Published From Srinagar.
Editor, Printer & Publisher: Mawlana Hamidullah Lone.
January 2006. VOL.7, No: 1.
Almighty has not created the universe as an exercise in futility. On the contrary each and every particle is a repository of His erudition, howsoever unaware the humankind may be of reality. Human species by nature being impatient, is apt to lose sight of the fact that hardships befalling a person are actually expedients, known only to Him. The Holy Book clearly explains that in the event of a hardship, the man groans and bemoans that he has been forsaken by his Preserver, whereas' upon receiving some bounty, declares that God has indeed elevated his status. At another palce, Qur'an lays down that all struggle is an integral part of life, unpleasant as it may seem, and has latent benefits and rewards. On the contrary, an apparently pleasant situation may in fact mislead one towards misdeeds. God only is omniscient.
The test of a true believer is his fortitude in adversity. Those who stand the test, proving as good as their word given to the Almighty (ahd-i-alast), are the blessed ones. They know that any calamity is a trial as promised by God and His messenger (pbuh). While some may have been tested, others stand and wait for their turn, steadfast in their faith.
History records incontrovertible testimony that at all times, two main categories of believers have existed. One, those who yield and succumb to the vagaries of nature and calamities land themselves in dire straits. The others, steadfast in the face of all tribulations and torture, emerge unscathed, by virtue of their unwavering faith; like solid rocks they stand firm under the onslaught of raging tides. For them are the rewards and blessings from God.
The events, now termed permanently as it were, "September-11 " are attributed. willy nilly, by all powers of the world, as a handiwork of Muslims, who have been targeted as the whipping boys and singled out as the greatest danger for the whole world. Islam has been made out as a synonym to terrorism. Even normal functions like promotion of literacy and education, dissemination of Islamic knowledge, establishment of charitable organizations, service to humankind, are categorized as subversive acts. Even a Western intellectual had defined such attitude as a deliberate attempt for thwarting Islamic renaissance, rather its very existence. In his opinion it is a ploy to protect the West from alleged Islamic 'threat', which to them is more potent than pre-World-War II upsurge from Germany and Japan and more difficult to counter. Consequent upon "11/9", the West has launched an all out offensive, armed with all resources, military, economy, print, and electronic media, internet, aiming to curb even genuine philanthropic, educational, cultural activities of Muslims. Publication of literature, translation of Qur'an, aid for the decrepit and needy were not spared from being gagged.
Such concerted drive would normally be expected to block all roads leading to Islam and the trend of people being drawn towards Islam should have cooled off. However it is for all the world to see that case is just the opposite, with non-muslim intellectuals evincing increased interest in probing into the purity and real nature of Islamic message. Some who embarked upon a study into Islam only after it came under attack, woke up to the reality of this religion nowhere resembling the image projected by Europe. Western media had described Muslims as an unreliable, uneducated, callous lot. Some Western investigators who spent their time in the company of Muslims saw first hand that Muslims were far more cultured, compassionate and enlightened than those in the West who blew their own trumpets about high level education, enlightenment, culture.
Crusades of yore had evoked interaction between Islamic world and the West and acted as catalysts for an awakening In Europe. The current war, marketed by George, ' Bush as Crusades, has shaken the Muslim world from complacency. In the eighteenth century GE, post-Napolean turmoil, Arabs had stirred to life. Effect of Bush-implemented atrocities is not too different, launching the Muslims upon defense of their religion and culture with alacrity and self confidence. These very Muslim countries had taken USA as their saviour, subsequent to relaxation of British and French grip. The aura of veneration has since started to evaporate, with USA losing support of several protagonists, who seem to realise the truth, so much so .that even US citizens tend to decry the administration. This awakening is not due entirely to articles carried by media or sermons from mosques, which act only as adjuncts. Muslim feelings have flared up in retaliation to offensive by the West.
Some intellectuals from the Western countries took . up a study of Islam with the motive of launching an offensive against Muslims after grasping the intricacies, but ended up in the fold of Islam. A vivid example is of Dr. Gary Miller. A professor of mathematics and a staunch Jesuit, he studied Qur'an with a view to finding lacunae but, perceiving the real message therein, realized the hollowness in Judaism and Christianity. This trend in Europe and Asia has resulted in a shortage of literature needed for the purpose, Qur'anic translations specially falling much short of demand.
Dr. Moullak, The German Envoy travelled in India, interacted with Muslim clergy and learned persons, to obtain first hand knowledge of the spirit of Islam and Muslim culture and to equip himself for rectifying the obnoxious impression created about Muslims and Islam by the West and also to counter the malicious propaganda. As for himself, Dr. Moullak is convinced of the fact that the Western world owes all its knowledge about medical and other sciences to the pioneering work originally carried out in Islamic world. He goes to the extent of challenging the self-proclaimed ambassadors of peace and fair-play to an introspection before pointing a finger towards Islam and Muslims.
Influenced by international vendetta, anti-Muslim elements in India also took up' cudgels against Muslims. An I eminent writer has stated, in a magazine, that Muslims the world over are devoid of intelligence: tenderness and perception and they have no grasp over their self-professed faith though ever willing to sacrifice all in its name. The same magazine, Panch Janyah, in a subsequent issue carries the surmise of another writer to the effect that the vendetta against Islam is based on gross misconception and in, ignorance of reality. In his opinion a proper scrutiny of facts was needed for taking a corrective action. The last mentioned writer is one of those who had previously crossed all limits in maligning Islam and the magazine is one which would hardly let go of any opportunity in this direction.
However the hollowness of anti-Islamic thrust dawned upon them leading to a sense and expression of remorse.
The noted author and journalist, Khushwant Singh has been emphatic in categorizing Muslims as faithful followers: and firm believers of their religion, more than any other community.
The one positive effect of global anti-Muslim offensive has been to stir the community to life and self-realization. To quote the Poet of the East.
Musalman ko musalman kar
diya toofan-i-maghrib ne,
Jalatum-hai darya he se hai gauhar ki sairabi
Western typhoon has instilled Islam into Muslims, a new.
A pearl is nurtured by the ferocity of raging seas.
The call of the day is for the Muslims, specially intellectuals and leaders to confront the present situation with insight and discretion and endeavour to rid the world of physical and moral chaos. It is only for God the Almighty to decide what is best for us, apparent pleasantness or harshness not withstanding.
What can a woman do, if her family are obstructing her path to Islam. They are non-Practicing Muslims. How does she fulfill sunnat ir rahim and follow Islam if there is a great deal of difficulty in doing so. Can a sister just break ties, live on her own and try to get closer to Allah. It is becoming difficult to maintain ties of kinship when there is continuous evil, backbiting, fitnah, inciting me to disobey Allah, etc.,
Is there a dua to make when one faces such great difficulty? And what do I do if I make mistakes and fall in sin – despite not desiring to do so?.
Praise be to Allaah.
We say to this Muslim sister: may Allah reward you with good for adhering to Islam, and we ask Allah to make you steadfast in Islam and to send you people who will help you to do so.
With regard to the question:
Firstly, you have to bear their annoyance with patience, because the path of adherence (to Islam) is not easy, but it is the path of the Prophets. The Muslim is bound to face difficulties in the way of his adhering to Islam, as Muslim narrated in his Saheeh (2823) from Anas (may Allah be pleased with him) that the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said: “Paradise is surrounded with difficulties and Hell is surrounded with desires.” The Prophets (peace be upon them) were faced with difficulties from their people and from the closest of people to them, but the reward for their patience was that Allah caused them ultimately to prevail.
Secondly: The Muslim sister should strive to advise her family with kindness, wisdom and beautiful preaching, and she should not despair or give up. She should show a good attitude towards them, say and do good things to them, and extend a helping hand to them, even to those who cause her the most hardship. This will have an effect on them, in sha Allah, and this is one of the most effective ways of calling people to Allaah.
Thirdly: She should try to find people to help and support her, by trying to persuade those among her family members who like her, because they will be more likely to respond than others.
Fourthly: You have to equip yourself with the most effective “weapon”, which is praying for them to be guided and that Allah will fill their hearts with the light of adherence to Islam. You should say such du’aa’s a lot when prostrating and during the last part of the night, and at other times when du’aa’ is especially recommended, and you should not try to hasten the response.
Fifthly: You should note that it is not always good to break off ties. In some cases, when those whom Allah has guided break off ties with their families, this makes them go further in their sin and farther removed from religious commitment. Breaking off ties may cause a person distress and make him unable to bear it. Hence we think that the sister should be patient and mix with her family in ways that will not affect her religious commitment and level of faith. The more she withdraws into herself –i.e., at home – the better, because if a woman leaves the family home, that may make people talk badly about her a lot, and evil-minded people may try to approach because she has gone away from those who could take care of her and protect her.
Your staying may be more beneficial to your family, because there are many sins that the family may not dare to commit out of respect for their children whom Allah has guided. If the children leave, this will give the family more freedom to commit whatever sins they want.
Hence the daa’iyah should be wise and should weigh up the pros and cons of leaving. He should not give a small benefit precedence over warding off a greater evil; warding off evil is more important than gaining benefits.
Sixthly: There is no better du’aa’ for such situations than the du’aa’ of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) when he prayed for his people to be forgiven and guided.
(a) It was narrated that ‘Abd-Allaah ibn Mas’ood said: It is as if I can see the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) telling us the story of one of the Prophets whose people beat him and made him bleed, and he was wiping the blood from his face and saying, “O Allaah, forgive my people for they do not know.” (Narrated by al-Bukhaari, 3290; Muslim, 1792).
The Prophet referred to is one of the earlier Prophets. Something similar happened to our Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) on the day of Uhud. (Sharh Muslim, 12/150)
(b) It was narrated that Abu Hurayrah (may Allah be pleased with him) said: Tufayl ibn ‘Amr al-Dawsi and his companions came to the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) and said: “O Messenger of Allaah, (the tribe of) Daws have rebelled, so pray to Allah against them.” The people said, “Daws are doomed.” But the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said: “O Allaah, guide Daws and bring them to me.” (Narrated by al-Bukhaari, 2779; Muslim, 2524)
(c) It was narrated that Abu Hurayrah said: “I used to call my mother to Islam when she was still a mushrik. I called her one day and she said something about the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) that I did not like to hear. I came to the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) weeping, and said, ‘O Messenger of Allaah, I have been calling my mother to Islam and she refuses. I called her today and she said something about you that I did not like to hear. Pray to Allah to guide the mother of Abu Hurayrah.’ The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said, ‘O Allaah, guide the mother of Abu Hurayrah.’ I went back, feeling optimistic because of the du’aa’ of the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him). When I came back, I went to the door and found it locked. My mother heard my footsteps and said, ‘Stay where you are, O Abu Hurayrah.’ I could hear the sound of water. She washed herself (did ghusl), put on her chemise and quickly covered her head with her head cover, then she opened the door and said, ‘O Abu Hurayrah, I bear witness that there is no god except Allaah, and I bear witness that Muhammad is His slave and Messenger.’ I went back to the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him), weeping with joy, and said, ‘O Messenger of Allah (S), good news! Allah has answered your prayer and guided the mother of Abu Hurayrah.’ He praised and thanked Allaah.” (Narrated by Muslim, 2491)
And Allah knows best.
from the Qur'an
Hadhrat Mawlana Mohammad Shaifi Sahib (RA)
æóÅöÐú ÞóÇáó ÑóÈøõßó áöáúãóáóÇÆößóÉö Åöäøöí ÌóÇÚöáñ Ýöí ÇáúÃóÑúÖö ÎóáöíÝóÉð ÞóÇáõæÇ ÃóÊóÌúÚóáõ ÝöíåóÇ ãóäú íõÝúÓöÏõ ÝöíåóÇ æóíóÓúÝößõ ÇáÏøöãóÇÁó æóäóÍúäõ äõÓóÈøöÍõ ÈöÍóãúÏößó æóäõÞóÏøöÓõ áóßó ÞóÇáó Åöäøöí ÃóÚúáóãõ ãóÇ áóÇ ÊóÚúáóãõæäó () æóÚóáøóãó ÂÏóãó ÇáúÃóÓúãóÇÁó ßõáøóåóÇ Ëõãøó ÚóÑóÖóåõãú Úóáóì ÇáúãóáóÇÆößóÉö ÝóÞóÇáó ÃóäúÈöÆõæäöí ÈöÃóÓúãóÇÁö åóÄõáóÇÁö Åöäú ßõäúÊõãú ÕóÇÏöÞöíäó () ÞóÇáõæÇ ÓõÈúÍóÇäóßó áóÇ Úöáúãó áóäóÇ ÅöáøóÇ ãóÇ ÚóáøóãúÊóäóÇ Åöäøóßó ÃóäúÊó ÇáúÚóáöíãõ ÇáúÍóßöíãõ () ÞóÇáó íóÇ ÂÏóãõ ÃóäúÈöÆúåõãú ÈöÃóÓúãóÇÆöåöãú ÝóáóãøóÇ ÃóäúÈóÃóåõãú ÈöÃóÓúãóÇÆöåöãú ÞóÇáó Ãóáóãú ÃóÞõáú áóßõãú Åöäøöí ÃóÚúáóãõ ÛóíúÈó ÇáÓøóãóæóÇÊö æóÇáúÃóÑúÖö æóÃóÚúáóãõ ãóÇ ÊõÈúÏõæäó æóãóÇ ßõäúÊõãú ÊóßúÊõãõæäó ()
And when your Lord said to the angels, “I am going to create a deputy on the earth!”. They said , “will You create there one who will spread disorder on the earth and cause bloodsheds while we, along with Your praises, proclaim Your purity and sanctify Your Name?” He said, “Certainly, I know what you do not know”. And He taught Adam names, all of them; then presented them before the angels, and said, “Tell Me their names, if you are right”. They said, “To You belong all purity! We have no knowledge except what You have given us. Surely, You alone are the All-Knowing , All-Wise”. He said, “O Adam, tell them the names of all these”. When he told them their names, Allah said, “Did I not tell you that I know the secrets of the skies and of the earth, and that I know what you disclose and what you have been concealing. (Verse 30-33)
The preceding verses recounted the general and some of the particular blessings of Allah, and asked man to recognize them and not to be ungrateful and disobedient to his Benefactor. Now, ten verses, beginning with the 30th, tell the story of the father of mankind, Adam (AS), in continuation of this theme and also by way of illustration. For, blessings are of two kinds—tangible and intangible. Food, water, money, houses, or lands are some of the tangible blessings; while honour, happiness or knowledge are intangible ones. The earlier verses were concerned with blessings of the first kind; these verses speak of those of the second kind—that is to say, how Allah bestowed the gift of knowledge on Adam (AS), made the angels prostrate themselves before him to show their respect, and gave men the honour of being his sons.
