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Ra'fatul Bri

Sharah Sahih Bukhari

Dr. Rafiq Ahmad

Kitabul Imaan - Chapter 9 - 22, Hadith 15 - 29

Contact:- drrafiqahmad@islaminkashmir.org

Chapter 9  
  Hadith No. 15
Chapter 10  
  Hadith No. 16
Chapter 11  
  Hadith No. 17
Chapter 12  
  Hadith No. 18
Chapter 13  
  Hadith No. 19
Chapter 14  
  Hadith No. 20
Chapter 15  
  Hadith No. 21
  Hadith No. 22
Chapter 16  
  Hadith No. 23
Chapter 17  
  Hadith No. 24
Chapter 18  
  Hadith No. 25
Chapter 19  
  Hadith No. 26
Chapter 20  
  Hadith No. 27
Chapter 21  
  Hadith No. 28
Chapter 22  
  Hadith No. 29

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Kitabul Iman

 

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Chapter (Bb) 9: Sweetness of Imn (faith)

 

Hadith No.15

( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )  

Narrated Anas

The Prophet said, Whoever possesses the following three qualities will have the sweetness (delight) of faith: The one to whom Allh and His Apostle becomes dearer than anything else. Who loves a person and he loves him only for Allhs sake. Who hates to revert to Atheism (disbelief) as he hates to be thrown into the fire.

 

Tarjamatul Bb

Ibn Hajar says that Imm Bukhari wants to convey that the sweetness of Imn is among the fruits of Imn. In previous Hadith he mentioned that the love of Rasulullah is an essential part of Imn, now he mentions the things which will make this Imn sweet.

 

Comments

In this Hadith Rasulullah has proved sweetness for Imn. Man is naturally attracted towards sweet things like honey etc. For enjoying the sweet taste of a thing one needs to have bodily health in perfect order and for appreciating the sweetness of Imn one needs to have healthy spiritual status. Spiritually diseased man cannot appreciate this sweetness.

Is this sweetness tasted physically or spiritually?

Imm Nawwavi says that Ulema are of the opinion that the tasting of this sweetness is spiritual and not physical. This tasting of this sweetness means the development of performing the acts of Shariah, patience for tolerating the hardships and giving preference to Hereafter over the mundane world.

 

Letter of Hadhrat Gangohi to Haji Immdadullah (RA)

Hadhrat Gangohi wrote to his spiritual teacher Haji Immdadullah:

1. It doesnt affect me anyway if a person praises or criticizes me. Both these things seem same to me.

2. I feel no inclination that anyone other than Allh can harm or benefit me.

3. Shariah has become my nature.

This is known as the sweetness of Imn that he was feeling solace and happiness in fulfilling the commands of Shariah.

Some other Sufi Ulema believe that this sweetness is physical.

Hadhrat Mawln Fadhl-ur-Rahman Ganj Muradabadi, a great Muhaddith, Sufi saint and one of the students of Shah Ishq used to say:

When I prostate, I feel as if Allh Tal kisses me.

Subhn-Allah, these things can only be understood by those who experience these things, it is incomprehensible for others to appreciate these things.

 

Three things which create Halawat (sweetness) in Imn

1. To have love for Allh and His Rasul more than anything else

Allh Tal is the main source of love as He is the absolute Creator, Cherisher, Nourisher and Provider of everything to mankind. After Allh Tal if anyone deserves the maximum love that is the personality of Rasulullah because no one else has been as generous to mankind as Rasulullah. This love of Allh Tal and Rasulullah is most effective in creating the taste of sweetness in Imn.

 

2. To love others only for the sake of Allh

  When one loves Allh and Rasulullah, he should love others only for the sake of Allh, this is also a part of the love of Allh. It means to love those who are pious and beloved ones of Allh.

Yahy bin Muadh says:

Loving for the sake of Allh is a kind of love, that neither increases nor decreases due to anybodys good or bad behaviour.

It means that if you love someone for the sake of Allh, it should not get affected by his good or bad attitude towards you.

Imm Mlik says:

Loving for the sake of Allh is among the obligatory things of Islm and it is the practice of Awliy-Allah.

 

3. To feel disgusted to adopt Atheism (disbelief):

When ones heart gets filled with the love of Allh and Rasulullah, his Imn becomes so sweet that he adores Islm the most and consequently dislikes the Atheism. It can be observed from the life accounts of Sahbah that for them to adopt Atheism again after they had embraced Islm, it was disgusting to them the same way as one feels disgusted to be thrown into the fire.

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Chapter (Bb) 10: The love for the Ansr is a sign of Imn

 

Hadith No. 16

( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )  

Narrated Anas (RA)

The Prophet said, Love for Ansr is a sign of faith and hatred for Ansr is a sign of hypocrisy.

 

Tarjamatul Bb

In the previous Hadith it was stated that loving others for the sake of Allh begets the sweetness of Imn. In this Hadith a special group of people is mentioned who offered unprecedented sacrifices for the sake of Allh and His Messenger. These are the people of Madinah of the time of Rasulullah, called Al-Ansr which means helpers. Imm Bukhari here conveys that if any one deserves love for the sake of Allh, amongst them Ansr precede all. The second thing Imm Bukhari tries to convey is that Imn is not any kind of materialistic thing which can be seen, it can only be judged with the help of some signs and one of its important signs is the loving the helpers (i.e., Al-Ansr) of Rasulullah.

 

Comments

Al-Ansr:The Ansr belonged to the tribes of Ous and Khadhraj. Farming was their main occupation, hence were called the farmers. When Rasulullah was teased too much by the Makkans, he got disappointed about them and turned towards the people of Madinah. During the Hajj period he met some people from Madinah and presented to them the message of Islm which appealed to them. In Madinah these people used to hear from the Jews that the last Messenger was to come. When they heard Rasulullah, they felt that he was the Prophet about whom Jews used to say. They decided to embrace Islm before the Jews and readily accepted Islm. They were six persons from Madinah who met Rasulullah at Aqaba near Mina and embraced Islm there. Next year twelve leaders from Madinah came and embraced Islm at the same place Aqaba, this is called Baiat Aqaba-Awla. At this instance, Rasulullah sent Hadhrat Musaib bin Umair with them to Madinah to teach them Al-Qurn. During the third year 75 people came and embraced Islm at the same place at the hands of Rasulullah, this is called Aqaba Thni. On this occasion Rasulullah was invited to Madinah by these people. Rasulullah went to Madinah after Hijrah (Migration) from Makkah under the Divine command alongwith the Muslims of Makkah called Muhjireen. The manner in which the Ansr received Rasulullah and treated the  Muhjireen, is unparallel in the human history. They shared everything with their Muhjireen brothers including houses, farms, orchards etc. Not only that, if anyone among Ansr had two wives, he divorced one and gifted that to his Muhjir brother. They dedicated and sacrificed their lives for the sake of Islm. It is natural for any sincere Muslim to love such selfless helpers of Islm. Rasulullah said:

Ansr are like the inner garments of a body and rest of people like the outer. (Musnad  Ahmad)

 

What about Muhjireen?

