allh.

Ulema  have  given  two  reasons  for  this  Hadith.

1. The  Sahbah  went  to Madinah  after  Hijrah and  the  people  of  Madinah made  them  their  brothers and  gave  them  half  of  their  properties. There  was  an  apprehension that  some  people  might  perform  Hijrah  for  this  purpose  only. Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) said that  And a Muhjir (emigrant) is the one who gives up (abandons) all what  Allh  has  forbidden. By  this  the  Sahbah  were  informed that only that Hijrah is valid which is  solely for  the  sake of  Allh.

2. The second  reason  mentioned is that many  Sahbah could not participate in the first Hijrah and some of them embraced Islm after that, so  they  were  feeling  deprived. For their satisfaction, Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) told  them that the true Hijrah is to  shun away  the sins.

 

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 Chapter (Bb) 5: Whose (kind) of Islm is the best.


Hadith No.  10

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Narrated Abu Mus

Some people asked Allhs Apostle, What kind of Islm is the best? i.e. (Who is the best Muslim)? He replied, One who saves the Muslims of his tongue and hands.

 

Purpose of the Tarjamat ul Bb

From the previous Hadith it seems that one does not remain a Muslim if he harms other Muslim brethren with his tongue and hands. This kind of belief is of  Khwarjis and Mautezellitis. They say that the executer of major sins becomes a Kfir, whereas the belief of Ahl-Sunnat wal Jamt is  that   the  executer of major sins becomes a Fsiq and not the Kfir. Here in this Hadith Imm Bukhari chose the Tarjamt ul Bb as Whose Islm is the best, conveying thereby that  such a person  still remains a Muslim, bur of course of very low grade.

 

NarratorAbu Mus Ashari

Abu Mus Ashari is a famous Sahbi, he embraced Islm before Hijrah of Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) to Madinah. He has the distinction of having performed Hijrah thrice, first towards Yemen, then to Habsha and then  from  Habsha to Madinah.  Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) appointed him the governor of a part of Yemen and Hadhrat Umar (RA) appointed him as the incharge of Kufa and Basra. He has narrated about three hundred and sixty Ahdith. He  died  in  44 Hijrah.

 

Comments

It is reported that Imm Abu Dawood selected four thousand and eight hundred  Ahdith for his book Sunan Abu Dawood, out of five lakh Ahdith. Out of these 4800 Ahdith, he selected four Ahdith which according to him are sufficient for ones deeds. These  four A Hadith  are:

 

1.The rewards of deeds depends upon the intention and every person will get the reward according to his intention.

 

2.None of you will have faith, till he wishes for his (Muslim) brother what he likes for himself.

3.Beauty of ones Islm is to leave what is useless

4.Hall and Harm are quite evident and between these two are the doubtful things. One who leaves these doubtful things, saves his Deen

Similarly Imm Abu Haniefah selected five Ahdith, four of which are same as quoted by Imm Abu Dawood and the fifth one is:

A Muslim is the one by whose tongue and hand other Muslim brethren remain secure

Before the advent of Islm i.e., during the period of Jhiliyah (ignorance), people were afraid of one another. Everybody felt proud in causing harm to others. Islm being the religion of peace, first introduced Salm (Islmic way of greeting). Islm commanded its believers that when you see one another say As-salmu Alaikum, which means  peace be upon you, there is no reason to be afraid of anything and I am nothing but absolute peace for you. This is the true meaning of the Salm, that is conveyed to the addressee. The other person says Waalaikum-us-Salm, which means, and peace be also upon you. Since such peaceful nature was inculcated in these people, it was  further strengthened by the Hadith in which Muslims were told categorically that they  cannot  be  true Muslims unless they ensure the safety to other fellow Muslim brethren. 

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Chapter (Bb) 6: To feed (others) is a part Islm.

 

Hadith  No. 11

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Narrated Abdullah bin Amr

A man asked the Prophet, What sort of deeds or (what qualities of) Islm are good? The Prophet replied, To feed (the poor) and greet everyone (with Salm) those whom you know and those whom you do not know.