The Creation of Adam
The present three verses relate how Allah, having decided to create Adam (AS) and to make him His deputy on the earth, spoke of it to the angels—seemingly by way of trial, suggesting that they should express their opinion I this matter. The angels submitted that they could not understand why men were being chosen to be the deputies, for some of them would shed blood and spread disorder on the earth. They thought that they themselves were more suited to perform this function, as the nature of angels is wholly good, no evil deed can possibly come out of them., they are totally obedient to Allah, and should hence be more capable of managing the affairs of the world. In replying to them, Allah first adopted the mode of authority, and told the angels that they knew nothing about the nature and the needs of deputation on the earth, and that Allah alone was the one to know it fully. The second answer was in the mode of wisdom—Adam (AS) had been given preference over the angels on account of his superiority in the station of knowledge, because in order to function properly as a deputy on the earth one must know the names, the properties and the characteristics of the things to be found there, and the angels had no aptitude for this kind of knowledge.
A question arise here as to why Allah chose to speak of His decision to the angels. Was it merely to inform them? Was it to seek their advice? Or, was it to make them express their opinion on the subject?
Why Allah discussed Adam’s Creation with Angels?
As for seeking advice, it is obvious enough that one turns for advice to wise and trustworthy people only when one cannot see all the aspects of a problem clearly, and does not want to depend on one’s own knowledge and understanding alone, or when the rights of others are equal to one’s own, and they too have to be consulted, as happens in the counsels of the world. Evidently, neither of the two situations obtain in the present case. Allah is the creator of the universe, and knows everything about the smallest particle of dust; He sees and hears everything, apparent or hidden. How can He stand in need of anyone’s advice? Similarly, He does not run the universe under the parliamentary system, in which all have equal rights and everyone had to be consulted directly or indirectly. He is the Lord and Master, and all His creatures, be they men or angels, are His slaves—no one has the right to question Him about His actions, and to ask Him why He did this or why He did no do that: “áóÇ íõÓúÃóáõ ÚóãøóÇ íóÝúÚóáõ æóåõãú íõÓúÃóáõæäó He cannot be questioned as to what He does, while they are to be questioned”. (21:23)
In fact, Allah did not mean to seek the advice of the angels, nor was there any need for it, but He, in His wisdom, gave a mere statement the form of a consultation in order to teach men the advisability of mutual consultation. After all, the Holy Prophet (S) was a messenger of Allah, and all the information he needed in dealing with the affairs of the world could have been conveyed to him by means of revelation, and yet the Holy Qur’an asks him to seek the advice of his Companions, so that the Islamic community should learn this lesson from him and the way of mutual consultation should be established through him. In short, this is the first raison d’etre of the mode of expression adopted by Allah. (Run al-Bayan)
The other has been suggested by the Holy Qur’an itself. Before the appearance of man, the angels had taken it for granted that Allah would not create a being who should be superior to them and greater in knowledge—as has been reported in a narration coming down from the blessed companion Ibn Abbas (RA) and cited by Ibn Jarir (RA) in his commentary. But Allah knew that He would create a being who would be superior to all other creatures and greater than them in knowledge, and who would receive the gift of divine vice-regency. So, Allah mentioned this in the assembly of the angels so that they may disclose what they had been thinking. Speaking according to their own lights, the very humbly submitted that a creature like man who carried within himself a tendency towards evil and disorder and who would not balk even at blood-shed, could not be expected to maintain peace and order on the earth, while they themselves, being free of all evil, and perfect in their obedience and devotion, could perform the function more satisfactorily. They did not mean to raise an objection to the choice which Allah had made, for angels are innocent of such sentiments; they were only being curious, and wanted to know the raison d’etre of such a choice.
To begin with, Allah gave them a very brief rely Åöäøöí ÃóÚúáóãõ ãóÇ áóÇ ÊóÚúáóãõæäó “I know what you do not know”, implying that they are not aware of the nature and the requirements of divine vice-regency, which had led them to suppose that only pure and innocent beings could fulfill the conditions necessary for such a responsible position.
Then, Allah demonstrated the truth to them in a vivid form. He gave to Adam (AS) a kind of knowledge for which he alone had been endowed with the proper aptitude, and not the angels . That is to say, He taught him the names, the properties and qualities of all the existents, animate or inanimate. Angelic nature is not capable of such awareness—for example, an angel cannot really experience the pain of hunger and thirst, the tumult of passions, the torment from the bite of a scorpion or a snake, or the exhilaration from an intoxicant. Only Adam (AS) had the capacity to learn such things, and he was taught to know them. Then, there is not indication in the Holy Qur’an to show that he was taught in privacy, apart from the angels. It may well be that the teaching in itself was open to the angels as well as to him; his nature allowed him to receive it, and he learnt the lesson, while, they were impeded by their own proper nature, and could not. Or, it may be that the teaching did not take an external form at all, but that the Adamic nature was made to carry this particular kind of knowledge within itself without the need of a formal education, just as an infant does not have to be taught how to such the mother’s milk, or a duckling how to swim. As to the question why Allah, being omnipotent, did not change the nature of the angels and make them learn these things, we shall say that the question, in fact, boils down to this: Why did not Allah change the angels into men? For, if their nature had been altered, they would no longer have remained angels, but become men.
In short, through this demonstration Allah made the angels realize how wrong they were in supposing that He would not create any being superior to them in any way, and that they themselves were more suitable for being the vicegerents of Allah than Adam (AS). Since they failed to name the things which Adam (AS) could, they came to see that purity and innocence is not the criterion in choosing a deputy or vicegerent but the knowledge of the things which are to be found on the earth, of the ways using them, and of the consequences which would follow from such a use.
We can also infer a general principle from the episode—it is necessary for a ruler to know fully the nature, the temperament and the peculiarities of the people over whom he is to rule, without which he cannot enforce justice and order. If one does not know the pain of being hungry, how can one deal justice to the man who has unjustly been kept hungry?
We may also point out that in expressing their opinion, the angels were neither raising an objection, nor being vain and proud, nor asserting their right; it was, on their part, only a humble submission, and an offer of their services. When they found that there was another being who was, with his special kind of knowledge, more suitable for the function, they as humbly acknowledged the fact and withdrew their earlier opinion in saying: ÓõÈúÍóÇäóßó áóÇ Úöáúãó áóäóÇ ÅöáøóÇ ãóÇ ÚóáøóãúÊóäóÇ Åöäøóßó ÃóäúÊó ÇáúÚóáöíãõ ÇáúÍóßöíãõ “To You belongs all purity! We have no knowledge except what You have given us. Surely, You alone are the all-knowing, the all-wise”. In the present context, the phrase, “To You belongs all purity”, also has the implication that Allah is free from the charge of having withheld from the angels the knowledge which He gave to Adam (AS), for, being the all-knowing and the all-wise, He gives to each creature the kind and the degree of knowledge and understanding which He, and He alone, knows to be in consonance with the specific nature of that creature.
Another question which may arise out of this episode is: How did the angels come to know that man would shed blood? Did they possess the knowledge of hidden things and of divine secrets? Or, was it a mere conjecture on their part? Most of the authoritative scholars believe, on the basis of certain ÂËÇÑ ‘Athar’ or reports available about the blessed Companions, that it was Allah Himself who had informed the angels on this occasion as to how man would behave on earth. It is only then that they became curious about the raison d’etre of man being chosen as the vicegerent in spite of his propensity to evil.
Besides demonstrating the superiority of Adam (AS) in knowledge, Allah dispelled the misgivings of the angels with regard to the evil propensities in man by the short and simple answer, “Certainly, I know what you do not know”. There is a subtle suggestion here—what makes man fit for viceregency is just the peculiarity which, in the eyes of the angels, made him unfit for this function. For, a deputy or vicegerent is needed on the earth just for the purpose of preventing blood-shed and disorder; if there is no possibility of disorder in a place, where is the need for sending there an administrator? Thus, it was the Divine Will and Wisdom that, just as Allah had created beings as innocent and sinless as the angels, or beings as totally evil as Satan and his progeny, or beings like the jinns in whom evil dominated over good, He would also create beings in whom good and evil should be equally mixed, who should try to conquer the evil in themselves and to grow in goodness so as to seek and attain the pleasure of their Creator.
from Bukhari Sharief
Dr. Rafiq Ahmad
ÍÏøËäÇ ( ÓõáóíúãóÇäõ Èúäõ ÍóÑúÈ ) ò ÞÇáó ÍÏøËäÇ ( ÔõÚúÈóÉ ) õ Úóäú ( æÇÕöáò ÇáÃÍúÏóÈ ) ö Úóäö ( ÇáãóÚúÑõæÑ ) ö ÞÇá áóÞöíÊõ ÃÈóÇ ÐóÑø ÈÇáÑøóÈóÐóÉö æóÚóáóíúåö ÍõáøóÉñ æóÚóáì ÛõáÇóãöåö ÍõáøóÉñ ÝóÓóÃóáúÊõåõ Úóäú Ðóáößó ÝÞÇáó Åäí ÓóÇÈóÈúÊõ ÑóÌõáÇð ÝóÚóíøóÑúÊõåõ ÈÃãøöåö ÝóÞÇáó áöíó ÇáäÈíøõ íóÇ ÃÈÇ ÐóÑøò ÃÚóíøóÑÊóåõ ÈöÃõãøöåö Åäúßó ÇãúÑõÄñ Ýöíßó ÌóÇåöáöíøóÉñ ÅÎúæóÇäõßõãú Îóæáõßõãú ÌóÚóáóåõãõ Çááøóåõ ÊóÍúÊó ÃíúÏöíßõãú Ýóãóäú ßÇäó ÃÎõæåõ ÊóÍúÊó íóÏöåö ÝóáúíõØúÚöãúåõ ãöãøóÇ íÃúßõáõ æóáúíõáúÈöÓúåõ ãöãøóÇ íóáúÈóÓ æóáÇ ÊõßöáøöÝõæåãú ãóÇ íóÛúáöÈõåõãú ÝóÅäø ßóáøóÝúÊõãõæåõãú ÝóÃóÚöíäõæåõãú
Narrated by Al Marur
At Ar-Rabadha I met Abu Dhar who was wearing a cloak, and his slave, too, was wearing a similar one. I asked about the reason for it. He replied, "I abused a person by calling his mother with bad names." The Prophet said to me, 'O Abu Dhar! Did you abuse him by calling his mother with bad names? You still have some characteristics of ignorance. Your slaves are your brothers and Allah has put them under your command. So whoever has a brother under his command should feed him of what he eats and dress him of what he wears. Do not ask them (slaves) to do things beyond their capacity (power) and if you do so, then help them.' "
Narrator: Abu Dhar Gifari (RA)
Abu Dhar Gifari (RA) is a famous Sahabi, who was fourth or fifth person to embrace Islam in Makkah and later on went back to his home place and performed dawah work there and finally migrated to Madinah. Since his migration was late so he could not participate in the battles of Badr, Uhud and Khandaq. There are many Ahaadith that speak for his praise. Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) said,
1."I have been ordered, by Allah, to love four persons among my companions." He was asked as to who were those four?,he said, "Ali , Abu Dhar, Salman and Al-Miqdad."
2."May Allah bless Abu Dhar, he walks alone, will die alone and will be resurrected alone."
In last days of his life he went to a place called Ar Rabdha, he advised his wife that she should keep his body outside the house after giving him Gusul and Kafan when he breathes his last and tell whosoever passes first by that side, that it is the body of Abu Dhar. His wife did the same and first to pass by that side was Ibne Masood along with some of his companions. His wife told Ibne Masood that it was the body of Abu Dhar. On hearing this tears rolled down the eyes of Ibne Masood and he said, "May Allah bless Abu Dhar, he walks alone, will die alone and will be resurrected alone."
Then Ibne Masood offerred his Janazah and buried him, may Allah be pleased with him and raise his rank.
Ar-Rabadha is a place three Manzils from Madinah. Al Marur says that once he met Abu Dhar at Ar-Rabadha and saw him and his servant wearing the same type of cloak. Al Marur asked him the reason for the same. Abu Dhar narrated to him an incident that one day he called his one of the servants with bad names regarding his mother, calling him, O son of a black women. Probably this man was Hadhrat Bilal and some say that he was Hadhrat Ammaar bin Yasir. Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) heard it and he called Abu Dhar and asked him if he had called his servant with bad names regarding his mother. Abu Dhar admitted of having done so, Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) said to Abu Dhar that he was a person still possessing some characteristics of the days of ignorance (Jahiliya). Calling some one with bad names is, of course a sign of ignorance. Islam insists on development of good morals of high standard for its believers, that is why Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) admonished Abu Dhar on this issue. This Hadith clearly indicates that even those people who are having very high degree of faith still need someone as their teacher who can pin point their weaknesses, since one cannot know his own weak points. We know that Abu Dhar was having very high degree of faith but still was not able to know his weak point of having some sort of wrath and anger existing in his inner self.
Islam and Human Equality
This is a great teaching of Islam that teaches human equality. Islam teaches that all human beings have descended from single parent, and hence are equal. No one gets preference over others on the basis of caste, colour or creed. Superiority in Islam is based only on the degree of faith and piousness. Rich or poor, master or slave, ruler or ruled are all temporary phases of this world which have been created by Allah just to test the man as to how he behaves in a particular given position. So, man should always think that whatever status, rich or poor, ruler or ruled, has been given to him is just to test him. So, a rich man has no reason to feel proud and a poor man no reason to feel dejected. If someone has been made master to other, he should respect his slave from his heart thinking that this slave may be more dearer to Allah than him and can have higher rank in the Hereafter.
So whoever has a brother under his command should feed him with what he eats himself and dress him as himself. Do not ask them (slaves) to do things beyond their capacity (power) and if you do so, then help them.
This is unparallel teaching of Islam, pious Muslims have always upheld this teaching. Abu Dhar put this teaching of his teacher into practice till his death, as is evident from this Hadith that he and his slave was wearing the same type of cloak. Ulema say that it is Mustahab in terms of Shari'ah to provide with same thing to your servant what you like for yourself.
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Chapter:"If two parties among the Believers fall into a quarrel make ye peace between them:"(49:9)
and He Labelled them as believers.
Note: In some copies of Bukhari this Verse and this Hadith no. 30 is mentioned with previous chapter that is" ‚?‚é ? žŸ˜?”¤ Ÿ ?ŸŽ ? ž‡?¦ž¤¦ and in some it is mentioned as a separate chapter along with the Hadith.
Purpose of Tarjamat ul Baab:
This verse also goes in favour of the view that Kufr has many grades and that some deeds are like Kufr but are not Kufr in actual. Allah Ta'ala called those people as believers who fought with each other, otherwise, as per Hadith, we know that to fight each other (Muslims) is Kufr .
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Narrated by Al Ahnaf bin Qais
While I was going to help this man ('Ali Ibn Abi Talib), Abu Bakarah met me and asked, "Where are you going?" I replied, "I am going to help that person." He said, "Go back for I have heard Allah's Apostle saying, 'When two Muslims fight (meet) each other with their swords, both the murderer as well as the murdered will go to the Hell-fire.' I said, 'O Allah's Apostle! It is all right for the murderer but what about the murdered one?' Allah's Apostle replied, "He surely had the intention to kill his companion."
Narrator: Al Ahnaf bin Qais
He found the period of Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) but did not meet him, Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) had made Dua for him in his absentia. He was very famous for his humility and died in 67 Hijra. May Allah be pleased with his soul.