The excellences of Muhjireen are manifold; they left everything including their motherland and homes for the sake of Islm. The significance of Hijrah in Islm is tremendous. A Hadith says:

Had there been no Hijrah, I would have been a person from Al-Ansr. (Bukhari)

From this Hadith one can imagine the significance of Hijrah and that of Muhjireen.

 

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Chapter (Bb) 11: Chapter without Tarjamatul Bb

 

Hadith No. 17

( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )  

 

Narrated Ubada bin As-Smat

On the night of Al-Aqaba pledge: Allhs Apostle said while a group of his companions were around him, Swear allegiance before me for:

Not to join anything in worship along with Allh.

Not to steal.

Not to commit illegal sexual intercourse.

Not to kill your children.

Not to accuse an innocent person (to spread such an accusation among people).

Not to be disobedient (when ordered) to do good deed.

The Prophet added: Whoever among you fulfills his pledge will be rewarded by Allh. And whoever indulges in any one of them (except the ascription of partners to Allh) and gets the punishment in this world, that punishment will be expiation for that sin. And if one indulges in any of them, and Allh conceals his sin, it is up to Him to forgive or punish him (in the Hereafter). Ubada bin As-Samit added: So we swore allegiance for these. (points before Allhs Apostle)

 

Chapter (Bb) without Tarjamatul Bb

This is the first Bb (chapter) in this book which is without a title or Tarjamatul Bb. There are so many places in Bukhari Sharief where Imm Bukhari has not mentioned anything in Tarjamatul Bb. Ulema have given many reasons for it, viz.,

Author has forgotten it.

2. Author has not forgotten but the compiler has forgotten it.

Narrator has done some over indulgence.

Ibn Hajar says that the author had left space for it but could not get time latter to complete it.

Majority of scholars like Ibn Hajar, Allmah Ayni, Allmah Qastalni, Allmah Kirmni and Shah Muhaddith Delhvi say that such Bbs or chapters are the continuation of previous chapters, hence no new name has been mentioned. Ibn Hajar has proved it at about forty places. But this does not hold true everywhere.

Hadhrat Sheikh ul Hind says that Imm Bukhari has done so to test others and to keep the readers interest intact.

It is done to avoid increase in the number of chapters.

Sometimes there arises some doubt, to clear that Imm Bukhari gets another chapter without title and answers that doubt.

It is done for returning to the original topic. Imm Bukhari starts some topic and then gets some other narrations which do not seem to be of the same topic and then in order to return to the original topic he does so.

Shah Waliullah says that Imm Bukhari uses it at places where Muhadditheen use letter H . (Kashful Bri)

 

Purpose of Bb (without Tarjamatul Bb)

Here it is like the continuation of previous Bb. In the previous Bb Imm Bukhari said that the love of Ansr is a sign of Imn. In this Bb he wants to highlight the reason behind this extraordinary status of Ansr. As per him, it is the pledge they took at the hands of Rasulullah to help him under all circumstances.

 

NarratorUbada bin Smat (RA)

He was famous Sahbi from Ansr who took part in the battle of Badr and was a Naqib (a person heading a group of six persons). He was present during Aqba Awla and Aqbq Thni. He took part in all battles including Badr, Uhud, Khandaq  with Rasulullah. He was among the twelve heralds of Madinah. He used to teach the Qurn to the people of Sufa. He went to Palestine and was appointed as the first Qadhi (Judge) there. One hundred and eighty Ahdith have been quoted from him, out of which six are Mutafaqun Alaihi (agreed upon by Bukhari and Muslim). He died in 34 Hijrah at Ramala or Baitul Maqdis. (Kashful Bri)

 

Comments

Excellences of Ubadah bin Smat (RA)

Hadhrat Ubadah bin Smat (RA) participated in the battle of Badr and was one of the heralds (Naqeebs) which were appointed by Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) there. These were from that group of Ansr who had met Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) during Aqaba Thni at Aqaba near Mina. In these words the peculiar excellences of Ubadah bin Smat are mentioned

 

It means a group of people who are from ten to forty in number.

 

What is Bayat?

Bayat is to take pledge at the hands of Rasulullah or any of his strict followers. It means to try to follow the Shariah strictly. It is taken for attaining the excellence in following the Shariah with sole intention of pleasing Allh Tal. Allh Tal says:-

Verily those who plight theit fealty to thee, their fealty in truth to Allh. (48:10)

It was at the time of Hudhaibia that Muslims were feeling disappointed and Rasulullah took the fealty from them. They placed their hands at the hand of Rasulullah and the Hand of Allh was over them. This gave them a great moral support and strength. In fact Bayat is taken for getting this moral support and spiritual strength. So Bayat should always be taken at the hands of those pious men only, who are strict followers of Rasulullah. It should never be taken at the hands of those who are not following Shariah in the real sense of the word like ignorant Sufis and Darveshs etc. Such people usually make this sacred thing a means for their business.

Rasulullah acknowledged Bayat from his companions for various things like Jehad, Salh, Zakh, avoiding sins etc.

 

Instance at which this Bayat (pledge) was taken?

Qadhi Ayyz and others say that this pledge was taken during the night of Aqaba while as Ibn Hajar and others say that it was taken after the victory of Makkah and not during the night of Aqaba.

 

Matters on which Bayat was taken

Shirk:

The oath was taken for not indulging in Shirk. It is unacceptable to Islm. Islm believes in the Unity of Allh and that He has no partners. Islm has cut the roots of all kinds of Shirk, whether it may be in the form of assigning partners to Allh as far as His essence is concerned, or in His attributes or in His deeds. All forms of Shirk are unacceptable to Islm. Even hypocrisy is considered as Shirk in Islm. That is why pledge on avoiding Shirk was taken prior to all.

 

Theft:

Theft is a grave sin in Islm, its punishment in Islm is to chop off the hands of  thief.

 

Adultery:

Adultery is destructive for any civilized society. It is highly condemned and prohibited in Islm. Its punishment for unmarried person is 100 lashes and for married is Rajam i.e., stoning to death.

 

Killing of children:

Killing an Innocent: Killing of any innocent person is a grave sin in Islm. Here children are mentioned in particular, because killing of children is all the more grave as they are not only innocent but they are also very weak moreover one has blood relation with the children. In Arabia, it had become routine to kill children, not only that but they used to bury them alive. To prevent the Muslims from this grave crime, they were made to take pledge for not indulging in this sin.

 

Buhtn (False Allegation):

Buhtan means to make baseless or false allegations against someone. Since one cooks it in his heart that is why the words between your hands and feet are used. Some people say that between your hands and feet refers to adultery because the concerned organ for adultery is between hands and feet. There were such ladies at that time also who conceived after illegal contacts and wrongly attributed the foetus to their husbands. Making all sorts of baseless allegations is strongly prohibited in Islm.

 

Not to be disobedient to do good deed

What is Maroof ?

Some people say it refers to that thing which has been labelled good by the Shariah.

Every good deed is called Maroof.

Piety or Taqw are called Maroof.

Maroof is that thing which has not been forbidden by Shariah.