 

Tarjamatul Bb and great skill of Imm Bukhari in this field

Imm Bukhari retains the interest of the reader intact by selecting the words for titles of his chapters differently (Tarjamatul Bb) and offers the scholars much food for thought by forcing them to ponder over the selection of his words and the sequence of  Ahdith in his book. First he selected a Hadith about Imn, then about the things related  to Imn and in that also he leads the reader gradually up to the different levels of Imn. In previous Hadith it was mentioned that a Muslim should not harm others, and in this Hadith, he is being told that he is not only supposed to refrain from harming others but he  should also try to offer some other benefits to them like provide food, clothing, and other necessary things when needed.

 

Comments

Islm is the name of service to humanity, it teaches to respect and serve the humanity. It not only bans its followers from causing harm to anybody, but also motivates them to use their tongue in favourable manner as regards to others and also to spend their hard earned money for the benefit of others in terms of feeding them and other charities.

 

Salm is the unique gift of Islm

The tongue is a great source of evil, nevertheless it is much greater source of virtue if used properly. It is this virtuous use of the tongue that is being taught in these two Ahdith. Salm is a unique gift of Islm. A Muslim prays for the safety of the one whom he meets at the very outset of his meeting with him. The other person also wishes the same for him and as such their meeting starts in most cordial atmosphere. When you wish good for someone it is most unlikely that you will harm him later. Similarly when someone invites you for feast etc., you usually develop friendship and love for him in your heart. So, both these things i.e., Salm and invitation go a long way in creating harmony in the society. Islm has used most successfully its golden principles for creating true brotherhood among the masses. Others communities only display these brotherly etiquettes but Islm has done it practically. Islm has made wishing of Salm to other Muslim brethren one of its important symbols. It instructs the Muslims to wish all Muslim brethren, whether they know them or not. It is said in a Hadith that one of the signs of approaching of the Qiymah is that Salm will be wished to only known people.

Allh Tal says in the Qurn:

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O you who believe! Enter not houses other than your own, until you have asked permission and greeted (i.e., wished Salm) those in them: that is best for you, in order that you may heed (what is seemly). (24:27)

 

Salm is the word of greeting used by Allh

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(It will be said to them): Salm (peace be on you) a Word from the Lord (Allah), Most Merciful  (36:58)

 

Greeting of the people of Jannah will also be Salm

And Salm (peace) will be their greetings therein.  (10:10)

 

Greeting of the Angels is also Salm

In a Hadith it is said that Rasulullah told Hadhrat Aisha (RA),

it is Hadhrat Jibraeel ,who says Salm to you.

 

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Chapter (Bb) 7: It is (quality of) Imn to like for your bother what you like for yourself

 

Hadith No. 12

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Narrated Anas

The Prophet said, None of you will have faith till he wishes for his (Muslim) brother what he likes for himself.

 

NarratorHadhrat Anas bin Mlik

Hadhrat Anas served Rasulullah for ten years. His mother Ummi Sulaim requested Rasulullah for Dua for him. Rasulullah made Dua in favour of Hadhrat Anas for blessings in wealth, age and children. Hadhrat Anas lived for more than 100 years and was the last Sahbi to die in 93 Hijrah at Basra. The effect of Dua in favour of wealth was that his orchard used to yield the fruits twice in a single year. One thousand two hundred and eighty six Ahdith have been quoted from him, out of which one hundred and sixty eight are in Bukhari and Muslim (Mutafaqun Alaihi).

 

Tarjamatul Bb

Imm Bukhari gradually leads a believer towards higher grades of Imn. After mentioning the fundamentals of Imn, he mentions the related things of Imn which include, refraining from immoral use of hand and tongue, greeting with Salm and inviting ones Muslim brethren to feast etc. Now he selects a Hadith in which a believer is told that it is not enough for him to do good to others by tongue or hand and invite them to feast, but a believer has to move further up towards higher grades of Imn that involve wishing for others what one wishes for himself.