Abu Bakarah (RA)
He is a famous Sahabi who embraced Islam during the time when the fort of Taa’if was being encircled by the Muslims and he escaped from the fort and joined the Muslims. Ibne Hajar says that he was from amongst the distinguished Sahaba. He died in 51 or 52 Hijra, May Allah be pleased with his soul.
Al Ahnaf bin Qais says that one day he was going to help Hadhrat Ali (RA) and he met Abu Bakarah on the way. This incident took place during the period of battle of Jamal. Abu Bakarah asked Ahnaf bin Qais as to where he was going?, Ahnaf told him that he was going to help his brother i.e., Hadhrat Ali. Abu Bakarah told Ahnaf to retreat back and told him a Hadith of Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam), .'When two Muslims fight (meet) each other with their swords, both the murderer as well as the murdered will go to the Hell-fire.' I said, 'O Allah's Apostle! It is all right for the murderer but what about the murdered one?' Allah's Apostle replied, "He surely had the intention to kill his companion."
If Muslims fight with one another, what should one do?
Sahaba and later learned scholars of Ummah have been of different opinion on this issue.
1.A good number of Sahaba which include Hadhrat Sa'd bin Abi Vaqqas , Hadhrat Abdullah bin Umar (RA) , Hadhrat Abu Bakarah, Hadhrat Abu Sa'eed Khudri and Hadhrat Imran bin Hassain are of the opinion that in such situation one should isolate oneself fully and should not participate in these mutual fights of Muslims at any cost.
2.Some are of the opinion that one should migrate from that place.
3.Majority of Sahabah and Tabaeen are of the opinion that, if just and unjust is not known then remaining aloof is better but if it is clearly known as to who is right and who is wrong then one should help the right one and try to stop one who doing injustice, as Allah says:"If two parties among the Believers fall into a quarrel make ye peace between them: but if one of them transgresses beyond bounds against the other then fight ye (all) against the one that transgresses until it complies with the command of Allah;" (49:9)
The learned scholars of Islam have always been of the opinion that one should never pass any bad remark against any Sahabi and should never have any bad opinion about any of the Sahaba as all of them have been given certificate of being just and that Allah is pleased with all of them. "Allah well pleased with them and they with Him" (98:8)
There is consensus amongst Ulema of Ahle Sunnah Wal Jama'a that one should remain silent about those differences amongst the Sahabah which led to the wars like that of Jamal and Sufaiyn as it is very difficult for us to imagine the status and sincerity of Sahabah. All of them were extremely sincere, there were some misunderstandings created by some mischievous elements which led to all this.
"It is all right for the murderer but what about the murdered one?' Allah's Apostle replied, "He surely had the intention to kill his companion."
From this Hadith it seems that one would get punishment even for bad intention even if he has not committed that bad deed. Allah says in the Qur'an: 'On no soul doth Allah place a burden greater than it can bear. (2:286)
A Hadith of Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) says that when a believer intends some good deed, one Thawab is written for him even if he does not do that good deed and if one intends to do a sin, it is not written unless and until he commits that sin. But this Hadith says that 'When two Muslims fight (meet) each other with their swords, both the murderer as well as the murdered will go to the Hell-fire' because both have intention to kill the other one. Does that mean that one will be punished for his bad intention even if he does not commit that sin?
Here we have to understand few terms:
1.Haajis: This is the first grade of intention, it means that some idea came to mind and left immediately.
2.Khaatir: It is the second grade, it means that some idea came to mind and stayed for some time but mind could not decide whether to do that deed or not.
3.Hadith-i-Nafs: It is the third grade, it means that an idea came, stayed there but mind remained in the state of confusion whether to do that or not.
4. Hum: It is the fourth grade; In this there is tendency towards doing or not doing but there is no firmness in decision.
5. Azam: It is the last grade of intention in which there is not only tendency of doing the deed but there is also firmness in the decision, it is this grade of intention which will be punishable and the first four grades are forgiven (Allah knows the best).
Hadhrat Sheikh-ut-Tafseer Mawlana Idris Kandhlawi (RA)
Humans will remain in the Aalam-e-Barzakh from the time of their death until resurrection. As Allah Ta'ala says: "And ahead of them is Barzakh, until the Day of resurrection." This is also known as Aalam-e-Qabr. It is Fardh to bring faith in this.
AQEEDAH # 1
The questioning in the grave by Munkar and Nakeer (two angels) for the believers and non-believers is Haqq. When we say 'Qabr' (grave), we do not mean the hole wherein the body was buried, it refers to Aalam-e-Bazakh. This is a realm between the life in this world and the Hereafter. This is in a way similar to the life in this world and in a way similar to the Hereafter. A person's personal deeds are discontinued in this realm, but the du'aas and acts of charity on behalf of the deceased by the living will benefit the dead. The du'aas of well-wishers will result in one's sins being forgiven and this person will rise on the Day of Qiyaamah pure and clean from sins. 'Barzakh' in the name given to that thing which acts as a barrier between two things. According to the Shariah, 'Barzakh' is that realm which lies between the life on earth and the Hereafter. Allah Ta 'ala has spread out a realm before that of Qiyaamah, which is known as 'Barzakh'. This area is much more wider and vast than this world. Here the effects of obedience, disobedience, Imaan and kufr can be seen with the eyes. The actual effects and punishments for sin and disobedience will be experienced after the reckoning on the Day of Qiyaamah, but in this realm the scorpions, snakes, etc. will serve as examples of what is to follow. When a person reaches the Aalam-e-Barzakh, then the first thing that will take place is the questioning of Munkar and Nakeer. This happens as soon as the people who have buried the deceased move away from the grave site. The soul of the person is returned to the body and the two angels that are deputed by Allah Ta'ala come to the person and question him/her. They ask him: "Who is your Rabb? What is your Deen? What do you say regarding this person (Muhammad - Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam)?"
If the deceased is a Muslim, he will reply: "My Rabb is Allah! My Deen is Islam! This person is Muhammad Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam), who is Allah Ta'ala's true Messenger!
The angels will ask him as to how he came by this knowledge. He will reply that he has read the Kitaab of Allah Ta'ala (Qur'an Majeed) and has accepted it.
Then there will be a voice from the heavens saying: "MY servant has spoken the truth. Open for him the doors of Jannat!" Then a door from Jannat will be opened for him, and a cool breeze and fragrance will emanate there from.
If the deceased is a Kaafir or a Munaafiq (hypocrite), then he will exclaim: "Ohh, Ohh, I do not know!" He will then be struck with an iron rod and the angels will open for him a door into Jahannum. [Abu Dawood ]
1. The Nabis will not be questioned in the grave. So too, will the martyrs and Muslim children not be questioned in the grave. It is reported in some Ahaadith that the person who dies on the night of Friday (Thursday night) or the day of Friday, or if he dies due to the illness of wanting to drink excess water, then such persons will not be questioned in their graves.
2. The reward and punishments in the grave will not be like that of this world, where it can be seen with the eyes. That is a different realm. Just like when Hadhrat Jibraeel (Alaihi Salaam) used to come to Nabi (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam), no one could see him besides Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam). The eyes of this world are not suited to see the scorpions and snakes of the grave. Seeing them is dependant on the Desire and Will of Allah Ta'ala. If something is right in the front of one, and if Allah does not wish one to see it, then who is there that can make one see it?
AQEEDAH # 2
The dead believers are benefited by the du'aas and acts of charity made on his behalf by the living Muslims. If a believer is involved in getting punishment in his grave, then the du'aas, etc. of the living will assist in lightening this punishment. If he is not being punished, then his stages will be raised.
The acts of charity done on behalf of the deceased benefit him just like how it benefits a living person. There are many Ahadith reported by single narrators that confirm this. The Muhadditheen are in agreement with this that the Ahadith which are reported by one single narrator, but there are many like this, then that Hadith will reach the stage of being Mutawaatir, i.e. it will be a strong Hadith.
Only the Mu'tazilas are in, disagreement with this, and they. say that only a person's own deeds benefit or harm him.
NOTE: Muslim deceased benefit from the du' aas and acts of charity of Muslim living. This does NOT apply to dead Kuffaar. The punishments of the Kuffaar will not be lightened in any way. "The punishment will not be lightened for them and they will not be helped."
AQAA'ID RELATED TO THE SIGNS OF QIYAAMAH
It is confirmed in the Qur'an Majeed, the Ahadith, in the Shariah of all the Nabis, according to the consensus of all the Sahaabah, Tabaeen and Ulema of the past, that this world will one day be terminated and will come to an end by the blowing of the Trumpet by Hadhrat Israfeel (Alaihi salaam). The mere blowing of this Trumpet will rent the world and skies asunder. After a period of forty years again this Trumpet will be blown and every person will come back into existence.
The first blowing is known as "Nafkha-e-Amaatat" (blowing of death), and the second blowing is known as "Nafkha-a-Ahyaa" (blowing of life).
This disintegration of all life at the first blowing of the Trumpet and then for all to be once again given life and gathered is known as 'Qiyaamah'. The reason for this second giving of life is so that those who were guided by the teachings of the Nabis, will be rewarded and recompensed. And so that those who ignored, these teachings, may be punished. And also so that the oppressed may get 'revenge' from the oppressors.
When a person wants to present a case in a court, then one may get this opportunity to do so in two to four months time (in other words it will be done after a while at a specified time). Qiyaamah is the time specified for the entire creation to present their case in Allah Ta'ala's Court. Understand this well and prepare yourself!
That All-Knowing, Most Powerful Allah Ta'ala, Who in His All Encompassing Knowledge and Complete Power is able to sustain and feed the entire universe's creations, the humans, animals, fish, ants, etc., etc., at one time, without an iota of error, can surely bring the entire creation to give reckoning at one and the same time, without any flaw.
For The Most Powerful Creator to bring everyone to reckoning at same is not as difficult as it may be to create all of them (even their creation is no effort for Allah Ta'ala!). the only difference is that the creation of Allah Ta'ala is before our eyes and can be seen, hence none can deny their existence. But, the Day of Qiyaamah, is hidden from our sight, therefore the atheists, etc. deny its occurrence.
It is not a sign of intelligence that one has to (forcefully) accept whatever one hears about and then sees it, and to reject what cannot see. It is the way of the ignorant to deny the existence of whatever the eye cannot see.
The Qur'an and Hadith are full of signs and warnings of this occurrence, and to bring faith in this is Fardh. Allah Ta'ala has not informed anyone of the exact time of the Day of Qiyaamah, but has, however, told us through the Nabis about the signs of its imminence.
Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam), the seal of all Nabis, has informed us and prophesied through Wahi (Divine revelation), the many events that are to occur just prior to Qiyaamah. He has warned and informed the Ummah totally, regarding the signs of Qiyaamah. There are two types of signs to Qiyaamah; the minor signs and major signs.
THE MINOR SIGNS
The minor signs of Qiyaamah are those which began from the time the demise of Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) and will terminate with the birth of Imam Mahdi (Alaihi alaam).
The major signs of Qiyaamah are those that will begin from the emergence of Imaam Mahdi (alaihi salaam) and end with the blowing of the Trumpet.
DISCUSSION REGARDING THE MINOR SIGNS OF QIYAAMAH
1. People of low status and faasiqs (evil doers) will become the leaders of their tribes.
2. Modesty and shame will become non-existent.
3. Oppression and tyranny will become rampant, etc. , etc.
Like these there are also many other signs of Qiyaamah, that are reported in the Ahaadith Shareef. They are all true and will occur. Most of them have already become apparent, and will do so as time goes on. We will now discuss the major signs of Qiyaamah, that will take place very close to the onset of Qiyaamah.
DISCUSSION ON THE MAJOR SIGNS OF QIYAAMAH
In the previous pages we had briefly discussed the minor signs Qiyaamah. For more details on this topic one may refer to the Ahaadith Kitaabs. We will now discuss those major signs of Qiyaamah that Rasulullaah (sallAllaahu alaihi wasallam) had said will take place just prior to Qiyaamah, like Imaam Mahdi (alaihi salaam), the coming dajjaal, the descending of Hadhrat Isaa (alaihi salaam), Yajooj and Majooj, etc., etc. All these are known as 'Ashraat-e-Saa'a' (signs of the Final Hour). All these signs are the truth and it is necessary that we believe them. The atheists and non-believers, when they hear of the signs, then they either refute them outright or they present such interpretations and misrepresentations that the import and object is lost. They change the meaning and way the Sahaabah had understood it. Even if they believe in Imaam Mahdi, then they do so in a way that differs to what the Sahaabah has understood it. Remember well! All these signs are to be understood and accepted in the way taught by the Sahaabah and understood by the pious predecessors.
- ACCESSION TO THE CALPHATE
Maulana Shibli Numani
Expulsion of the Banu Nadir
In 4 AH, 'Umer accompanied the Prophet and Abu Bakr to the settlements of the Jewish clan, the Banu Nadir, to ask for a loan, needed to pay compensation due from two Muslims for whom the Prophet took responsibility. By the terms of their treaty with the Muslims, the Banu Nadir were bound to assist the Muslims. Not only did they not do so, they attempted, during this mission, to have the Prophet 'assassinated, they were forthwith ordered to leave the city, taking all their movable wealth with them except arms and armour. The Banu Nadir at first resisted the order. However, after a brief siege while they waited in vain for help from other Jews and the Quraysh, they complied. Many settled in Khaybar, where they also held extensive lands. From there, their nobles openly sent emissaries to the Quraysh and other tribes across the Peninsula to persuade them to make a joint (and final) attack on the Muslims. An army of 10,000 was assembled and put under the command of Abu Sufyan, who marched once more on Madina in Shawwal of the following year (5 AH).
The battle of Khandaq (the Trench)
The Prophet did not go out to engage this large army. Instead, he elected to defend Madina from within. He ordered a wide trench to he dug around the city, positioning distinguished Companions at various points along the lines to prevent any breach. This tactic, used for the first time in Arab warfare, wholly baffled the attackers. They maintained a siege and blockade against the city for a full month, attempting now and then to cross the trench. The position along the trench for which 'Umar was responsible is now marked by a mosque bearing his name.
The morale of the besiegers was gradually worn down. In single combat, their champions were invariably beater); the lines of defence they faced seemed impregnable; and their Jewish allies within the city proved untrustworthy, failing to come to their aid. In fact, Nu'aym b. Mas'ud, one of their trusted emissaries, having secretly converted to Islam, had very skillfully created mistrust between the Jews and the Quraysh. In the end, having achieved nothing at all, the Quraysh and their Arab allies had little choice but to withdraw.
The truce of Hudaybiya
Towards the end 'of Shawwal in the following year, the Prophet set out for Makka with about 1,400 Muslims, intending pilgrimage. As they neared Makka, they learnt that, contrary to established custom, the Quraysh were resolved to prevent the entry of the Muslim pilgrims. Taking a roundabout route, therefore, the Muslims halted just outside the city boundary at Hudaybiya. The Prophet asked 'Umar to go and negotiate the rights due to them from the guardians of the Kaba. 'Umar pointed out that the Quraysh were his bitter enemies and that there were none of his clan present in Makka to support him. At his suggestion, 'Uthman, several of whose relatives and friends were in Makka, was deputed instead.