Ibn-ul Aseer in An-Nihaya says,

Maroof is a comprehensive term which includes all those deeds identified by the Shariah as permissible like Faraidh, Mandoobt, Ikhlaq or Aadab as well as those things which have been forbidden. (Kashf ul Bri)

So, in this Hadith it has been advised that one should not leave behind or consider as ordinary any good deed. Another Hadith says:

No obedience (to creation is recommended) which amounts to disobedience of Allh (Creator).

One who fulfills all these promises, he will get the reward from Allh.

One who commits a sin and gets punishment in this world, that punishment will serve as Kaffarah (expiation) for him.

 

Does worldly punishment serve as Kaffarah for Shirk?:

In this Hadith the first thing mentioned is Shirk. Here the question arises, will worldly punishment serve as Kaffarah for Shirk also. Ulema have given different answers, some Ulema are of the opinion that here Shirk refers to Shirk-i-Asgar (i.e., Riya or Hypocrisy) as only Muslims are the addressed. Others say that Shirk-i-Akbar (i.e, Infidelity) is focused here but worldly punishment cannot serve as Kaffarah for it as it has been totally excluded by a verse of the Holy Qurn,

 

Do Hudood (boundaries, limits) serve as Kaffarah

If someone commits a major sin like murder, plunder or theft and is punished as per the Shariah, will that punishment serve as Kaffarah for him? There are different opinions of Ulema regarding this. Scholars like Mujhid, Sufiyan Thouri, Imm Shfaee, Imm Ahmad, Imm Bukhari and many other Muhadditheen believe that the Hudood serve as Kaffarah, whereas the scholars like Saeed ibn Musaib, Abu Abdullah bin Taymia and others believe that they dont.

 

Balanced view point of Allmah Kashmiri

Allmah Kashmiri Mawln Anwar Shah (RA) there can be three situations, viz.,

1. If a person after receiving punishment as a part of Had makes Tawbah (repentance), then this Had will serve as Kaffarah.

2. If a person does not make Tawbah but feels sorry for his deed and does not intend to repeat that sin again, this will also serve as Kaffarah for him.

3. If a person neither makes Tawbah nor he stops doing that crime, then Had will not serve as Kaffarah for him (and Allh knows the best).

If some one does some crime and then Allh Tal conceals his crime, then it is the wish of Allh whether He forgives him or punishes him.
 

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Chapter (Bb) 12: To flee (run away) from afflictions is a part of religion.

 

Hadith No. 18

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Narrated by Hadhrat Saeed al-Khudri (RA)

Allhs Apostle (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) said, "A time will come that the best property of a Muslim will be sheep which he will take on the top of mountains and the places of rainfall (valleys) so as to flee with his religion from afflictions.

 

NarratorHadhrat Abu Saeed al_Khudri (RA)

Hadhrat Abu Sa'eed Khudri (RA) is amongst the famous companions of Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam). He was the son of Hadhrat Malik bin San'an (RA) who was martyred in the battle of Uhud. Abu Sa'eed Khudri (RA) also wanted to participate in Uhud battle but was sent back as he was too young. Later he took part in 12 battles. He has quoted Hadith from the four Khulfa-i-Rshideen (RA)  and his father. People like Ibn Abbas, Ibn Umar (RA) and many Tbaeen have quoted Hadith from him. There are almost eleven hundred and seventy Hadith quoted from him and out of these forty six are Muttafaqun Alaihi. He died in 64 or 74 Hijrah and was buried in the grave yard of Baqee in Madinah. 

 

Purpose of Tarjamatul Bb and its relation with chapters

Imm Bukhari wants to convey that to run away from society with the intention of saving one's Imn is also  a  part of Imn. Secondly he has used the word Deen here instead of Imn or Islm as all the three words as per him are synonyms. The deeds are of two types viz., Do's and Don'ts,  to run away from society is from the latter type (i.e from don'ts).

 

Comments

What is Fitnah (affliction-)?

When sins become so common in a society that these are no longer considered sins and it becomes very very difficult to stay on the path of piety, such a situation is called affliction. There are so many Ahdith which have made the mention of afflictions which will become prevalent in this Ummah near the day of judgement. A Hadith quoted in Tirmidhi and Abu Dawood says that the afflictions will descend on this Ummah as the rain falls and another Hadith says that, at such times, it would be as difficult to remain on Deen as it is difficult to hold the burning coal in hand and a person will be Believer in the morning and Disbeliever in the evening. In nutshell Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) made many predictions about the afflictions involving the Ummah. People asked Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) as to what should they do if they came across such situation? Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) told them that in such circumstances only those can save their Imn who would run away from the society and would take refuge on the mountain tops.

 

Does Islm teach Rahbniyat ()?

No, Islm does not teach Rahbniyat. Rahbniyat means to leave the society and to go to solitude with the intention of earning Thawb and salvation as they believe it is not possible to get these things while staying with the people. This defeats the very purpose of the creation. Islm on the other hand emphasises that the best form of worship is in the service of mankind. Now what is mentioned in this Hadith about the shunning away of society is permissible in those circumstances only in which it becomes extremely difficult to stay with piety in society.

 

What is bettersolitude or society?

Islm stresses on its followers to stay in the society and to work for the betterment of it. If a person has the capability of reforming the society, it will be obligatory upon him to stay in the society. It is permissible for a person of weak Imn and weak will power to take refuge in solitude to save his Imn. The incident of the people of the Cave (Ashb-i-Kahaf) mentioned in the Qur'an illustrates this point quite clearly,

Behold the youths betook themselves to the Cave: they said "Our Lord! bestow on us Mercy from Thyself and dispose of our affair for us in the right way! (18:10)

() ()

"We relate to thee their story in truth: they were youths who believed in their Lord and We advanced them in guidance: We gave strength to their hearts: Behold they stood up and said: "Our Lord is the Lord of the heavens and of the earth: never shall we call upon any god other than Him: if we did; we should indeed have uttered an enormity! These our people have taken for worship gods other than Him: why do they not bring forward an authority clear (and convincing) for what they do? Who doth more wrong than such as invent a falsehood against Allh? (18: 13-15)

These people left the society when they found that it was difficult for them to save their Imn in the society and Allh helped them.

 

Why Ganam (Sheep) have been specified in this Hadith?

"A time will come that the best property of a Muslim will be sheep which he will take on the top of mountains and the places of rainfall (valleys) so as to flee with his religion from afflictions."

The sheep are very useful to man, these are easy to rear particularly on mountain tops, there is self feeding for them. One can use their skin for clothing and bedding, their milk and meat for diet. Sheep have humility in their nature, so one gets this thing in their company. It is reported that all prophets have reared the sheep.

 

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Chapter  (Bb) 13: The sayings of Prophet  I know Allh better than all of you do and knowledge is the act of Qalb as per the sayings of Allh:Bue he will call you to account for what your hearts have earned. (2:225)

 

Hadith No. 19

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Narrated by Hadhrat Aisah (RA)

"Whenever Allh's Apostle (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) ordered the Muslims to do something, he used to order them deeds which were easy for them to do, (according to their strength endurance). They said, "O Allh's Apostle! We are not like you. Allh has forgiven your past and future sins." So Allh's Apostle became angry and it was apparent on his face. He said, "I am the most Allh fearing, and know Allh better than all of you do."