 

Comments

It is the highest grade of sincerity that one wishes for others what he wishes for himself. It is self-evident as to what degree of sincere, selfless, harmless and amicable society Islm instructs to create. Islm not only motivates a man for this sincerity but has made it a part of faith. Wishing good to others is considered as worship in Islm. It is the beauty of Islm that it does not keep worship confined to the mosque but involves all that what is necessary for building an ideal society in its circumference. Islm has been highly instrumental and successful in creating the strong bond of brotherhood amongst the masses. We know that selfishness, cunningness and jealousy are the root causes of many evils in a society. Islm cuts the very roots of these bestial instincts. Islm teaches its believers to develop selflessness and sincerity for others and not jealousy and cunningness. It is a great human moral of a very high standard by any means, to wish for others what one wishes for himself.

 

None of you is a believer

Does this mean that anyone who does not wish for others what he wishes for himself is not a Muslim? The answer is that although he is a Muslim, but his Imn is of very low grade. For acquiring high grade of Imn, it is must to have this moral.

 

How and what to wish for others

One should always think, had he been in that particular position in which he finds his brother, what would he had liked for himself, irrespective of the fact whether the matter is regarding to this world or next. Keeping this notion in mind one is always expected to like for others what he likes for himself.

Here a question arises that If one likes prohibited things like wine, gambling etc for himself, should he like same for others? The answer to this question is given another Hadith which is mentioned in Nasai Sharief , which says:

None of you will have faith till he wishes for his (Muslim) brother what he likes for himself from good things .

So to wish bad for others is automatically ruled out.

 

Islm believes in eradication of jealousy from the society

Jealous people are always eager to see others in loss and agony. To prevail over this dreaded disease i.e., jealousy, wishing betterment for others is its treatment.

 

Always provide better advice to others

Whenever some one seeks your advice in any matter, always provide him with better advice, thinking that if I would have been in that position what would have I liked for myself.

 

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Chapter (Bb) 8 - To love Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) is a part of Imn

 

Hadith No. 13

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Narrated Abu Hurairah (RA)

Rasulullah said, By Him in Whose Hands my life is, none of you will have faith till he loves me more than his father and children.

 

Hadith No.14

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Narrated Anas (RA)

The Prophet said None of you will have faith till he loves me more than his father, his children and all mankind.

Tarjamatul Bb

In previous Bb Imm Bukhari got the words first and in this Bb he got them at the end, this is the great skill of Imm Bukhari. He first substantiated that one should refrain from teasing people, then one should try to create harmony and brotherhood in the society and after that one should develop sincerity for his fellow beings. After attaining all these things one gets promoted to higher grade of Imn but to attain further heights, one needs to love Rasulullah more than ones own self. The centre of real Love is Allhu Tal as He is the true Creator, Nourisher and Cherisher of mankind. After Allhu Tal, if anyone deserves love that is the soul of Rasulullah, as he is the unparalleled benefactor of humanity in the whole universe.

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Comments

Imm Bukhari has selected here two Ahdith, one narrated by Abu Hurairah and other from Hadhrat Anas with similar words except that latter narration contains some additional words. The words of the Hadith are:

By Him in Whose Hands my life is, none of you will have faith till he loves me more than his father and children and the whole mankind

 

Why Rasulullah took an oath?

An oath is an invocation of the name of Allh or of some person or object held sacred by the person using the invocation in order to witness the truth of a solemn affirmation and to emphasize that affirmation.

Rasulullah made this statement while taking an oath for two reasons, one, to show the importance of the matter and secondly, since it is natural that a person loves his own self, his family and his wealth, therefore, in order to make him understand that he ought to love Rasulullah more than his own self, his family and his wealth, needed much emphasis.

 

What is Muhabbat (Love)?

Imm Rgib has defined Muhabbat (Love) as:

To intend that thing you think is good.