Some days passed without the return of 'Uthman. The Muslims had to presume that the Quraysh had killed him. The Prophet made all the Muslims individually take an oath of allegiance by which they vowed to fight the unbelievers. 'Umar was already arming himself when he learnt of this and hastened to the Prophet to make his pledge.
This demonstration of absolute resolve must have inclined the Quraysh to reflect and, after reflection, to negotiate. The negotiations were both tense and protracted. Their outcome was a ten-year truce between the two parties.
According to the terms of Hudaybiya, normal contacts between the Muslims and the Quraysh and their respective allies were henceforth permitted and acts of war prohibited. However, the Muslims had to turn back from Makka, not being permitted to make the pilgrimage until the following year. Also, during the period of the truce, any associate of Quraysh who defected to the Muslim side must be returned to them, but any Muslim who defected to the Quraysh would not be returned. The apparent inequity of this arrangement incensed 'Umar, who felt that the Muslim side had been slighted. He discussed his feelings with Abu Bakr, who assured him that whatever the Prophet decided must be for the best. He then took his reservations directly to the Prophet:
'O Prophet of God, are you not the Messenger of God?'
'Without doubt I am.'
'Are not our enemies idol-worshipping polytheists?'
'Without doubt they are.'
'Why then should we suffer our religion to be humiliated?'
'I am God's Messenger and I do not act in contravention of His commands.'
'Umar could not have imagined that any convert to Islam would return to unbelief if retuned to the Quraysh. What troubled him, knowing well the arrogance of the idolaters, was that they could present the terms of Hudaybiya as a victory over Islam. He repented for the rest of his life that he had questioned the judgement of the Prophet and strove to expiate the sin by prayers and fasting, alms-giving and emancipating slaves. On the way back to Madina, the Prophet received revelation of sura al-Fath (Victory) and recited its verses to 'Umar and so eased his heart: 'We have opened wide for you the gates of victory...' (48.1) (Ibn IHajar, 7:560).
The renewal of normal contacts between the Muslims and the unbelievers provided, for the first time, an opportunity to present Islam in practice as well as precept, and without the background of belligerence more people accepted the faith in the next two years than had accepted it in the previous eighteen.
The battle of Khaybar
The terms of the truce did not embrace all the Arab tribes, and the same Jews who had instigated the failed battle of the Trench sought and found other allies than the Quraysh. In 6 AH they persuaded the Banu Sa'd to make war on the Muslims: this effort, too, failed. The Jews then allied with the dans of Ghatafan, whom they urged to the battlefield while themselves preparing war from behind the substantial towers and fortifications of their strongholds around Khaybar.
In 7 AH, the Prophet led out a force of 1,600 against Khaybar. Abu Bakr and 'Umar on separate occasions commanded valiant but unsuccessful assaults on the fortifications. A breach, and decisive victory, were finally achieved by AIL The Prophet distributed the lands of Khaybar among those who had fought in the battle. 'Umar set aside his share as a waqf or charitable endowment-the first such endowment in Islamic history.
The conquest of Makka
Two feuding tribes, Khuza'a and Bakr, had stopped fighting under the terms of Hudaybiya. In the year 8 AH, the Banu Bakr, allies of the Quraysh, re-opened hostilities. The Quraysh abetted them in their war to the extent of even harrying Khuzaa refugees who sought sanctuary in the precincts of the Kaba. Since the Banu Kbuza'a were under the protection of the Muslims, the Quraysh realized that they had broken the terms of Hudaybiya. Abu Sufyan travelled in person to Madina to plead with the Prophet to renew the treaty. The Prophet listened to him but gave no answer. Abu Sufyan then appealed to others including Abu Bakr and 'Umar. The latter cut his plea short with stern implacability.
The Prophet made swift preparations to march on Makka. He set out in Ramadan at the head of a force of 10,000, making a halt a little way from the city. 'Abbas, who had been sent on ahead to offer terms, met with Abu Sufyan and persuaded him to accompany him back to the Prophet where he, 'Abbas, would plead for him. 'Umar saw the two approach and, guessing 'Abbas' purpose, asked the Prophet's leave to 'behead this enemy who has after so long fallen into our hands' (Ibn Hisham, 4:45). But the Prophet granted Abu Sufyan his life, entered Makka unopposed and extended amnesty to all his former enemies. Inside Makka, he climbed the mount of Safa and delivered a magnificent, moving speech that enabled bitter enemies to become reconciled to each other within the embrace of Islam. The people came in throngs to swear allegiance to him. The idols in the Ka'ba were destroyed.
The battle of Hunayn
The Hawazin were a numerous and wealthy tribe, settled mostly to the east and south of Makka. They were related and allied to the Thaqif, who were the guardians of the shrine to the goddess al-Lat in the fertile and temperate city of Ta'if. The woman who had been a foster-mother to the Prophet when he was an infant came from a sub-clan of Hawazin, the Banu Sa'd b. Bakr. In spite of this connection, all the clans of Hawazin were hostile to Islam and observed the Muslims' growing strength with jealous alarm. Perhaps because they mistakenly supposed that the Muslims' march south from Madina was directed at them, perhaps for some other motive, the Hawazin had assembled a large, offensive force even before the conquest of Makka. The willingness with which about 2000 Makkans joined the 10,000 strong Muslim force implies that they saw the Hawazin preparations as an opportunistic venture to take Makka.
The Muslims marched southwards from Makka to face the Hawazin who awaited them in the valley of Hunayn and in the ravines bordering it. After initial success when, once again, some Muslims were distracted into gathering spoils, the Muslims were caught in a well-prepared ambush and caused to retreat in considerable disorder, suffering heavy losses. 'Umar was prominent among the Emigrants who remained steadfast beside the Prophet, as did the Prophet's Makkan kinsmen, Abu Sufyan among them, so recently his bitter enemies. Eventually, the sheer authority of the Prophet's being among the Muslims rallied them and they fought back vigorously. A defeat was, quite incredibly, turned into a victory. The Qur'an (9.25-6) refers explicitly to this battle:
God has given you victory on many fields and on the day of Hunayn when you exulted in your great numbers but they were of no avail to you and the earth, though so spacious, was made narrow for you, and you turned back in flight! Then God sent down His peace upon His Messenger and upon the believers, and sent down hosts you could not see, and punished the unbelievers.
In terms of scale, this was certainly the Muslims' greatest victory so far as many as 6,000 prisoners were taken.
Following a brief campaign against Ta'if, the Prophet returned to Madina: he had promised the Ansar that Madina was to be his city, not (as they feared) Makka.
Epistles; battle of Mu'ta; expedition to Tabuk
In the year 6 AH, the Prophet had conveyed to neighbouring rulers and kings written letters inviting them to accept Islam, His emissary to the Persian court was treated with great arrogance. The Persian Emperor regarded all Arabs as his vassals. Outraged at being offered advice by 'a slave', he tore up the Prophet's letter and issued an order to his governor in Yemen that the Prophet should be arrested arid brought to the imperial court. However, shortly thereafter, the Emperor was murdered by his son and no attempt was made to carry out this threat.
The Prophet's emissary to Heraclius, the Roman emperor, was waylaid, abused, and robbed on his return journey, in the territory of the Syrian Arab tribe Jadham. The emissary to the territory of Basra was also put to death. In all, some fifteen of the Prophet's emissaries were killed by tribesmen belonging to the Ghassan tribe or their associates and allied clans. To check these abuses, the Prophet in 8 AH sent out an army of about 3,000 against them, no doubt aware that they could at any time call on the armies of their patrons, the Romans. On the march, the Muslims became aware that the Arabs had indeed been reinforced in strength by regular troops of the Roman army. Nevertheless, they pressed on towards the Dead Sea, where, against overwhelming odds, they faced annihilation. Three of the closest and most distinguished of the Prophet's Companions were slain: Zaydh. Harith, Ja'far Tayyar and Abdullah h. Rawaha. When command passed to Khalid b. al-Walid, now a believer, the Muslims were able to organize and effect a retreat with few further losses. After this, the battle of Mu'ta, Khalid was honoured with the title (SaifulIah) 'Sword of God'.
The threat from the Ghassanis and their allies persisted. Indeed, a rumour spread among the Muslims that the Roman emperor, following successful campaigns against the Persians in Syria and Palestine, was preparing an invasion of Arabia. The Muslims had witnessed at Mu'ta the organization and depth of power in men and equipment of the Roman forces. The Prophet urged the believers to provide and equip an army capable of responding to this danger. Most of the Companions who had means contributed large sums of money, 'Umar donating no less than half of all his wealth. In 9 AH, the Prophet marched the Muslims out at great speed in the hottest season of the year. At Tabuk, they awaited the Roman invasion: it never came possibly the Romans had been deterred by the demonstration of resolve and discipline, or the rumour of invasion had been ill-founded.
The Prophet's farewell pilgrimage
In the following year (10 AH), the Prophet received deputations from all parts of Arabia and people embraced Islam in their thousands. Also in this year, the Prophet made his last pilgrimage to the House of God in Makka. For the first time in centuries, only God was worshipped at this shrine, according to the tradition of Abraham. During the rites at 'Arafat, the Prophet delivered his last sermon, urging the Muslims to unity, equality, and brotherhood, to hold fast to the Qur'an and his example, and to secure each other's rights.
The Prophet's illness and death
The Prophet completed preparations for a military expedition against the Romans in the month of Safar, 11 AH, and appointed the very young Usama, son of Zayd b. Harith who was killed at Mu'ta, to command it. However, this expedition had to he postponed when the Prophet fell ill. He suffered an intense but intermittent fever. Sometimes he was too unwell to attend prayers in the mosque-he indicated that Abu bakr was to take his place and lead the worshippers. At other times, including the very morning of his death, he was well enough to watch the people at prayer his profound contentment at this sight was reflected on his face.
The Prophet's illness lasted some thirteen days in all, during which time, when well enough, he was often able to summon his close Companions to console and counsel them. Only two days before his death, he had recovered sufficiently for Abu Bakr to return to his home, two miles from Madina. 'Umar was near the Prophet up to his last moments.
The Prophet died at about midday on Monday, 12 Rabi'I Avval, in the apartment of his beloved wife, 'Aisha. He was buried in the same place a little after noon on the next day. The most widely accepted tradition is that 'Umar could not bear, and therefore would not believe, news of the Prophet's death. He is reported to have gone to the Mosque and threatened to slay anyone who said that the Prophet was dead.
'Umar will have understood better than most what the implications of the event were. It meant that the Muslims must now carry the responsibilities of Islam without the support of direct Divine guidance if a new situation arose, and a new situation would arise. It meant that, in a rapidly expanding community, unity and equity and justice must somehow be maintained between individuals and tribes without the arbitration of a man whose judgment was informed and supported from the Unseen. Bearing in mind also 'Umar's moments of near paralysis at Uhud and given that his intense love for the Prophet might not, for a few moments at least, allow him to endure the certainty of separation, it is possible that he did make such a threat.
Another way to construe what 'Umar is reported to have said is not to regard it as an outburst but as a warning, from one whose opinion carried great weight. 'Umar may have feared that those whose allegiance to Islam was shallow or even false could use the occasion of public disquiet and uncertainty to create disorder. Therefore, he forbade the news to be carelessly publicized until the question of where overall authority now rested had been settled.
The question of the succession
The potential for disorder and disunity was considerable. The issue of who was to carry the responsibility for the future of Islam and the Muslim community was urgent. While there were, no doubt, many individuals who might have desired power for its own sake, those who could be believed to seek that responsibility in order to serve Islam fell into three groups. There were, first, the Emigrants, of whom the most senior figures were Abu Bakr and 'Umar, and who could command the allegiance of the Quraysh tribe as a whole; second, the Ansar, the Muslims of Madina, who had supported the Prophet's mission from before the battle of Badr and whose spokesman was Sa'd b. Ubada, the chief of the Banu Sa'ida; third, the Banu Hashim, the Prophet's own clan, led by 'AIi, who was respected for his piety as well as his heroism on the battlefield and who enjoyed the distinction of being the father of the Prophet's beloved grandsons, Hasan and Husayn.
It could not be expected from the senior figures of any of these groups that they should indulge in personal lamentations for the Prophet when the future of the mission to which the Prophet had devoted his life might be jeopardized by their doing so. What is troubling is that any of them should have reflected upon the discharge of their responsibility separately from the others. Even before the Prophet's body had been buried, the Ansar gathered in the meeting-place of the Banu Sa'ida, and Zubayr, 'Abbas and others who supported Banu Hashim met with 'Ali in the house of his wife, Fatima, the Prophet's daughter.
Different narratives of the events in the traditions give different perspectives, further complicated by looking back upon those narratives through the troubled history that followed them. Here, it is only fitting to give special place to !he perspective of 'Umar, insofar as records of it are available.
Abu Bakr hastened, as soon as the news reached him, to the apartment of his daughter Aisha. 'Umar was already there or was admitted subsequently. According to the account in the Musnad of Abu Ya'la, a man called from outside asking 'Umar to come to him. 'Umar asked to be left in peace as they were busy in making arrangements for the Prophet's funeral. On the man's insistence 'Umar did go out and learnt that the Ansar were gathering in force at the hall of the Banu Sa'ida. Lest the Ansar should do something that might lead to war, 'Umar persuaded Abu Bakr to accompany him to their gathering. Other senior Emigrants also attended (Ibn Hajar, 7:36).
There, they duly acknowledged the very great sacrifices that the Ansar had made for the cause of Islam but explained also that there were now many and diverse Arab tribes who had embraced Islam and who, for generations past, had not accepted the pre-eminence of any tribe except the Quraysh. Likewise, the Quraysh as a whole would not suffer to be led by anyone from the Ansari tribes. Thus, if the Ansar claimed to succeed to the authority of the Prophet there was bound to be disunity. 'Umar then praised Abu Bakr, whom the Prophet himself had chosen to accompany him in his Emigration from Makka and whom he had appointed to lead them all in prayer. Who would consent to pray behind any other person if Abu Bakr was one of the assembly? Finally, 'Umar put his hand in the hand of Abu Bakr and swore allegiance to him, other senior Emigrants followed his example and then the Ansar likewise.
The narrative of these events as recorded in Bukhari, where it is attributed to 'Umar himself, very particularly notes the threat of political factionalism at this time, with the Ansar and Ali, Zubayr and their followers forming two distinct groups so that, thereafter, the Emigrants formed a third (Bukhari, 8:541).
Though 'Ali was profoundly saddened by the way that the election of Abu Bakr had been presented to him, namely as a fait accompli, eventually he too was reconciled to it. Following his decision to accept Abu Bakr, others of the Banu Hashim and their supporters acquiesced also. For the time at least, 'Umar's forceful and decisive conduct had prevented discord.