 

Purpose of Tarjamatul Bb

Here Imm Bukhari has used two words viz., Ilm and  Ma'rifat. Many times these two words are used synonymously but there does exist a fine difference in the meaning of the two. Ilm is related to the proof of the attribute of the essence whereas the Marifat means to apply that knowledge to the essence which already exists in the memory, as the Jews were knowing Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) from their own books, as the Qur'an said:

()

"The people of the Book know him as they know their own sons" (2:146)

Here the word Marifat is used as they already had the knowledge of Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) through their books. It is said that Marifat is pre-requisite for Imn whereas the Ilm is from the fruits of Imn. To believe something one has to know it first and that is the Marifat. After getting the Imn new horizons of knowledge open up and these come under the domain of Ilm. The Qur'an says:

 Allh will raise up to (suitable) ranks (and degrees) those of you who believe and who have been granted Knowledge: and Allh is well-acquainted with all ye do. (58:11)

"O my Lord! advance me in knowledge." (20:114)

These verses show that the knowledge has different grades. Knowledge of common people, Awliy and Prophets is not same.

Ulema have raised the query as to why Imm Bukhari here has established this Bb? The answer given is that here Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) says: "I know Allh better than all of you do". Aalamakum here the superlative degree is used, by this Imm Bukhari wants to prove that the Ilm has many degrees or grades, so naturally it will decrease or increase. Since this Ilm is fruit of Imn, so he wants to convey that the Imn can decrease or increase.

 

Knowledge is the act of Qalb

In the second part of the Bb Imm Bukhari says that the knowledge is the act of Qalb. By this he wants to refute the claim of those who say that saying the article of faith by tongue i.e., Kalimah is enough for Imn. Imm Bukhari says that only that Imn is authentic which is testified by the Qalb or in other words of which one has Marifat. Imm Bukhari  proves his point by the saying of Allh,

"But He will call you to account for what your hearts  have earned." (2:225)

This Aayat does prove that the hearts do act as is evident by the words "your hearts  have earned."

Comments

Hadhrat Aisha (RA) says that Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) used to order them those commands which were easy to perform. Islm does not make any such thing obligatory on its believer which is beyond his capacity. A Hadith says:

"Allh likes those deeds which are done with consistency even if these are less in number. "Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) used to exert too hard himself but would see to it that others get as much comfort and relaxations as were possible and within the permissible limits.

The Qur'an says:

()

"Now hath come unto you an apostle from amongst yourselves: it grieves him that ye should perish: ardently anxious is he over you: to the believers is he most kind and merciful. "(9:128)

One day few people came to Hadhrat Aisha (RA) and asked her about the deeds of Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam), she told them about the deeds of Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam). They felt that their deeds were far less than those of Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) when the fact was that that Allh had forgiven all the faults, past or future, of Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam), as per the saying of Allh:

()

"That Allh may forgive thee thy faults of the past and those to follow; fulfil His favour to thee; and guide thee on the Straight Way." (48:2)

One of them said that he would never sleep but would spent his nights always in Salh, other said that he would always observe fast and the third one said that he would never go to his wife. After saying these things these people left and Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) came and heard that these people had told such and such things. He got very angry and called them back and asked if they had said such things? These people accepted of having said so and said: "O Allh's Apostle! We are not like you. Allh  has forgiven your past and future sins." So Allh's Apostle became angry and it was apparent on his face. He said, "I am the most Allh fearing, and know Allh better than all of you do."

Here one can see the desire of Sahbah-al- Kirm to do more and more Ibdat and the kindness of Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) over his Ummah.

"I am the most Allh fearing, and know Allh better than all of you do."

By saying so Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam)  conveys them that they should not equate themselves with him as he was fearing and knowing Allh than anybody else. So, obviously one who knows Allh most, he fears Him most. It was the special status of Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam). He told them that, he despite being the most Allh knowing and Allh fearing, he still was eating sleeping, and doing other worldly affairs. So if shunning away of world was of any benefit he would have been the first to shun it away as he was knowing Allh the most.

 

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Chapter (Bb) 14: One who hates to revert to disbelief as he hates to be thrown in fire, is from Imn.

 

Hadith No. 20

   

 

Narrated by Hadhrat Anas (RA)

The Prophet (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) said, "Whoever possesses the following three qualities will taste the sweetness of faith:

1. The one to whom Allh and His Apostle become dearer than anything else.

2. Who loves a person and he loves him only for Allh's sake.

3. Who hates to revert to disbelief (Atheism) after Allh has brought (saved) him out from it, as he hates to be thrown in fire."

 

Comments

The similar Hadith has already been quoted in the chapter "Sweetness of Imn. Here it has been quoted with different chain and text. In the earlier chapter the desire of Sahbah for more deeds was mentioned and in this Hadith it is said that greater the grade of Imn greater will be the love for Allh and His Messenger, hence naturally for more good deeds and more hatred for displeasing Allh, that is, Kufr. Second possibility is that in previous chapter "Firar Min al Fitnah" was mentioned as Deen and here "Firar Min al Kufr" is mentioned as Deen.

 

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Chapter (Bb) 15: Preference of believers as per their deeds.

 

Hadith No. 21

   

 

Narrated by Abu Saeed Al-Khudri (RA)

The Prophet (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) said, "When the people of Paradise will enter Paradise and the people of Hell will go to Hell, Allh will order those who have had faith equal to the weight of a grain of mustard seed to be taken out from Hell. So they will be taken out but (by then) they will be blackened (charred). Then they will be put in the river of Hay' (rain) or Hayt (life) (the Narrator is in doubt as to which is the right term), and they will revive like a grain that grows near the bank of a flood channel. Don't you see that it comes out yellow and twisted"

 

Purpose of Tarjamatul Bb

The status of believers differs as per their deeds, both in this world as well as in the Aakhirah. Sinners from amongst the believers will be thrown into Jahannam, as they have Imn in their hearts they will finally be taken out of the Jahannam and the sequence of their taking out will be as per their deeds. People with more good deeds will be taken out first. As Imn and Aiml are same as per Imm Bukhari, so Imn, as per him, is also of different grades.

 

Comments

On the day of judgement the pious believers will be taken to Jannah and the non believers and sinner believers will be thrown into Jahannam. As per another Hadith Allh will put in the hearts of prophets and other pious believers that they should make intercession to Allh in favour of these sinner believers so that they can be taken out of Jahannam. Allh will tell them:

"Take out (from Jahannam) one in whose heart there is Imn equal to (even) a speck."

Then, on their intercession, these people will be taken out of Jahannam in such a state that their bodies would be like charcoal. Before taking them to Jannah they will be thrown into a river which will be flowing just outside the gate of Jannah. The name of this River is either "Hiya" meaning rain or "Hayat" meaning life. Here the narrator had some doubt as to which of these two words was used in this Hadith. Once these people will be thrown into this river they will immediately get freshened and then will be taken into Jannah. This taking out of them will be as per their deeds, i.e., those people will be taken out first whose deeds will be better till only those people will remain who will have no deeds but only Imn. They will also be taken out till it will be told:"Take out (from Jahannam) one in whose heart there is Imn equal to (even ) a speck."