 

Types of Muhabbat (Love)

1. Natural love (Hubbi-Tabee )

Man by his inner nature feels love for himself, his children and wealth etc., it is called Hubbi Tabaee. It is involuntary.

 

2. Beneficial love (Hubbi-Ahsni )

It is said:

Man is the slave of good (behaviour).

If anyone does some favour to someone, he always remembers this favour and always tries to love and respect him. It is voluntary type of love.

 

3. Love based on beauty (Hubbi Jamli )

Another reason for loving someone is because of the beauty of that person or thing. One usually loves beautiful things. This love is also voluntary.

 

4.Love based on excellence (Hubbi-Kamli )

Another reason for loving someone is because of the excellence found in that person or thing. One usually respects the people owing some excellence. This love is also voluntary.

 

5. Love based on reasoning (Hubbi-Aqli ):

Another type of love is based on reasoning. One loves those whom he thinks are helpful for him and hates those whom he thinks can cause him harm. One loves his doctor because he knows that the doctor is helping him, although the doctor treats him with bitter medicines or painful injections.

 

What type of love is meant in this Hadith

Qadhi Baidhawi says that here Hubbi-Aqli (Love based on reasoning) is meant while as Imm Khattbi is of the opinion that here voluntary love is meant. In fact Rasulullah deserves all types of love. He deserves Hubbi-Ahsni, because we cannot count favours done by him for the benefit of humanity. He stands at number one with distinction in the history of whole mankind who has done maximum good to it. Even non-Muslims accept the fact that he has been a great benefactor of humanity. The beauty and excellences of  Rasulullah are unparallel. So if anyone deserves love on these accounts, he can be none other than Rasulullah. Logic and rationality will always demand that the true love should be reserved for Rasulullah, even if it is against ones own self (Nafsi Ammarah). Sensible people will always acknowledge that their absolute benefit is in following Rasulullah sincerely. In nutshell,  Rasulullah deserves all types of love.

 

Incident of Abdullah bin Zaid bin Abd Rab

Abdullah bin Zaid was a Sahbi, one day while he was working in his field, his son informed him that Rasulullah has passed away, he immediately raised his hands for Dua and said, Oh, Allh please take away the light of my eyes who used to see Rasulullah, as I dont want to see any other thing with these eyes after my friend (Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam). Allh accepted his Dua and he immediately got blind.

 

Incident of a Sahbi woman

There was a lady from Madinah whose husband, brother and father died in the battle of Uhud. When she was informed about their death, ignoring this she enquired about the safety of Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam). When she was informed about his welfare, she made a wonderful statement:

Every disaster next to you (Rasulullah) is insubstantial.

After reading these incidents one can easily imagine the degree of love Sahbah had for Rasulullah. Allmah Qastalni says that it is Hubi-Imni (Love based on Imn), that is demanded from a Muslim. Allhu Tal says in the Qur'an:

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Say: If it be that your fathers, your sons, your brothers, your mates or your kindred, the wealth that ye have gained, the commerce in which ye fear a decline or the dwellings in which ye delight are dearer to you than Allh or His Messenger or the striving in His cause, then wait until Allh brings about His decision and Allh guides not the rebellious. (9:24)

 

Incident of Hadhrat Umar (RA)

On hearing this Hadith Hadhrat Umar (RA) told Rasulullah that he loved him more than anything else except his own self. Rasulullah said to Hadhrat Umar (RA) that he could not be (perfect) Muslim unless and until he loved him more than his own self. Hadhrat Umar (RA)  immediately said that now he loved him more than his own self.

Ulema say that Hadhrat Umar (RA) already loved Rasulullah more than his own self but he was not aware of it. When Rasulullah pointed towards his weakness, he immediately realised that he was always ready to sacrifice his life for Rasulullah and readily exclaimed that he loved him more than his own self.

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DARUL ULOOM ILAHIYAH
INSTITUTE OF ISLAMIC RESEARCH
ILAHI BAGH, BUCHPORA, SRINAGAR, 190011, KASHMIR, INDIA