Abu Bakr and the succession of 'Umar
The rule of Abu Bakr lasted just two years and three months (10-12 AH). These years were marked by campaigns against apostates and false 'prophets', .and the launch of expeditions, as intended by the Prophet before his death, in the direction
Abu Bakr was certain in his own mind that he wished 'Umar to succeed him. However, he consulted with senior figures before making his choice known. No one doubted that 'Umar was the most ab1e man for the task. However, several of those consulted expressed the reservation that 'Umar's severity of temperament might cause conflict. Abu Bakr argued that the perceived severity of 'Umar was a proper counterbalance to the perceived gentleness of his own style, and that, once in office, they would find 'Umar's manner much changed. A document of testament was duly prepared and read out in public. Abu Bakr then asked the assembly if they accepted his nomination of 'Umar. They did.
Abu Bakr died in the month of Jumada II in 13 AH. Before his death, he called 'Umar to him and offered him much impressive and valuable advice to serve him in the discharge of his responsibilities as Caliph. At one time one of the chief persecutors of the believers, 'Umar had now become their supreme commander.
Live Like Brothers Deal like Strangers
Justice Mufti Mohammad Taqi Usmani Sahib
This short treatise, "LIVE LIKE BROTHERS — DEAL LIKE STRANGERS" is a translation of an article by Mufti Muhammad Taqi Uthmani Saheb (mudda Zilluhu). The original article titled "Mua'malaat Ki Safai' Aur Tanazu'aat" was published in the July-94 issue of the monthly urdu magazine Al-Balaagh. The basic lesson expounded in this article is the total clarification of all our transactions and monetary matters. Mufti Muhammad Taqi Saheb, in his capacity as a judge of the Shariah court, has immense experience in these matters. In the light of this experience Mufti Saheb has vividly described the common problems that repeatedly occur in our dealings — and he has given practical solutions to these problems.
While the article perhaps may have been written in the light of what is prevalent in Pakistan, the situation is exactly the same in our own society. Initially, on the pretext of "friendship" and an "excellent mutual understanding" between people, many things are taken for granted, without any proper clarification of the finer details. Later on, even though the cracks in the "excellent understanding" become apparent, no one is prepared to take the courage and sort out the matters. This situation continues to travel on the bumpy road ahead, until it finally crashes, bringing in its wake much misery, ill-feelings and utter chaos. The resultant problems are then sometimes unsolvable.
It is thus extremely important that we take the advice contained in this booklet seriously and implement it in our dealings. It will save us tremendous misery and grief in the future.
May Allah Ta'ala accept this humble translation. May He grant Hazrat Mufti Saheb a long life and good health. Aameen.
19 Safar 1417 6 July 1996
"LIVE LIKE BROTHERS. DEAL LIKE STRANGERS"
If one wishes to have a vague idea of the amount of disputes that occur in the community, one will get a glimpse of this from the number of cases that come to the courts on a daily basis. However, due to the high costs and the time involved in bringing up a case, the majority of disputes don't even come to the courts. The disputing parties instead try to grab whatever they can from each other, thus causing further enmity. This enmity sometimes reaches to such an extent that it continues for generations.
If one gets to the root of these disputes, one would find that they basically revolve around money and property. Disputes arising from money and property matters have destroyed many close relationships and have transformed many close friends into arch enemies.
While there are various underlying reasons for this pathetic state of affairs, perhaps among the greatest reasons is not having our financial matters absolutely clear and in order.
One golden rule that our Deen teaches us is: "LIVE LIKE BROTHERS. DEAL LIKE STRANGERS".
What this means is that with regards to our social lives, we should treat one another like brothers. As far as possible, we should assist one another and overlook one another's shortcomings. However, when it comes to money matters, or aspects pertaining to property or partnerships, or the distribution of shares, etc., one should conduct these matters in the manner that two total strangers would conduct themselves. Like two strangers would absolutely clarify the minutest detail, similarly we should conduct our transactions to the same degree of clarity and leave no ambiguity whatsoever. Neither should anything be left totally in the dark, nor should anything be left even minutely unclear.
If this golden advice of our Deen is adhered to during times of unity and good relationships, the door to many future disputes and problems will be completely closed. However, this golden rule is terribly ignored in most instances. Some examples of this follow hereunder.
Often several brothers are partners in the same business. At times the father and son/s are in the business together. Without any records being kept, all the "partners" take their expenses from the business and spend as they wish. Nevertheless, the position of each person in the business is not clearly determined. For example, is the son or brother merely an employee in the business, or is he a partner? If he is an employee, what is his salary? If he is a partner, what is his percentage share of the profits? Without any of these aspects being clarified, each one draws from the business as he pleases. If anyone dares to suggest that these aspects need to be clarified, his suggestion is frowned upon. This suggestion is regarded as contrary to the dictates of mutual love and unity.
However, experience has proved time and time again that the end result of such businesses is that it breeds contempt and enmity in the hearts. Especially when a wedding takes place in the family of one of the partners, the other partner feels that his rights are being trampled upon, since his associate has taken much more from the business than what he was entitled to. While on the surface a front of love and unity is displayed, from within the flames of ill-feelings are kindled. Finally when these ill-feelings become coupled with suspicions, the "partnership" explodes like an angry volcano and all the claims of love and unity are left bare. Arguments, verbal abuse of each other and costly court cases become the order of the day. Brothers stop talking to each other. Rather, they cannot even then bear to look at one another. As far as the business etc. is concerned, whatever portion each partner can grab, he does so. Justice and fair dealing become the first victims in this entire saga. The matter then goes further with each of the partners running the other down among their own circle of friends.
Besides the above, since this "partnership" ran for years without any proper agreement, nor were proper records of the personal drawings, etc., maintained, it becomes almost impossible to find an amicable solution which is agreeable to all the partners. All this chaos ensued as a result of not treating a business matter strictly as such from the very inception of the business, or at the time of the different partners joining the business. If each person's position in the business was established from the very inception , his rights and duties were spelt out, and all this was recorded in a partnership agreement, such problems and complications would have been uprooted from the beginning.
In the longest aayah of the Qur'an, Allah Ta'ala has commanded the Muslims to write down the details of any credit transaction. If a small amount that has been taken on credit must also be written down, how much more important is it that complex business agreements should be reduced to writing. This command has been handed down simply for the same reason that such problems may be avoided or, if somehow a problem does crop up, it would be possible to easily solve the matter in a fair and just manner.
Therefore, if more than one person works in the same business, it should be established from the first instance as to what each one's position in the business is. If a son has joined his father in the business, it must be established from the very first day as to whether he is merely helping his father as a favour to him, or whether he is an employee, or has he come in as a partner? If he is just an employee, his salary must be clearly stipulated. It must also be clearly mentioned that the son in this case has no share whatsoever in the ownership of the business. If he is being made a partner, firstly it is a condition that he invests something into the business. If the son does not have any capital of his own to invest, the father could give him an amount as a gift. He would then invest this amount into the business and purchase a share therein. All these matters should be reduced to writing in the form of a partnership agreement. The share of profits that each partner would be entitled to should also be explicitly mentioned so that there is no problem later on.
Furthermore, if any of the partners will be doing more work than the other, it should be established as to whether he would be doing this extra work on a voluntary basis, or will he be compensated for the extra work. If he will be compensated, will it be in the form of an increased share in the profits, or will it be in the form of a specific amount of salary? In short, every aspect pertaining to the duties and rights of each partner must be clearly written down so that no ambiguity remains.
If these aspects have not yet been determined and clarified in any business, it should be done as a matter of absolute urgency. Neither should any shyness or embarrassment of any sort become an obstacle, nor should one be concerned of any taunts or criticism in this regard. It is a great deception to regard the clarifying of our monetary matters as contrary to love and unity. Rather, the maintaining of love and unity is totally dependant on this clarification. Failure to do so could result in this superficial love and unity becoming a means of enmity and hatred in the future. Therefore it is a teaching of our beautiful Been that: "LIVE LIKE BROTHERS. DEAL LIKE STRANGERS".
Another situation which affects many people in our community, especially the middle class, is the acquisition of a home. In many instances the house is built or purchased jointly by several members of the family. If the father has commenced the building of a house, the sons also contribute from their personal incomes to the extent of their ability. However, in most of these instances these contributions are made without considering any of the resultant factors, and often without any proper records being kept. It is not determined whether the amount that the son has contributed is a gift to the father or a loan to him, or is he becoming a proportionate shareholder in the home. If he has given the money as a gift to the father, neither will he own any share in the house nor will he have the right to demand the repayment of his contributions. If it was a loan, the home will still belong solely to the father but the father will be indebted to him for the sum that he contributed. In the third case he will become a proportionate shareholder in the home. Thus as the value of the house increases, the value of his share will likewise increase. Hence each case has its own resultant effect which differs greatly from the other situations. However, since these factors were not considered prior to the contributions being made, nor were proper records kept, the end result is serious problems. When the value of the house increases, it becomes a matter of severe contention. This situation becomes a means of serious dispute, especially at the time when the father passes away and his inheritance is now being distributed. The problem sometimes becomes unsolvable and the entire family is adversely affected.1
However, if the golden teaching of our Deen was adhered to, and all the matters were clarified right from the very inception and properly recorded, this chaos affecting the entire family would have been avoided.
1. Like the acquisition of a house, perhaps a more common aspect in middle-class families is the purchasing of a car. The car is the name of only one person, put all contribute towards its payment. Here again, no clarity takes place as to the nature of the contributions which later results in problems. Thus here too the matter should be absolutely clarified. (Translator)
The third situation pertains to the winding up of the estate. When a person passes away, the Shariah requires that his estate must be immediately wound up and distributed among the Shar'i heirs. However, this is also severely neglected in our society. At times whatever each heir can take hold of, he simply usurps it. No consideration is given to halaal and haraam. In many instances there is no intention to deprive anyone from their right. Nevertheless, either due to ignorance or negligence, the inheritance is not distributed. If the deceased left behind a business, the son that worked in the business during the father's lifetime continues to run it. However, no clarification takes place as to what is the present position of the business? Nor is there any mention of how the other heirs will be paid out their shares, or which item of the estate will be given to which heir? Instead, if anyone even suggests that the estate should be distributed, his suggestion is regarded as extremely uncouth and it is immediately shot down with comments such as "Our father's kafan is not yet soiled and here he is worried about distributing the estate ".
However, this distribution is an order of the Shariah. The necessity of having our matters absolutely clear also requires that the estate should be speedily distributed. Ignoring this basic order also becomes a means of serious conflict. As time passes, the other heirs constantly remember their right in the estate which
3. At times one particular member of the family takes it upon himself to handle the winding up process. He alone knows what he is doing. Sometimes the months and years drag along and the other heirs are not even informed of what is happening. This creates much suspicion and ill-feeling which later explodes into severe conflicts and disputes. It is therefore necessary that all the heirs should sit down together as soon as possible and mutually decide as to how the winding-up process should be handled. All the heirs should then be regularly informed as to what progress has been made. (Translator)
they have not received as yet. They are grieved by this. Also, the value of the estate differs greatly compared to the time of the death of the father. Hence, since nothing was clarified, the matter now becomes complicated. To amicably resolve the complications becomes a difficult matter. As a result the matter finally becomes a means of disputes, quarrels, and fights.3
If in accordance to the command of the Shariah the estate was speedily wound-up and distributed and all the matters of the estate were mutually finalised, very little possibility would have existed for any conflict to arise. In fact, it would have become a means of greater love and unity among the family members.
The above are just three simple examples of problems that result from a lack of clarity in our dealings. In reality, not having our matters clear has become such a disease that has affected all sectors of our society and kindled the flames of fitnah and disputes. Whether the matter is big or small — it must be absolutely clear. No shyness or embarrassment or the consideration of any relationship must become an obstacle in clarifying the matter. Once the matter has been cleared and all the conditions, etc. determined, each one should be as kind and generous to the other as possible. This is the meaning of the golden rule:
"LIVE LIKE BROTHERS. DEAL LIKE STRANGERS".
Justice Maulana Mufti Mohammad Taqi Usmani
Financing of the working capital
Where finances are required for the working capital of a running business, the instrument of musharakah may be used in the following manner:
(1) The capital of the running business may be evaluated with mutual consent. It is already mentioned while discussing the traditional concept of musharakah that it is not necessary, according to Imam Malik, that the capital of musharakah is contributed in cash form. Non-liquid assets can also form part 'of the capital on the basis of evaluation. This view can be adopted here. In this-way, the value of the business can be treated as the investment of the person who seeks finance, while the amount given by the financier can be treated as his share of investment. The musharakah may be effected for a particular period, like one year or six months or less. Both the parties agree on a certain percentage of the profit to be given to the financier, which should not exceed the percentage. of his investment, because he shall not work for the business. On the expiry of the term, all liquid and non-liquid assets of the business are again evaluated, and the profit may be distributed on the basis of this evaluation.
Although, according to the traditional concept, the profit cannot be determined unless all the assets of the business are liquidated, yet the valuation of the assets can be treated as "constructive liquidation" with mutual consent of the parties, because there is no specific prohibition in Shari'ah against it. It can also mean that the working partner has purchased the share of the financier in the assets of the business, and the price of his share has been determined on the basis of valuation, keeping in view the ratio of profit allocated for him according to the terms of musharakah.
For example, the total value of the - business of A is 30 units. B finances another 20 units, raising the total worth to 50 units; 40% having been contributed by B, and 60% by A. It is agreed that B shall get 20% of the actual profit. At the end of the term, the total worth of the business has increased to 100 units. Now, if the share of B is purchased by A, he should have paid to him 40 units, because he owns 40% of the assets of the business. But in order to reflect the agreed ratio of profit in the price of his share, the formula of pricing will be different. Any increase in the: value of the business shall be divided between the parties in the ratio of 20% and 80%, because this ratio was, determined in the contract for the purpose of distribution of profit.
Since the increase in the value of the business is 50 units, these 50 units are divided at the ratio of 20-80, meaning thereby that 10 units will have-been earned by B. These 10 units will be added to his original 20 units, and the price of his share will be 30 units.
In the case of loss, however, any decrease in the total value of the assets should be divided between them exactly in the ratio of their <investment, i.e., in the ratio of 40/60. Therefore, if the value of the business- has decreased, in the above example, by 10 units reducing the total number of units to 40, the loss of 4 units shall be borne by B (being 40% of the loss). These 4 Units shall be deducted from his original 20 units, and the price of his share shall be determined as 16 units. Table 2 (see page 63) will explain the formula more clearly.
Sharing in the gross profit only
2. Financing on the basis of musharakah according to the above procedure may be difficult in a business having a large n umber of fixed assets, particularly in a running industry, because the .valuation of all its assets and their depreciation or appreciation may create accounting problems giving rise to disputes. In such cases, musharakah may be applied in another way.
The major difficulties in these cases arise in the calculation of indirect expenses, like depreciation of the machinery, salaries of the staff etc. In order to solve this problem, the parties may agree on the principle that, instead of net profit, the gross profit will be distributed between the parties, that is, the indirect expenses shall not be deducted from the distributable profit. It will mean that all the indirect expenses shall be borne by the industrialist voluntarily, and only direct expenses (like those of raw material, direct labour, electricity etc.) shall be borne by the musharakah. But since the industrialist is offering his machinery, building and staff to the musharakah voluntarily, the percentage of his profit may be increased to compensate him to some extent.