 

Only Allh Tal has Ilm ul Gaib ( )

The intercessors will finally tell Allh , "O Allh, now no one from believers has remained in Jahannam". Allh will take out many people even after that. This clearly shows that only Allh knows the Unseen or Gaib. Ulema have given different opinions as to who will be these people whom Allh will take out last. Ibn Arabi says that these will be those people, called Shawahiq al-Jibl who were in the world on Tawheed and did not receive the Message of prophethood,  Allh knows the best.

 

Hadith No 22

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Narrated by Abu Said Al Khudri

Allhs Apostle said, "While I was sleeping I saw (in a dream) some people wearing shirts of which some were reaching up to the breasts only while others were even shorter than that. Umar bin Al-Khattab was shown wearing a shirt that he was dragging." The people asked, "How did you interpret it? (What is its interpretation) O Allh's Apostle?" He (the Prophet ) replied, "It is the Religion."

 

Comments

 One day Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) told Sahbah al Kirm that he was shown people in the dream , some people were wearing shirts of which some were reaching up to the breasts only while others were even shorter than that. Umar bin Al-Khattab was shown wearing a shirt that he was dragging." The people asked, "How did you interpret it? (What is its interpretation) O Allh's Apostle?" He (the Prophet ) replied, "It is the Religion." Shirt is an external thing which gives protection to the body from heat and cold and also adds beauty to it. Once one wears the shirt his private parts get covered and he becomes care free about it. Similarly Deen protects one from the wrath of Allh and Jahannam and also adds grace to his exterior and beauty to his morals and interior. One who sticks to Deen, develops trust in Allh and becomes care free from all worries. It is for these reasons that shirt has been interpreted as Deen in this Hadith. One's Deen is directly proportional to his deeds, as the people are different in deeds, so are they different in their Deen. As Imm Bukhari has been trying to prove the same point in these chapters , that is why he has got this Hadith here in this chapter titled "Preference of Believers as per their (good) Deeds.

Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) was shown people having  different grades of Deen and out of these the shirt of Hadhrat Umar (RA) was the longest meaning thereby that his Deen was the most perfect and the strongest.

 

Hadhrat Abu Bakr Siddique (RA) is the most perfect and strongest in Deen in the whole Ummah

There is consensus in the Ummah that Hadhrat Abu Bakr Siddique (RA) is the most perfect and the strongest in Deen in the Ummah. From this Hadith it seems that Hadhrat Umar is the most perfect and the strongest in Deen in the Ummah. Ulema have given different answers to this query. Some say that the people who were presented to Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) in the dream did not include Hadhrat Abu baker (RA), so no question of the preference of Hadhrat Umar (RA) over Hadhrat Abu Bakr (RA). Others say that the preference of Hadhrat Abu Bakr over every one in the Ummah  is so well established by the Qur'an and Ahdith of Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) that  cannot be modified on the basis of this one Hadith which has many options of interpretation. Some say that Hadhrat Umar (RA) was having the longest shirt means that there would be maximum victories to the Umah during his regime. Hadhrat Abu Bakr's period of Khilfat was around two years and four months while that of Hadhrat Umar (RA) was over ten years. Some others say that preference of Hadhrat Umar  (RA) in any one part will not effect the over all preference of Hadhrat Abu Bakr Siddique (RA) .

 

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Chapter (Bb) 16: Modesty  is (a part) of Imn

 

Hadith No. 23

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Narrated by Abdullah bin Umar

Once Allh's Apostle passed by an Ansri (man) who was admonishing to his brother regarding Hay'. On that Allh's Apostle said, "Leave him as Hay' is a part of faith." (See Hadith No. 8)

 

Purpose of Tarjamatul Bb

In the previous chapter Imm Bukhari mentioned the preference of believers as per their deeds and in this chapter he is mentioning an important deed that is "Hay" which is the part of Imn which can be the cause of the preference of Imn.

 

Comments

One day Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) passed by two persons when one of them was advising the other to leave Hay as it was causing lot of harm, in his opinion, to him. When one is overwhelmed with the sense of Modesty he goes in many losses as he feels shy in asking the people for his rights. It was in this connection that this man was advising his friend to leave such Modesty which results in so much worldly losses. In another narration it is mentioned that this man was cursing him for such Modesty. When Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) heard this, he (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) told that man to leave alone his friend with Modesty as it is a part of Imn. Modesty is a great moral  treasure one can have. All prophets have taught the importance of Modesty.

 

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Chapter (Bb) 17: But if they repent and establish regular prayers and practice regular charity then open the way for them.

 

Hadith No. 24

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Narrated by Ibn Umar

Allhs Apostle said: "I have been ordered (by Allh) to fight against the people until they testify that none has the right to be worshipped but Allh and that Muhammad is Allh's Apostle, and offer the prayers perfectly and give the obligatory charity, so if they perform that, then they save their lives and property from me except for Islmic laws and then their reckoning (accounts) will be done by Allh."

 

Purpose of Tarjamatul Bb

It again shows that the deeds are part of Imn as the  repentance from Shirk, establishment of regular prayers and practicing of regular charity have been made the basis for opening  the way for non believers.

 

Relation between Aayat and the Hadith as per Ibn Hajar

In the Aayat three things i.e., repentance from Shirk, establishment of  regular prayers and practicing of  regular charity (Zakh) are mentioned and made the basis for giving peace and protection, similarly, in the Hadith same three things are mentioned as the basis for giving the protection to their lives and property. In the Aayat "but if they repent" means returning from Kufr towards Tawheed. In the Hadith the words of Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) until they testify that none has the right to be worshipped but Allh and that Muhammad is Allh's Apostle" , means the same. The word Takhliyah in the Aayat and the word Ismat used in the Hadith have same relation.

 

Comments

In this Hadith  Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) says that he has been ordered by Allh Tal to fight with the people till they testify Oneness of Allh and his prophethood , in other words he has been told to continue his mission of purifying the world from the shirk and infidelity. These two things i.e.,  shirk and infidelity, are the root causes of disturbance, oppression and injustice in the world. Believing in the Creator and following His instructions as given by His Messenger is the only way of establishing peace and justice in the world. The mission of  Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) was to establish peace , harmony and justice in the world , so , he was told to fight till end with the forces who were responsible for creating injustice , tyranny and oppression in the world. Once all people will believe in the Oneness of Allh and accept Him as the Supreme authority and follow His Messenger (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam), every one will have peace and their lives and properties will remain safe.

 Except for Islmic laws:In an Islmic state it is the duty of the state to protect the lives and properties of its citizens. Every one will get the protection except those who break the law e.g., somebody commits murder or theft, he will be punished accordingly.

 "And then their reckoning (accounts) will be done by Allh."

In an Islmic state one who testifies Shahdah and whose deeds are like those of Muslims i.e., he establishes Salh and pays Zakh etc. , he will be treated as a Muslim. Whether the faith (Imn) has penetrated his heart or not is not the job of the state. Nobody can pierce through his heart to see into it as to whether there is real Imn in it or not. This thing is left to Allh and will be decided in the Aakhirah only.

 

Tawbah and testifying Shahadah

In the Aayat quoted in the Bb the word Tbo is used and in the Hadith the testifying of Shahdah is used. Repentance or Tawbah here means to repent on the period spent in Jhiliyah or ignorance and Shirk, develop hatred for previous ideology and then to testify that  that none has the right to be worshipped but Allh and that Muhammad is Allh's Apostle. Testifying the Shahdah itself includes Tawbah and there is no need to say Tawbah separately with Shahdah as per the majority of Ulema whereas Imm Ahmad is of the opinion that before the Shahdah, Tawbah is also important.

A Hadith says:

Islm abolishes whatever (sins have been committed) before Islm.

So, any one embracing Islm sincerely will get his earlier sins waved off automatically.

 

Establishment of Salh

Establishment of Salh is a very important pillar of Islm. Now the question arises as to what would be fate of one who does not establish Salh. As per Imm Ahmad bin Hambal one who leaves Salh purposefully is Kfir and deserves death sentence. As per Imm Mlik and Imm Shfaee he is not a Kfir but they also advocate for him death penalty. Imm Abu Haniefah does not favour death sentence but recommends his  imprisonment till he either makes Tawbah or dies.

 

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Chapter (Bb) 18: Whoever says that faith (Imn) is action (good deeds) referring to the saying of Allh, And this is a paradise which you have been made to inherit because of your deeds which you did (in the worldly life) (43:72). A number of scholars explained the verse: So by you Lord, we shall certainly call all of them to account for what they did. (15:92-93). By saying: For the life of this let all strive who wish to strive. (37:61)

 

Purpose of Tarjamatul Bb

Allmah Kashmiri says that here Imm Bukhari wants to say that Imn is not the name of mere knowledge because a devil can also possess it. Instead Imn is the name of the deed of Qalb or heart i.e., Imn means to accept by the heart. Hadhrat Gangohi is also holds same opinion whereas the majority of Ulema believe that it is the name of the deeds of heart as well as the deeds of the other parts of the body.

"And this is paradise which you have been made to inherit because of your deeds which you used to do (in the life) (43:72)

 

In this verse it is said that you have been given Jannah because of your deeds, we know that one gets Jannah because of Imn and here it is said that you get it because of deeds, so, it means that deeds are also included in Imn     here means .

 

What does inheritance of Jannah mean?

How can you inherit Jannah?, Ulema have given different explanations about it.

Inherited thing remains for ever, as the Jannah will also remain for ever, so, the word 'inherit' is used.

One has complete freedom in using the inherited property, similarly one can use the Jannah the way one likes.

Here Allh is the giver of Jannah, as the inherited property is never taken back, so Jannah will never be taken back by Allh after having given it to some one.

Shah Abdul Qdir says that here the word inheritance is used because it is  inherited by Mumin in relation to Aadam as he was the first who was given Jannah.

A number of scholars explained the verse (statement of Allh) -"So by your Lord,We shall certainly call all of them to account for all what they used to do".(15:92), by  the saying ," there is no God but Allh".

In this verse Allh Tal says that He will take them to account for all their deeds. The preceding verses of this verse are as follows:

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"Strain not thine eyes (wistfully) at what We have bestowed on certain classes of them nor grieve over them: but lower thy wing (in gentleness) to the Believers. And say: "I am indeed he that warneth openly and without ambiguity" (Of just such wrath) as We sent down on those who divided (Scripture into arbitrary parts) (So also on such) as have made the Qur'an into shreds (as they please). Therefore by thy Lord We will of a surety call them to account For all their deeds.(15:88-93)

In these preceding verses the mention is made of non believers and then it is said that these people (non believers) will be taken to account. We know that non believers are not accountable for their deeds but are accountable for Imn, so, here deeds mean Imn. That is why Imm Bukhari says that a number of scholars have explained this verse by There is no god but Allh.

" For the like of this let all strive who wish to  strive  (37:61)

From this Aayat also Imm Bukhari wants to prove the same thing.

 

Hadith No. 25

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Narrated by Hadhrat Abu Hurairah (R)

Allhs Apostle (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) was asked, "What is the best deed?" He replied, "To believe in Allh and His Apostle (Muhammad). The questioner then asked, "What is the next (in goodness)? He replied, "To participate in Jihd (religious fighting) in Allh's Cause." The questioner again asked, "What is the next (in goodness)?" He replied, "To perform Hajj (Pilgrimage to Mecca) 'Mabroor, (which is accepted by Allh and is performed with the intention of seeking Allh's pleasure only and not to show off and without committing a sin and in accordance with the traditions of the Prophet)."

 

Comments

Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) was asked same question (what is the best deed?), he (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) replied it differently at different times depending upon the circumstances in which the question was asked and secondly keeping in view the particular state of the questioner. Here Faith in Allh and His Messenger (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) was told to be best deed followed by Jihd and Haj. Here Jihd has been mentioned before Hajj when we know that Hajj is obligatory and Jihd is Fardh-i-Kifyah. Various explanations have been given by the Ulema.  Some say that this Hadith was told before Hajj became Fardh. Others say that it is possible that it is of that period when Jihd was more important for Sahbah.

 

What is Haj-i-Mabroor

It is said that Haj-i-Mabroor means that Hajj during which no sin is done and which is performed with absolute sincerity.

 

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CHAPTER   (Bb) 19: If one does not accept Islm truly but does so because of fear and yield of being killed, according to reality of your Imn. The saying of Allh:The desert Arabs say, We Believe. Say Ye have no Faith; but you (only) say, we have submitted. Then if Islm is based on truth, that is as per the saying of Allh, The religion before Allh is Islm.

 

Purpose of Tarjamatul Bb

Allmah Anwar Shah Kashmiri says that here Imm Bukhari wants to convey as to which Islm is beneficial and of help in the Aakhirah and which is not. That Islm or submission which is not based on truth but is because of worldly factors like greed or fear will not be of any help in the Aakhirah. That is why some desert Arabs of Banu Asad tribe, who came to Madinah with their cattle and children due to to drought conditions in their place, were told that the faith had not entered their hearts and that they had only submitted to Islm because of worldly factors Such Imn is not reliable. The Qur'an confirmed their Islm but negated their Imn because their Imn was not true Imn, otherwise as per Imm Bukhari Imn and Islm are synonymous. The true Islm is depicted in the second verse quoted above.

 

Haqeeqat-i-Imn

Once Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) asked one of his companions, Hadhrat Hrisah (RA) "In which state you woke up in the morning, O Hrisah? Hadhrat Hrisah (RA) replied, "I woke up as true Muslim Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) said, "O! Hrisah, think what you are saying as there is reality for everything and what is the reality of your Imn. Hadhrat Hrisah (R) replied, "My Nafs turned away from the world, I remained awake during nights (for worship), I remained thirsty during days and my state became such as if am seeing the Throne (Arsh) of my Lord very clearly, as if I am seeing the people of Jannah visiting it and if I am seeing the people of Jahannam crying." Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) said, "(Indeed) you (O Hrisah) have known (Imn), now stick to it.

 

Hadith No. 26

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Narrated by Hadhrat Sad (RA)

Allhs Apostle (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) distributed (Zakh) amongst (a group of) people while I was sitting there but Allh's Apostle left a man whom I thought the best of the lot. I asked, "O Allh's Apostle! Why have you left that person? By Allh I regard him as a faithful believer." The Prophet commented: "Or merely a Muslim. I remained quiet for a while, but could not help repeating my question because of what I knew about him. And then asked Allh's Apostle, "Why have you left so and so? By Allh! He is a faithful believer. The Prophet again said, "Or merely a Muslim. And I could not help repeating my question because of what I knew about him. Then the Prophet said, "O Sa'd! I give to a person while another is dearer to me, for fear that he might be thrown on his face in the Fire by Allh.