This arrangement may be justified on the ground that the clients of financial institutions do not restrict themselves to the operations for which they seek finance from the financial institutions. Their machinery and staff etc. is, therefore, engaged in some other business also which may not be subject to musharakah, and in such a case the whole cost of these expenses cannot be imposed on the mushdrakah.
Let us take a practical example. Suppose a ginning factory has a' building worth Rs. 22 million, plant and machinery valuing Rs. 2 million and the staff is paid Rs. 50,°.°0/- per month. The factory sought finance of Rs. 5,000,000/- from a bank on the basis of musharakah for a term of one year. It means that after one year the musharakah will be terminated, and the profits accrued upto that point will be distributed between the parties according to the agreed ratio. Whi1e determining the profit, all direct expenses will be deducted from the income. The direct expenses may include the following:
1. the amount spent in purchasing raw material.
2. the wages of the labour directly involved in processing the raw material.
3. the expenses for electricity consumed in the process of ginning
4. the bills for other services directly rendered for the musharakah
So far as the building, the machinery and the salary of other staff is concerned, it is' obvious that they are not meant for the business of the musharakah alone, because the musharakah will terminate within one year, while the building and the machinery are purchased for a much longer term in which the ginning factory will use them for its own business which is not subject to this one-year musharakah. Therefore, the whole cost of the building and the machinery cannot be borne by this short-term musharakah. What can be done at the most is that the depreciation caused to the building and the machinery during the term of the musharakah is included in its expenses. But in practical terms, it will be Very difficult to determine the cost of depreciation, and it may cause disputes also. Therefore, there are two practical ways to solve this problem.
In the first instance, the parties may agree that the musharakah portfolio will pay an agreed rent to the client for the use of the machinery and the building owned by him. This rent will be paid to him from the musharakah fund irrespective of profit or loss accruing to the business.
The second option' is that, instead of paying rent to' the client, the ratio of his profit is increased.
From the point of view of Shari'ah, it may be justified an the analogy of mudarabah in services which is allowed in the view of Imam Ahmad bin Hanbal
Running Musharakah Account
On the Basis of Daily Products
3. Many financial institutions finance the working capital of an enterprise by opening a running account far them from where the clients draw different amounts at different intervals, but at the same time, they keep returning their surplus amounts. Thus the process of debit and credit goes on upto the date of maturity and the interest is calculated on the basis of daily products.
Can such an arrangement be possible under the musharakah or mudarabah modes of financing? Obviously, being a new phenomenon, no' express answer to' this question can be found in the classical works of Islamic Fiqh. However, keeping in view the basic principles of musharakah the fallowing procedure may he suggested far this purpose.
(i) A certain percentage of the actual profit must be located far the management.
(ii)The remaining percentage of the profit must be allocated for the investors.
(iii)The loss, if any, should be borne by the investors only in exact proportion of their respective investments.
(iv)The average balance of the contributions made to the musharakah account calculated on the basis of daily products shall be treated as the share capital of the financier.
(v)The profit accruing at the end of the term shall be calculated on daily product basis, and shall be distributed accordingly.
If such an arrangement is agreed upon between the parties, it does not seem to violate any basic principle of the musharakah. However, this suggestion needs further consideration and research by the experts of Islamic jurisprudence. Practically, it means that the parties have agreed to the principle that the profit accrued to the musharakah portfolio at the end of the term will be divided on the capital utilized per day, which will lead to the average of the profit earned by each rupee per day. The amount of this average profit per rupee per day will be multiplied by the number of the days each investor has put his money into the business, which will determine his profit entitlement on daily product basis.
Some contemporary scholars do not allow this method of calculating profits on the ground that it is just a conjectural method which does not reflect the -actual profits really earned by a partner of the musharakah, because the business may have earned huge profits during a period when a particular investor had no money invested in the business at all, or had a very negligible amount invested, still, he will be treated at par with other investors who had huge amounts invested in the business during that period. Conversely, the business may have suffered a great loss during a period when a particular investor had huge amounts invested in it. Still, he will pass on some of his loss to other investors who had no investment in that period or their size of investment was negligible.
This argument can be refuted on the ground that it is not necessary in a m,usharakah that a partner should earn profit on his own money only. Once a musharakah pool comes into existence, the profits accruing to the joint pool are earned by all the participants, regardless of whether their money is or is not utilized in a particular transaction. This is particularly true of the Hanafi School which does not deem it necessary for a valid musharakah that the monetary contributions of the partners are mixed up together. It means that if A has entered into a musharakah contract with B, but has not yet disbursed his money into the joint pool, he will still be entitled to a share in the profit of the transactions effected by B for the musharakah through his own money. Although his entitlement to a share in the profit will be subject to the disbursement of money undertaken by him, yet the fact remains that the profit of this particular transaction did not accrue to his money, because the money disbursed by him at a later stage may be used for another transaction. Suppose, A and B entered into a musharakah to conduct a business of Rs. 100,000/- They agreed that each one of them shall contribute Rs. 50,000/- and the profits. will be distributed by them equally. A did not yet invest his Rs. 50,000/- into the joint pool. B found a profitable deal and purchased two airconditioners for the musharakah for Rs. 50,000/- contributed by himself and sold them for Rs.60,000/-, thus earning a profit of Rs. 10000/-. A contributed his share of Rs. 50,000/- after this deal. The partners purchased two refrigerators through this contribution which could not be sold at a greater price than Rs. 48000/- meaning thereby that this deal resulted in a loss of Rs. 2000/- Although the transaction effected by A's money brought loss of Rs. 2000/- while the profitable deal of air conditioners was financed entirely by B's money in which A had no contribution, yet A will be entitled to a share in the profit of the first deal. The loss of Rs. 2000/- in the second deal will be set off from the profit of the first deal reducing the aggregate profit to Rs. 8000/-. This profit of Rs. 8000/- will be shared by both partners equally. It means that A will get Rs. 4000/-, even though the transaction effected by his money has suffered loss.
The reason is that once a musharakah contract is entered into by the parties, all the subsequent transactions effected for musha-rakah belong to the joint pool, regardless of whose individual money is utilized in them. Each partner is a party to each transaction by virtue of his entering into the contract of musharakah.
A possible objection to the above explanation may be that in the above example, A had undertaken to pay Rs. 50,000/- and it was known before hand that he will contribute a specified amount to the musharakah. But in the proposed running account of musharakah where the partners are coming in and going out every day, nobody has undertaken to contribute any specific amount. Therefore, the capital contributed by each partner is unknown at the time of entering into musharakah, which should render the musharakah invalid.
The answer to the above objection is that the classical scholars of Islamic Fiqh have different views about whether it is necessary for a valid musharakah that the capital is pre-known to. the partners. The Hanafi scholars are unanimous on the point that it is not a pre-condition. Al-Kasani, the famous Hanafi jurist, writes:
According to our Hanafi School, it is not a condition for the validity of musharakah that the amount of capital is known, while it is a condition according to Imam Shafi'i. Our argument is that Jahalah (uncertainty) in itself does not render a contract invalid, unless it leads to disputes. And the uncertainty in the capital at the time of musharakah does not lead to disputes, because it is generally known when the commodities are purchased for the musharakah, therefore it does not lead to uncertainty in the profit at the time of distribution." (Badai'-us-sanaj'v.6 p.63)
It is, therefore, clear from the above that even if the amount of the capital is not known at the time of musharakah, the contract is valid. The only condition is that it should not lead to the uncertainty in the profit at the time of distribution. Distribution of profit on daily product basis fulfills this condition.
It is true that the concept of a running musnarakah where the partners at times draw some amounts and at other; times inject new money and the profits are calculate on daily products basis is not found in the classical books of Islamic Fiqh. But merely this fact cannot render a new arrangement invalid in Shari'ah, so far as it does not violate any basic principle of musharakah. In the proposed system, all the partners are treated at par. The profit of each partner is calculated on; the basis of the period for which his money remained in the joint pool. There is no doubt in the fact that the aggregate profits accrued to the pool are generated by the joint utilizations of different amounts contributed by the participants at different times. Therefore, if all of them agree with mutual consent to distribute the profits on daily products basis, there is no injunction of Shari'ah which makes it impermissible; rather, it is covered under the general guideline given by the Holy Prophet in his famous hadith quoted in this book more than once.
Muslims are bound by their mutual agreements unless they hold a permissible thing as prohibited or a prohibited thing as permissible.
2. If distribution on daily products basis is not accepted, it will mean that no partner can draw any amount from, nor can he inject new amounts to the joint pool. Similarly, nobody will be able to subscribe to the joint pool except at the particular dates of the commencement of a new term. This arrangement is totally impracticable on the deposits side of the .banks and financial institutions where the accounts are debited and credited by the depositors many times a day. The rejection of the concept of the daily products will compel them to wait for months before they deposit their surplus money in a profitable account. This will hinder the utilization of savings for development of industry and trade, and will keep the wheel of financial activities jammed for long periods. There is no other solution for this problem except to apply the method of daily products for the calculation of profits, and since there is no specific injunction of Shari'ah against it, there is no reason why this method should not be adopted.
Some objections on Musharqkah Financing
Let us now examine some objections raised from practical point of view against using musharahah as a mode of financing.
Risk of Loss
1. It is argued that the arrangement of musharakah is more likely to pass on losses of the business to the financier bank or institution. This loss will be passed on to depositors also. The depositors, being constantly exposed to the risk of loss, will not want to deposited their money in the banks and financial institutions and thus their savings will either remain idle or will be used in transactions outside of the banking channels, which will not contribute to the economic development at national level.
Advice of Hadhrat Sheikh
Eighth Discourse from Al-Fath ar-Rabbani
Hadhrat Sheikh Abdul Qadir Jeelani (RA)
It was in the schoolhouse, in the late evening of Tuesday, the 19th of Shawwal, A.H. 545, that the Shaikh (may Allah be well pleased with him) said:
The pious pretender [mura'i] wears clean clothes, but his heart is filthy. He abstains from permissible things, and is too lazy to earn a livelihood. He eats off his religion, and exercises no self-restraint at all. He consumes things that are explicitly forbidden [haram]. His game may be hidden from the common folk ['awamm], but it is not concealed from the Elite [khawass]. His asceticism [zuhd] and obedient worship [ta'a] are all superficial. His external facade is splendidly fashioned, but his interior is a ruin.
Woe unto you! Obedient service to Allah (Almighty and Glorious is He) is performed by the heart [qalb], not the outer mold [qalab]. All these things are connected with hearts, innermost beings and spiritual qualities [ma'ani]. Strip yourself bare of what you now have on, so that I may get for you from the Lord of Truth (Almighty and Glorious is He) an outfit that will never wear out. Get undressed so that He may clothe you. Take off the garment of your indifference to the rights [huquq] of Allah (Almighty and Glorious is He). Take off the garment of your attachment to creatures and your idolization [shirk] of them. Take off the garment of lust, frivolity, conceit and hypocrisy, of your love of being acceptable to people and having them approach you and bring you gifts. Take off the clothing of this world, and put on the clothing of the hereafter. Divest yourself of your power, your strength and your very existence [wujud], and throw yourself down before the Lord of Truth (Almighty and Glorious is He) without power, without strength, without attachment to material means [sabab], and without idolatrous worship of any created thing. Then, if you do this, you will see His gracious favors all around you. His mercy will come to join you, and His blessing and benefit will clothe you and enfold you in their embrace. Flee to Him. Dedicate yourself wholly to Him, naked, with no you and no one other than you. Move toward Him in isolation, distinct from any other than Him. Move toward Him separately, apart, until He joins and connects you to your inner and outer forces [quwa zahirika wa-batinika]. Even if He were to close the whole universe [al-akwan] against you, and make you carry all its burdens, this would do you no harm; not at all, for He would protect you throughout.
When someone blots out creatures by virtue of his realization of Unity [tawhid], blots out this world by virtue of his renunciation [zuhd], and blots out everything else apart from his Lord (Almighty and Glorious is He) by virtue of his longing, that person is completely prepared for righteousness [salah] and success [najah], and he will enjoy the all the blessings of this world and the hereafter. You must experience the mortification of your lower selves, your desires and your devils, before you die. Experience the special death [al-mawt al-khass] before the common death [al-mawt al-'amm].
O my people! Respond to me, for I am the crier of Allah (Almighty and Glorious is He), calling you to His door and His obedient service. I am not calling you to myself. The hypocrite does not call the people to Allah (Almighty and Glorious is He); he is a self-promoter. He is looking for favors and acceptance, seeking worldly gain.
O ignorant one, you give up listening to words like these, and sit there in your cell, with only your own self and your passions for company! What you need first is the fellowship of the Shaikhs [shuyukh], and the slaying of the lower self, the natural instincts and everything apart from the Master (Almighty and Glorious is He). You must stay by the door of their houses, I mean the Shaikhs', then after that you may go off by yourself, and sit in your cell alone with the Lord of Truth (Almighty and Glorious is He). When this has been fully accomplished by you, you will come to be a remedy for the people, a rightly guided guide [hadi mahdi] by permission of the Lord of Truth (Almighty and Glorious is He).
As you are now, your tongue is pious [wari'], but your heart is immoral [fajir]. Your tongue praises Allah (Almighty and Glorious is He), while your heart resists Him. Your outer being is a Muslim, but your inner is an unbeliever [kafir]. Your outer is a monotheist [muwahhid], but your inner is a polytheist [mushrik].
Your asceticism [zuhd] is part of your facade. Your religion [din] is part of your facade. Inwardly, you are a mess. It is like whitewash on the water closet, i.e. the toilet, or a lock on the garbage can. Since this is how you are, Satan has set up camp in your heart and made it a place for him to live in.
The believer starts with the development of his inner being, then tackles the development of his outer being. Someone who is constructing a house will spend large sums of money on its interior while the gateway is just rubble; he will leave fixing the entrance until after he has completed the main building. One must likewise begin with Allah (Almighty and Glorious is He) and earning His good pleasure [rida], and then pay attention to creatures with His permission. The first stage is to acquire [tahsil] the hereafter, and only then to obtain one's allotted shares [aqsam] in this world.