 

NarratorHadhrat Sad bin Abi Waqqas (RA)

Hadhrat Sa'd (RA) is a famous Sahbi, he is from those ten distinguished Sahbah who were given the glad tidings of Jannah in this world only. He was 5th or 7th person to embrace Islm at the age of 17 years and was first to throw arrow in the way of Allh. He was amongst those six persons whom Hadhrat Umar (RA) nominated for selecting the next Khalifah. He was the conqueror of Iran and the Governor of Iraq. There are about two hundred and seventy Ahdith narrated on his authority. He died in 55 Hijrah and was buried in Madinah at Baquee, may Allh be pleased with him.

 

Comments

Hadhrat Sa'd (RA) says that one day he was sitting with Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) when he was distributing Zakh and he did not give one person whom he (Sa'd) was thinking the best faithful believer amongst that lot. This thing surprised Sa'd and he could not resist himself, so, he got up and asked Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) as to why he left that particular person whom he thought as the best believer from the lot. Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) replied, "or merely a Muslim". Hadhrat Sa'd (RA) repeated the same question three times and every time got the same answer from Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam). By doing so Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) wanted to tell Hadhrat Sa'd (RA) that the faith or Imn is a hidden thing, one cannot make a categorical statement about it regarding anybody, only Allh knows it and that in this world you can testify somebody's Islm (external submission) and not Imn (internal submission). The name of this Sahbi about whom Hadhrat Sa'd (RA) was asking was Hadhrat Ju'ail (RA).

 

Does this Hadith negate the Imn of Hadhrat Juail (R)?

No, this Hadith does not negate the Imn of Hadhrat Ju'ail (R), but teaches Hadhrat sa'd (R) that he should not testify about somebody's faith with certainty as that is known only to Allh. Secondly there is a lesson in it that if someone has to give a word of advice to someone, he should do that secretly and not publicly. Then the Prophet said: "O Sa'd! I give to a person while another is dearer to me, for fear that he might be thrown on his face in the Fire by Allh."

The other lesson from this Hadith is that at times one can give extra concessions to those whom he thinks to be of weaker faith and give them preference over those having stronger faith.

 

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Chapter (Bb) 20: To make the Islmic greeting (Salm) popular is from Islm and Ammar (RA) said: One who attained three qualities, attained Imn, viz.,

Justice from core of the heart.

To greet Salm to everyone (known or unknown).

To spend (in the way of Allh) even during poverty.

 

Narrator: Hadhrat Ammar bin Yathir (RA)

Hadhrat Yathir (RA), the father of Ammr (RA) migrated from Yamen to Makkah, there he married Sumayyah (RA) the slave girl of Abu Hudhaifa (RA). Ammr (RA) was born to Sumayyah (RA) 57 years before Hijrah. All the three that is Yathir (RA) Sumayyah and Ammr (RA) embraced Islm quite early in Makkah and were teased too much by the Makkan infidels. Sumayyah (RA) was the first to get martyred in the way of Allh. Abu Jahal threw an arrow which hit her private parts and she got martyred. Ammr (RA) participated in both Hijrahs (migrations) viz., to Habsha and Madinah and also participated in all the Gazws (battles) including Uhud and Badr. He was the first to construct Masjid in Islm. When they were being teased in Makkah, Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) told them:

 "Have patience,  O  family of Yathir as your promised place is Jannah."

 

1. Justice from the core of the heart

Here Hadhrat Ammr (RA) said that there are three things whosoever attains them will attain the Imn. First is to do the justice from the core of heart. Many times one does not want to do justice but circumstances force him to do so, e.g., fear of getting defamed i.e., "if I don't do the justice, I will get defamed." But the justice should be from the core of heart and not because of hypocrisy. Some Ulema say that means that one should do justice to his Nafs that is to himself.

 

2. Salm for everyone (known or unknown)

To make Salm very popular, that is to wish everyone whether you know him or not.

 

3. To spend (in the name of Allh) even during poverty

To spend when you have plenty is not that meritorious as to spend when you yourself are needy.

 

Hadith No. 27

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Narrated by Abdullah bin Amr

A person asked Allh's Apostle. "What (sort of) deeds or (what qualities of) Islm are good?" He replied, "To feed (the poor) and greet those whom you know and those whom you don't know."

The contents of this Hadith have already been discussed.

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Chapter (Bb) 21: To be ungrateful to ones husband. And disbelief is of different grades. A narration from Abu Said Al-Khudri (RA) (in this regard) on the authority of the Prophet (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam).

 

Literal meaning of Kufr

Literally Kufr means to conceal. A farmer is called Kfir because he conceals the seed in the ground and the night is also called Kfir because it also conceals the things. A disbeliever is called Kfir because he conceals the truth and the blessings of Allh and attributes them to someone other than Allh.

Applications of the word Kufr

In real sense the word Kufr is applied to one who denies Allh, His Messenger or the Shari'ah brought by Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam). This type of Kufr drags one out of the fold of Islm.

 

Disbelief is of different grades

There are many grades of kufr below this grade of real Kufr which are not so grave but are still labelled as Kufr. These grades of Kufr do not take one out of the fold of Islm. Here in this chapter the ungratefulness of women towards their husbands is labelled as Kufr but by saying Imm Bukhari wants to convey that this type of Kufr is of another type, that is, it will not take one out of the fold of Islm. Secondly Imm Bukhari also wants to convey that since Imn is of different grades, Kufr is also of different grades.

There is a narration from Abu Said Al-Khudri (RA) (in this regard) on the authority of the Prophet (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam)

In this Imm Bukhari points towards a Hadith which he has extracted in Kitab-ul-Haidh (Chapter on Menses), on the authority of Hadhrat Sa'id al Khudri ,in which Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) says:

"O group of women, give charity as I have been shown majority of you in Hellfire, they asked as to why was it so? He  replied, "because you often use to curse (say La'nat) and are usually ungrateful to your husbands."

 

Hadith No. 28

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Narrated by Hadhrat ibn Abbas (RA)

The Prophet  said: "I was shown the Hell-fire and that the majority of its dwellers were women who were ungrateful." It was asked, "Do they disbelieve in Allh?" (or are they ungrateful to Allh?) He replied, "They are ungrateful to their husbands and are ungrateful for the favors and the good (charitable deeds) done to them. If you have always been good (benevolent) to one of them and then she sees something in you (not of her liking), she will say, 'I have never received any good from you."

 

Comments

The Prophet  said: "I was shown the Hell-fire and that the majority of its dwellers were women who were ungrateful."