Saviours of Islamic Spirit
S. Abul Hasan Ali Nadvi (RA)
From Seclusion to Public Life
It was just possible that al-Ghazali might have spent the remainder of his life in solitary meditation and contemplation, enjoying the bliss of beatific visions. However, for the great achievement God had destined him to accomplish, it was necessary that al-Ghazali should return again to pedagogics and penmanship. It was all the more necessary for al-Ghazali to refute the philosophers and atheists and establish the superiority of Islam, in the fields of knowledge and intellect, specially, as God had granted him knowledge with certitude. There was then no other personage in the entire world of Islam more suited for the task. The fact is, Islam stood in need of him and God wanted him to perform what had already been set for him. He, therefore, felt an urge to take up the defense of the faith. He describes his feelings in these words:
"When I looked round, I found that the faith of the people has been shaken owing to the influence of the philosophers, ignorance of the mystics; inertness of the religious doctors and the weak and disheartened vindication of religion by the dialecticians. People were losing their conviction and, although some, overborne by philosophy, still fulfilled the religious obligations, they had hardly any conviction of faith left in their hearts. Certain persons performed the prayers merely for the sake of undergoing a physical exercise; some to emulate others; and there were others who considered religious practices necessary for gaining certain material benefits. These persons saw no harm in giving up these practices if they could find a way to save themselves from the harm which non-performance of religious observances would have entailed. I realised that I could easily remove their doubts. As a matter of fact, I found myself fully capable of exposing the hollowness and implausibility of their philosophic convictions because of the deep knowledge of speculative sciences. I, therefore, felt an ardent desire to take up this work since it appeared to be the crying need of the time. I said to myself: How far dost it befit thee to sit in seclusion? It is an epidemic that is spreading like wild fire and the learned have themselves fell a victim to the same disease. The bondsmen of God have reached the brink of destruction. But, then, I also thought whether it would be possible for me to accomplish such a huge task. I said to myself: ‘The guidance of the Prophet was available in the days of yore, but now if thou invites men to Truth and the way of God, the world wilt turn thy enemy. How wilt thou, single handed, struggle against them all, and endure the hardships? This could have been possible under the reign of a pious king determined to assist and promote religion’. Thus I expressed my helplessness before God and decided to spend the rest of my life in seclusion. But, it seems, God had willed otherwise. The king implored me to proceed to Nishapur and fight the growing heretical tendencies. The king had appealed to me so earnestly that my rejection of his order would have certainly made him angry. Then I said to myself: 'One of the reasons for thy resolve having fallen apart, it cannot be right now to remain in seclusion for this would simply mean avoiding discomforts and hardships'. Has not God said:
Do men imagine that they will be left (at ease) because they say: We believe, and will not be tested with affliction? Lo! We tested those who were before you. Thus Allah knoweth those who are sincere, and knoweth those who feign’.
And God has addressed his Prophet thus although he was the most exalted amongst, His bondsmen:
Messengers indeed have been denied before thee: and they were patient under the denial and the peresecution till Our succour reached them. There is none to alter the decisions of Allah. Already there hath reached thee (somewhat) of the tidings of the messengers (We sent before).
"I also sought the advice of a few friends who were illuminated and have had beatific visions. They advised me up give up seclusion. Few of them related the dreams some pious persons had seen which indicated that the step I proposed to take would have far-reaching effects for the revival of Faith. They hinted that in the fifth century which was to begin after a month something remarkable was to happen which would renovate the Faith. It has been foretold in the Traditions that in the beginning of every century God brings forth a man who restores and reanimates the faith of the- people. All these tidings gave hope tome. God made it easy for me to set off for Nishapur and I finally made up my mind to renounce the seclusion in 499 A. H. I had left Baghdad in 488 A. H. and thus I remained in seclusion for eleven years. God had ordained it to happen thus, however. I could not have dreamt of giving up honour and fame before I left Baghdad but God had made that easy for me. Similarly, I could never have thought of renouncing my retirement and going back to teach again, but it too was made easy by God".
AI-Ghazali set off for Nishapur in 499 to resume his teaching vocation in the Nizamiyah University. There was, however, a world of difference between his taking up the teaching profession earlier and for the second time. Earlier he taught to secure honour, wealth and position, but now he considered himself commissioned to. exhort people to purify their morals and soul. He explains the difference thus: .
"I know that I have come back to. my vacation of teaching but it would not be correct to call it a resumption of my earlier occupation. There is a world of difference between the two. Earlier, I used to teach the sciences which 'were calculated to bring honour, wealth and position, and by my wards and actions, I led my students to that direction; but now, I want to teach them the knowledge that helps 'to renounce wealth and position. God is fully aware that this is my intention, and my only desire is that my present efforts should lead to the purification of my soul and the souls of other people. I do not know whether I would reach my destination or would reach my task. However, I believe, and have an unflinching conviction, on account of the knowledge of certitude which has been revealed unto me, that the real power rests in Gad alone. It is only He who can save one from evil and profanity and lead unto the path of sanctity and grace. I did not came here of my awn accord, it was Gad who moved me on to this place; I did not begin my work, but Gad made me to begin it, I beseech Gad that he may first cleanse and elevate my soul before he causes me to reform and purify the souls of others. May He reveal unto me righteousness which I may follow; and disclose the evil which I may farsake."
Achievements of al-Gazali
Endeavours of al-Gazali for the revivification of Islam were two-fold, as follows :
(1) He stemmed the tide of philosophy and of the Batanite evil and began a counter-attack on these movements on behalf of Islam.
(2) He made a critical evaluation of the religious and moral state of the then Islamic society and proposed measures to reform it.
Encounter with Philosophy
The efforts made till the time of al-Ghazali to counteract the atheistic influence of Greek philosophy consisted merely of an apologetic vindication of Islamic tenets. Philosophers were then taking the offensive and the scholastics of Islam, the dialecticians, were content with parrying the attack. Philosophy was undermining the very foundations of Islam while Dialectics tried to shield it but none amongst the dialecticians and doctors of religion had the courage to strike at the roots of philosophy. In fact no savant of Islam had tried to make any critical evaluation of the philosophic premises and to beleaguer the aggressor in its own citadel. The tone of the dialecticians, save only that of Abul Hasan al-Ashari who did not have, however, to-face the philosophers, was apologetic, or, at best, defensive. Al-Ghazali was the first man, who, along with a profound knowledge of religious sciences, made a detailed and deep study of philosophy as well. He then wrote Maqasid al-Falasafah (The aim of the Philosophers) in which he summed up the salient issues of Logic, Metaphysics and Physics. In this book he condensed the philosophical premises dispassionately in an explicit manner. He made it clear in the introduction to this book that Mathematics is a science which does not admit of any difference of opinion but it has nothing to do with the religion; either in the affirmation or negation of the latter. Religion, however, comes into conflict with Metaphysics. The logical syllogisms are sometimes wrong while there may also be differences of opinion in regard to the terminology employed in this branch of knowledge. Physics is sometimes mixed up with facts, uncertain or dubious, for Metaphysics is also included in its scope. Logic merely sub-serves these sciences by lending its terminology to them.
Al-Ghazali then wrote another book entitled Tahafut al Falasafah (Incoherence of the Philosophers). In this book he criticises, from an Islamic point of view, Physics and Metaphysics of the philosophical school and brings out their weaknesses and contradictions in a lucid and forceful language. We find alGhazali expressing himself self-confidently, in an elegant and incisive style. At places he employs a satirical diction which was not only effective but perhaps necessary to bring back the self-confidence of those who had been overawed by Philosophy. We find the author self-reliant and indomitable, attempting to demolish the reputation of the teachers of philosophy; he speaks of the Greek philosophers and guides as his equals and points out their mistakes in a manner none had dared before him. In order to save the situation for Islam it was imperative that someone should be able to strike at the foundations of philosophy instead of merely defending the faith. AI-Ghazali rose to the occasion and this book bespeaks of his endeavour from cover to cover. In the introduction to Tahafut al-Falasafah he writes:
"Now-a-days we see people who appear to arrogate themselves as intellectually superior to the populace. These people look disdainfully on religious practices for they have learned the awe-inspiring names of some of the Greek Philosophers like Aristotle, Socrates and Plato. They have learnt from the eulogistic writings of their admirers that the Greek doctors of the old had made far-reaching discoveries in the fields of Mathematics, Logic, Physics and Meta-physics, and that these teachers were peerless in qualities of heart and heart, but that they had rejected the faith and its doctrines. The Greek masters regarded religion as a man-made dogma without any content of truth. Now, following in the footsteps of their mentors these elements have too rejected religion so that they may be taken as an intelligent, liberal and smart set of fellows. Simply to feign themselves as elite and intellectuals, these persons denigrate religion, and it is why I thought of bringing-to light the mistakes committed by the Greek philosophers in their writings on Metaphysics. I also intend to demonstrate how the premises and principles, notion and observations of these philosophers are not a whit more than child's play or, indeed, a laughing-stock.
After giving a detailed description of the genealogy and horoscope of the Greek philosophic-cum-metaphysical concepts like Logos, Nous, the First Cause or the intermediate agents between the Primal Cause and His creation, al-Ghazali becomes more trenchant and lively in his criticism of the philosophers. He writes:
"Your doctrines and details thereof are simply assumptions and conjectures, or, to be truthful, obscure reflections overcast with darkness. Nobody would doubt. the insanity of a man who even dreams of such nonsensical things.
Again, he says:
"I really wonder how even a brainless fellow can swallow such inconsistencies, much less those philosophers who are ever inclined to hairsplitting in logical disputations.”
He expands this idea at another place where he writes:
"In venerating the Agent Intellect, these persons have completely overlooked to accord the reverence and awe due to God Almighty. They have made Him an ineffective diety, a simple essence; dealing with the universals and having no knowledge of the particulars. He bears a distinction from a lifeless entity only in so far as He possesses His own consciousness (and who knows that the lifeless objects are devoid of all consciousness). Verily, God misguides those who forsake the path of Divine guidance and deny His revelation:
I made them not to witness the creation of the heavens and the earth, nor their own creation. . . . . . . .
"Those who have misgivings about the omnipotence of God Almighty think that divine things can be subjected to their though! and imagination. Being presumptuous of their intellect they hold that it is not necessary to follow the prophets of God. That these persons should propagate, under the cover of philosophy, such ludicrous presumptions which others would be ashamed to dream of, is indeed natural and reasonable."
Effect of the Incoherence of Philosophers
The courageous criticism and, to an extent, the denigration of Philosophy by al-Ghazali began a new chapter in the history of Islamic scholasticism which was later brought to a successful completion by Ibn Taymiyah.
Tahafut al-Falasafah caused an stir in the ranks of philosophers who had to suffer an irreparable lost on account of it. However, after al-Ghazali there arose no philosopher worthy of note for one hundred years. At last, Ibn Rushd, a great admirer of Aristotle and a spirited defender of philosophy wrote Tahafut al-Tahafut (Incoherence of Incoherence) by way of rejoinder to Tahafut al-Falasafah by the close of the sixth century. Many scholars are of the view that if Ibn Rushd had not put up the defense on behalf of philosophy, it would have been crippled by the hostile criticism of al-Ghazali. Philosophy was granted a fresh lease of life through the efforts of Ibn Rushd for another one hundred years.
Attack on Batanites
Besides philosophy, the crisis caused by the Batanite movement had received attention of al-Ghazali during his first stay in Baghdad when he wrote al-Mustaz'hiri at the instance of the then Caliph. AI-Ghazali has made a mention of this book in his autobiographical account of the search for truth entitled al-Munqidh min ad-Dhalal Al-Ghazali perhaps wrote three other treatises entitled Hujjat ul-Haq, Mrifsalul-Khilaj and Qasim ulBatiniyah. Two more books on the subject Fadhayah al-Ibahiyah and Mawah'im ul-Batiniyah have been mentioned in the list of al-Ghazali's writings. No one else could have encountered Batinites so successfully as al-Ghazali did, for, he was fully aware of the ways of mystics besides being a savant of both the secular and religious sciences. Taking shelter behind the terminology drawn from philosophy, their cult of "esoteric meanings" was a combination of sophism and conspiracy. For a man like al-Ghazali it was comparatively easy to smash this snare of Batinites. His effective answer to the challenge of Batinites made it a discredited sect ever after him.
Al-Ghazali’s Evaluation of Social Conditions
The second remarkable achievement of al-Ghazali was his evaluation of the religious and moral state of the society from an Islamic viewpoint which awakened the spirit for re-Islamisation in the community. Ihya Ulum id Din (The Revival of Religious Sciences) was the result of his endeavours in this regard.
Hakim al-Umma Mawlana Ashraf ‘Ali Thānawi’s
Conception of Islamic Mysticism
By Ali Altaf Mian
Friend is your refuge and support on the Way.
If you look, you’ll see the Friend is the Way.
–Mawlana Jalāl al-Din Rūmi [Mathnawi VI, 1592]
The Reality of Tasawwuf (Islamic Spirituality/Mysticism)
A master of Islamic spirituality, Mawlana Ashraf ‘Ali Thānawi (1863-1943) was “widely considered the preeminent Sufi of modern India.” He strove for a tasawwuf that would be in complete harmony with the Qur’an and hadith. His remarkable contribution in this field, as Marcia K. Hermansen has pointed out, is his “attempt to rework Sufism into a more acceptable expression consistent with Islamic legalism.” This summary of his tasawwuf is evident throughout his works. For example, his biographer, ‘Aziz al-Hasan Ghawri, quotes him as saying, “I do not know how to pose myself as a ritualistic pir. I am nothing but a religious student; so inquire from me only matters pertaining to the Qur’an and hadith. Straightforwardly, I know only the Qur’an and hadith, and this is real tasawwuf.” Hakim al-Umma explains the true meaning of esoteric reformation or Sufism in the introduction of Haqiqat al-tariqa min sunnat al-aniqa:
After rectification of beliefs and external acts, it is compulsory (fard) upon every Muslim to rectify his esoteric acts. Numerous Qur’anic verses and an untold number of hadiths explicitly indicate the obligation (fardiyya) of this. However, most people of superficial understanding are heedless of it because of their subservience to base desires. Who is not aware that the Qur’an and hadiths are explicit regarding the significance of abstinence (zuhd), contentment (qana‘a), modesty (tawadu‘), sincerity (ikhlas), patience (sabr), gratitude (shukr), love of Allah (hubb al-Ilah), contentment with the Decree (rida bi’l-qada’), trust (tawakkul), submission (taslim), and so on, while they emphasize the attainment of these noble attributes? And who is not aware that the Qur’an and hadiths condemn the opposite of these noble qualities: love for the world (hubb al-dunya), covetousness (hirs), arrogance (takabbur), ostentation (riya’), lust (shahwa), anger (ghadab), envy (hasad), and so on, and warn against them? Is there any doubt that the noble qualities have been commanded, and the base traits forbidden? This is the actual meaning of reforming the esoteric acts, and the primary purpose of the spiritual path. That it is obligatory (fard) is without doubt an established fact. Along with this, experience tells us that reformation is contingent upon the companionship, service, and following of those who have already reformed themselves.
Further expounding how tasawwuf of the Qur’an and hadith is an essential part of Islam, Mawlana Thānawi says in his famous lecture Tariq al-Qalandar:
All the authentic principles of tasawwuf are found in the Qur’an and hadiths. The notion that tasawwuf is not in the Qur’an is erroneous; wayward Sufis as well as superficial scholars entertain this notion. Both groups have misunderstood the Qur’an and hadiths. The superficial scholars claim that tasawwuf is baseless since they believe that the Qur’an and hadiths are devoid of it, while the errant and extreme (ghali) Sufis assert that the Qur’an and hadiths contain but exoteric (zahiri) laws. Tasawwuf, they say, is the knowledge of esoteric (batin) and there is no need for the Qur’an or hadiths (we seek refuge in Allah). In short, both groups consider the Qur’an and hadiths to be devoid of tasawwuf. Thus one group has shunned tasawwuf and the other group has shunned the Qur’an and hadiths altogether.