Asheer means husband,  Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) was shown the hellfire and he saw that the majority of dwellers therein were women. This was shown to him either during Me'raj or Kasoof or in a dream. It is mostly thought that it was during Kasoof as Imm Bukhari has repeated this narration under the chapter on Kasoof as well. Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam)  was asked as to what was the cause of women being in majority in hellfire, he said that they were more ungrateful and this ungratefulness was not towards Allh that would take them out of the fold of Islm, but this ungratefulness was towards their husbands. In another Hadith Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) said that had it been permissible for him to ask the people to prostrate before anyone other than Allh, he would have asked the women to prostrate before their husbands. This is why ungratefulness towards the husbands has been labelled as Kufr, though, of lower grade. To impress upon that point Imn Bukhari mentioned in the Bb the statement .

This Hadith says that Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) saw women in majority than men in Hellfire whereas other Ahdith say that in Jannah one man will have at least two women as wives, that will mean that there will be more women in Jannah. (Other Hadith says that there will be seventy two wives to each man in Jannah, it is said that the seventy of them will be from among the Hoors of Jannah). Ulema have given different reasons for this ,i.e., will there be more women in Jannah or Hellfire? some say that initially there will be more women in Hellfire and after the Magfirat and Shifa'at they will be taken to Jannah and ultimately there will be more women in Jannah (Allh knows the best).

 

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Chapter (Bb) 22: Sins are from ignorance. A sinner is not a disbeliever unless he attains a partner with Allh, as per the saying of Prophet, You still have some characteristics of ignorance and Allh says, Verily Allh forgives not that rivals should set up with Him in worship, but He forgives that whom He pleases, (4:48). If two parties among the believers fall into a quarrel make ye peace between them. (49:9) and he labelled them as believers.

 

What is Ignorance

There are different opinions about it, viz.,

1. It is the period from the birthday of Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) to the day he announced his Prophethood.

 

2. The period before prophethood.

 

3. The period of Sahbah before embracing Islm.

Here Imm Bukhari wants to convey that though the sins are the signs of the period of ignorance yet these are not taking one out of the fold of Islm. It is only Shirk that makes one Kfir. Nobody can doubt the faith of Abu Dharr, yet Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) told him that he had some characteristic of the period of ignorance when he called his servant with bad names. Similarly Allh Tal called those people as believers who fought with each other, otherwise, as per Hadith, we know that the fighting of Muslims with each other is Kufr. Allh Tal says:

"If two parties among the Believers fall into a quarrel make ye peace between them:" (49:9)

Allh Tal says:

"Allh forgiveth not that partners should be set up with him; but He forgiveth anything else to whom He pleaseth; to set up partners with Allh is to devise a sin most heinous indeed." (4:48)

 

Allh Tal does not forgive shirk, will He forgive Kufr?

In this verse Allh Tal says that He will forgive anything to whom he pleases, but not Shirk. Does that mean that He will forgive Kufr as well? The learned scholars say that "Dhoona" in this verse means "Adhn", meaning thereby that Allh Tal will forgive all sins which are less than Shirk and not Shirk. Kufr is higher in degree than Shirk, so, it does not come in the things which are less in gravity than Shirk.

 

Hadith No. 29

( ) ( ) ( ) ( )  

Narrated by Al Marur

At Ar-Rabdha I met Abu Dhar who was wearing a cloak, and his slave, too, was wearing a similar one. I asked about the reason for it. He replied, "I abused a person by calling his mother with bad names." The Prophet said to me, 'O Abu Dhar! Did you abuse him by calling his mother with bad names? You still have some characteristics of ignorance. Your slaves are your brothers and Allh has put them under your command. So whoever has a brother under his command should feed him of what he eats and dress him of what he wears. Do not ask them (slaves) to do things beyond their capacity (power) and if you do so, then help them.

 

NarratorAbu Dhar Gifri (RA)

Abu Dhar Gifri (RA) is a famous Sahbi, who was fourth or fifth person to embrace Islm in Makkah and later on went back to his home place and performed Dwah work there and finally migrated to Madinah. Since his migration was late so he could not participate in the battles of Badr, Uhud and Khandaq. There are many Ahdith that speak for his praise. Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) said,

1."I have been ordered, by Allh, to love four persons among  my companions." He was asked as to who were those four?, he said, "Ali , Abu Dhar, Salman and Al-Miqdad."

2."May Allh bless Abu Dhar, he walks alone, will die alone and will be resurrected alone."

In last days of his life he went to a place called Ar-Rabdha, he advised his wife that she should keep his body outside the house after giving him Ghusl and Kafan when he breathes his last and tell whosoever passes first by that side, that it is the body of Abu Dhar. His wife did the same and first to pass by that side was Ibn Masood along with some of his companions. His wife told Ibn Masood that it was the body of Abu Dhar. On hearing this tears rolled down the eyes of Ibn Masood and he said:

"May Allh bless Abu Dhar, he walks alone, will die alone and will be resurrected alone."

Then Ibn Masood offered his Janzah and buried him, may Allh be pleased with him and raise his rank.

 

Comments

Ar-Rabdah is a place three Manzils from Madinah. Al Marur says that once he met Abu Dhar at Ar-Rabdah and saw him and his servant wearing the same type of cloak. Al Marur asked him the reason for the same. Abu Dhar narrated to him an incident that one day he called his one of the servants with bad names regarding his mother, calling him, O son of a black women. Probably this man was Hadhrat Bilal and some say that he was Hadhrat Ammr bin Yathir. Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) heard it and he called Abu Dhar and asked him if he had called his servant with bad names regarding his mother. Abu Dhar admitted of having done so, Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) said to Abu Dhar that he was a person still possessing some characteristics of the days of ignorance (Jhiliyah). Calling some one with bad names is, of course a sign of ignorance. Islm insists on development of good morals of high standard for its believers, that is why Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) admonished Abu Dhar on this issue. This Hadith clearly indicates that even those people who are having very high degree of faith still need someone as their teacher who can pin point their weaknesses, since one cannot know his own weak points. We know that Abu Dhar was having very high degree of faith but still was not able to know his weak point of having some sort of wrath and anger existing in his inner self.

 

Islm and human equality

This is a great teaching of Islm that teaches human equality. Islm teaches that all human beings have descended from single parent, and hence are equal. No one gets preference over others on the basis of caste, colour or creed. Superiority in Islm is based only on the degree of faith and piety. Rich or poor, master or slave, ruler or ruled are all temporary phases of this world which have been created by Allh just to test the man as to how he behaves in a particular given position. So, man should always think that whatever status, rich or poor, ruler or ruled, has been given to him is just to test him. So, a rich man has no reason to feel proud and a poor man no reason to feel dejected. If someone has been made master to other, he  should respect his slave from his heart thinking that this slave may be more dearer to Allh than him and can have higher rank in the Hereafter.

So whoever has a brother under his command should feed him with what he eats himself and dress him as himself. Do not ask them (slaves) to do things beyond their capacity (power) and if you do so, then help them.

This is unparallel teaching of Islm, pious Muslims have always upheld this teaching. Abu Dhar put this teaching of his teacher into practice till his death, as is evident from this Hadith that he and his slave was wearing the same type of cloak. Ulema say that  it is Mustahab in terms of Shari'ah to provide with same thing to your servant what you like for yourself.

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DARUL ULOOM ILAHIYAH
INSTITUTE OF ISLAMIC RESEARCH
ILAHI BAGH, BUCHPORA, SRINAGAR, 190011, KASHMIR, INDIA