The philosopher-mystic Mawlana ‘Abd al-Bāri Nadwi, a spiritual successor (khalifa) of Mawlana Thānawi, points out that tasawwuf has been perceived in two ways throughout Islamic history. First, there is the tasawwuf of the Qur’an and hadith, which was practiced by the pious predecessors of Islam and their true followers. Then, there is the pseudo-tasawwuf, an imprudent syncretism of Islam and other religious and spiritual systems of the world. Mawlana ‘Abd al-Bāri Nadwi explains that the reason why genuine tasawwuf is prone to misrepresentation is because the “degree of misguidance and mistakes caused by a subject are proportionate to the degree of depth, subtlety, and intricacy found in that subject.” Tasawwuf is the most subtle and intricate, and in many ways enigmatic, of the Islamic sciences, because it not only reforms the exoteric self, but it lays greater stress on purifying the esoteric self, which encompasses spiritual dimensions unseen by the physical eye.
Although tasawwuf entails a complex system of thought, however, a great reformer embraces people of all backgrounds and simplifies even the most complex religious and spiritual themes for them, so that the greatest number of people may benefit. The Messenger of Allah says, “Give glad tidings [to the people] and do not frighten them away, and create ease and do not create difficulty.” A salient feature of Mawlana Thānawi’s approach to tasawwuf was this simplification, ease, and flexibility. According to Mawlana Thānawi, the summary of Islamic mysticism is that “actions are of two types: voluntary (ikhtiyari) and involuntary (ghayr ikhtiyari). Adhere to the voluntary [good] actions and do not concern yourselves with the involuntary.” Hakim al-Umma provides rescuing consolation and comfort for the “sick-souls” of our time. His simplification of tasawwuf allowed for a more effective approach, which dispelled the notion of an arduous tasawwuf. The following words of Mawlana Jalāl al-Din Rūmi summarize this important part of Sufi methodology: A disciple is like a new moon, In reality no different than the full moon: Its apparent imperfection is a sign of grateful increase.
Night by night the new moon gives a lesson in gradualness: With deliberation it says, “O hasty one, Only step by step can one ascend to the roof.” A skillful cook lets the pot boil slowly; The stew boiled in a mad hurry is of no use. [Mathnawi VI, 1208-1212]
Hakim al-Umma, highlighting a key principle of tasawwuf, says, “The potential of this path and the aims of tasawwuf are found in every Muslim, because the essence of tasawwuf is to voluntarily perform Islamic injunctions, and everyone is able to perform these voluntary actions.” He teaches that Sufism was not a new system, but that “tasawwuf is the same prayer (salāh) and fasting (sawm), which are the desired injunctions of shari‘a. Struggle [in tasawwuf] is needed to complete our incomplete prayers and fasting. The summary of tasawwuf is knowledge followed by action.”
According to Hakim al-Umma, “Unveilings (kashf) and miracles (karamāt) are not necessary in this path.” Tasawwuf, as he understood it, is not an avenue to display exquisite and supernatural experiences. The objective is not to gain fame by displaying supernatural incidents, but to please Allah by following the path of His Messenger. By taking the pledge (bay‘a) from a shaykh, seekers should not think that Paradise is granted to them. Mawlana Thānawi stresses that this Path proves its usefulness to those treading upon it without any exterior motives. He teaches that people taking pledge from a shaykh in order to win a dispute, to ward off a disease, to seek blessings in one’s business, etc., as was the case of some during his times, are all wrong motives. Pleasure of Allah through inculcating traits that the Almighty desires and eliminating traits despicable in His sight should be the only motive for the seeker. Hakim al-Umma also taught his disciples not to expect instant reformation, and that their reformation is contingent upon their exertion and struggle. Some people thought that after they visited the Khānqāh-e Imdādiyya and saw Hakim al-Umma, the thought of sin would disappear forever. He discouraged such thinking and proved it to be baseless. The shaykh is not there to make his disciples angels, but rather a mirror through which his disciples can take account of their unbiased reflection. Mirrors reveal physical appearance, while the shaykh’s mirror exposes internal conditions.
Shedding light on the purpose of participating in spiritual activities, Mawlana Thānawi says, “The only purpose of tasawwuf is Allah’s pleasure, which is acquired from the complete obedience to the injunctions of the shari‘a. Some of these injunctions pertain to the exoteric self, such as prayer (salah), fasting (sawm), pilgrimage (hajj), and alms (zakah).”[xiii] Injunctions pertaining to one’s transactions (such as loans), relations (such as marriage), and rights (such as the rights of the wife) constitute the exoteric part of Islamic law. All of this is the “science of jurisprudence” (‘ilm al-fiqh). Mawlana Thanawi further says:
And some injunctions pertain to the esoteric self, such as the love and fear of Allah, His remembrance, reducing the love of the world, contentment with divine actions and decisions, generosity, attentiveness of the heart during worship, performing the acts of religion with sincerity, not considering anyone inferior to yourself, not being boastful about your self, and controlling anger. Adhering to these injunctions constitutes the path (al-sulūk). They are obligatory like the injunctions pertaining to the exoteric self.
“Science of tasawwuf” (‘ilm al-tasawwuf) treats the esoteric nature of religion. Thus, Islam is a composite of these two sciences: ‘ilm al-fiqh and ‘ilm al-tasawwuf.
Hakim al-Umma’s Methodology
According to Mawlana Muhammad Isa of Allahabad, Hakim al-Umma did not pay any attention to dreams; he disliked the display of [spiritual] powers (tasarruf), and did not anticipate special conditions, such as ecstatic rapture, absorption, etc., but always focused on performing the exoteric and esoteric injunctions of Islam. His unique taste in tasawwuf allowed his teachings to serve as a bridge between fiqh and tasawwuf. He disliked formalities, preferred seriousness, encouraged the discontinuation of rituals, and never concerned himself with the impertinent. He deemed that true struggle entails not leaving the permissible but abandonment of sin and lessening of the permissible. He could not tolerate anything that pressured the heart more than necessary. He preferred solitude to social interaction; however, he maintained social activity so that people could benefit from him. He was meticulous in time management. He disliked visiting the rich and government officials. These traits describe some aspects of his unique predilection. Mawlana Thanawi teaches tasawwuf in a pragmatic, yet profound way, so it is easy for the layman to practice, yet deep enough for the seeker to quench his thirst. Tasawwuf is a practical methodology of reform that is associated with understanding the present human condition and then curing blameworthy character traits with divine guidance and prophetic advices, and augmenting praiseworthy character traits by establishing consistency and sincerity.
The Role of a Shaykh
Explaining how divine guidance reaches humans, Ibn ‘Arabi (1165-1240) states, “God, the Ultimate Truth, guides us to Truth and shows us the Truth through the wisdom bestowed upon us by the ones who trod this path before us and who have entered this realm and understood what they saw.” The shaykh will guide the disciple to inculcate virtues and overcome vices. Hakim al-Umma taught his followers to concern themselves with the attainment of virtues and not to overexert themselves in the eradication of vices. Moreover, they should not become discouraged because of their blameworthy traits. Once they solely focus on the good, the evil will vanish due to being deprived of their attention. He offered his disciples rational and pragmatic solutions, provided them with clear instructions, and prayed for them at every step of the Way. He nurtured their souls with wisdom and light, encouraging them to polish their spirits. Warning them from the treachery of the nafs, Hakim al-Umma says, “The nafs is a subtle entity. It is an inviter to evil (da‘i ila al-shar) and remains in the state of contentment (mutma’ina) for only a temporary time. It continues to remain suppressed due to one’s exertion and struggle (in the performance of good deeds). Mawlana Thānawi explains that some seekers are discouraged after observing their vices while suppressing their nafs. Consequently, they end up in despair, and this hopelessness deteriorates their spiritual progress. To ward off the desolation of his disciples, he shared with them a secret of the human condition: people attain a state of contentment only for some time, which is proportionate to their exertion and effort, but after this, the nafs returns to its nature. He relieved his disciples by showing them that the reappearance of the nafs was a natural phenomenon, and if this was not the case, then they could no longer maintain a continuous struggle. Without continuous struggle, they could not attain higher states of spirituality, since these are contingent upon continuous struggle. In this way, he consoled his disciples and turned their despair into optimism. Allah Most Exalted says, “As for those who strive hard for Us (Our Cause), We will surely guide them to Our Paths. And verily, Allah is with the muhsinun (those who excel)” (Qur’an 29:69).
Hakim al-Umma believed that unnecessary remorse and guilt does no good in the spiritual path. Tasawwuf is only arduous for those lacking its proper understanding. Mawlana Thānawi and William James would both agree on the following point stated by the latter in The Varieties of Religious Experience, “Evil is a disease; and worry over disease is itself an additional form of disease, which only adds to the original complaint.” We usually think that worrying about our evils is necessary in tasawwuf, in order to create the urge to reform our selves. However, the subtle noteworthy point here is that this worry should not become a discouraging factor leading to despair. Hakim al-Umma and William James are basically stating that instead of focusing one’s attention on the evil within, one should keep busy in good works and in developing virtues, which will eventually replace the vices.
Mawlana Thānawi’s cautious method of reformation not only diagnosed his disciples’ vices, but also replaced them with virtues. He did not specifically make efforts to search for the spiritual diseases of his disciples, but if by chance he observed some vices, then he would bring these negative points to their attention. He says, “[A shaykh] should not try to find out the shortcomings of the disciple. However, if he observes them, then he should inform the disciple.” Company of a pious shaykh is instrumental in the process of spiritual purification and personal reformation. As stated earlier, this process involves not only eliminating vices but also replacing them with virtues. David L. Watson and Roland G. Tharp assert a key psychological principle: “Simply eliminating some undesired habit has been likened to creating a behavioral ‘vacuum.’ If something is not inserted in its place, the old behavior will quickly rush back in to fill the void.” Hence, eliminating evils is not sufficient, but virtues have to replace evils. This process can easily be carried out in the company of a pious shaykh, who not only diagnoses the spiritual diseases of the heart, but also replaces them with virtues appropriate to the seeker.
Take the example of courage and mercy. Mawlana Thānawi says, “A courageous person is also a merciful person, whereas a coward is also hardhearted.”[xxi] He also said, “No task is arduous with courage, which comes through the company of a pious shaykh.”[xxii] Cardinal virtues are interrelated and the inculcation of one gives rise to another. Here Hakim al-Umma points to the co-existing relationship between courage and mercy. Courage is not being audacious and foolhardy in all that one desires, but refers to a praiseworthy trait in warding off the blameworthy character traits and replacing them with the praiseworthy character traits. Courage is the ability to stand for the truth, and unconditionally comply with the edicts of the shari‘a. Such courage is attained through the company of a pious shaykh, for humans affect each other in unique ways.
Hakim al-Umma taught that “true respect (adab) consists of providing peace and comfort to others. Activities causing trouble to others do not constitute respect.” His approach arranged for the greatest amount of peace and inner comfort for the disciple and the shaykh. Once a disciple from Rangoon wrote to him that he wished to bring some gifts for him, and required his permission before purchasing them. Mawlana Thānawi replied, “How much do you want to spend on these gifts and what things are available there? After knowing this, I can decide.” Pointing to the wisdom in this answer, Hakim al-Umma said, “This way, the task of choosing certain gifts remains with him, while I will only be choosing from what he selects. The second reason [for this reply] is that I did not know what he would bring and whether it would be of any use to me or not. The reason I asked about his budget is that I will only choose the appropriate things. In short, this method assures the comfort of both.”[xxiv] Thus, the reformatory efforts of the shaykh facilitate peace and comfort for all parties involved. What we have discussed so far only touches the surface of his teachings, a detailed study of Hakim al-Umma’s aphorisms (malfuzāt) and lectures (khutbāt) would surely provide a greater understanding of his methodology in tasawwuf. Such a study will also reveal that he develops an entire program or system of self-reformation, introducing many progressive steps and assigning these new alternatives his own, new and unique, Sufi terminology.
May Allah Most Praiseworthy give us all the ability (tawfiq) to please Him, to follow the Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings be upon his noble person), and their true followers. Amin.
By Abdul Qadar Tash
Violence takes many forms in peoples daily life but of all kinds the type of "domestic violence", where physical force is exerted by some to cause injury or abuse to others, continues to be the most tragic.
Violence is a new term that is being widely used these days in many societies. It is meant to express the kind of violence that one member of the same family inflicts on others.
It is quite clear that wives experience this type of violence practiced by their husbands more than anybody else in the family.
Just a few days ago, I came across some shocking figures which translate the magnitude of these ugly phenomena afflicting our modern societies, which are often described as the most civilised and the most advanced.
According to a United Nations report, almost one quarter of women in the world is being subjected to beating, physical assault and various other types of violence in their homes. The report said the problem is as widespread in countries of the North as it is in countries of the South. It is a common phenomena in both rich and poor societies. The U.N. report drew attention to the seriousness of the problem by stating in a civilised country like the United States the number of women injured as a result of beating and other forms of domestic violence far exceeds the number of victims admitted to hospital as a result of kidnappings, armed robbery, rape and road accidents.
Beating and physical assault at homes is the largest single cause of injuries suffered by women in the U.S., the report said. It is not only the industrially advanced countries which suffer from this phenomenon. In Chile, for example, which is a developing country, the report found out that the number of women victims of domestic violence account for 60 percent of the population. In South Korea the number is more than 50 percent.
In the U.S. and in other countries of the world, domestic violence is the hot issue nowadays. Judges try to disassociate themselves from the problem saying that beating of women is the family's business and as such should be addressed by psychiatrists and not jurists. Physicians, on the other hand, refuse to accept such explanation and insist that domestic violence is something that has to be taken up by the courts.
Professor Neil Jackson, who conducted numerous researches on domestic violence, concluded that psychotherapy is not the best way to straighten husbands who often resort to beating their wives. One does not ask what is the proper medicine to put an end to this social evil but when violence harms other people the society should intervene by taking the matter to the court.
The controversy over whether a husband, who beats his wife, is a sick person in need of a psychiatrist or a law breaker, who should be tried, may drag on forever. Discussing this particular matter is important but not to the extent it would turn into sterile debate ignoring the substance and focusing instead on side issues. We still need a lot of earnest and serious efforts to provide protection for women against all causes of violence, for then harm is not confined to the mother but extends to her helpless children. Studies have shown that children who are born and live in homes witnessing domestic violence usually experience psychological, social and health problems. The percentage of miscarriages among women who are victims of repeated attacks at home is double than of those who do not. The possibility that such women may deliver prematurely is four times than in normal conditions.
For sure, women who are emotional by nature and who are known for patience and forbearance do not deserve to be treated as such. It is more painful when the harm is done by the closest person to the woman, her husband.
Prophet sallallahu alayhi wasallam has told us to be kind to women and treat them with patience. His last advise to his Companions radhiyallahu anhum was to take care of their womenfolk and treat them nicely. He set the right example by telling us that the best Muslim is the one who treats his wife well and that he, the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wasallam, was the best of all when it comes to treating women. It is indeed an advice which, if properly heeded, would benefit the entire humanity.
DARUL ULOOM ILAHIYAH
INSTITUTE OF ISLAMIC RESEARCH
ILAHI BAGH, BUCHPORA, SRINAGAR, 190011, KASHMIR, INDIA