Radiant Reality

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Regd. No.: JKENG/2000/4174
Published From  Srinagar.

Editor, Printer & Publisher: Mawlana Hamidullah Lone.

Dec. 2006.  VOL.7, No: 12.


1. Editorial - Disinformation Campaign About Islam
2. Questions & Answers

3. Lesson from Al-Quran

4. Lesson from Bukhari Sharief

5. Muslim Unity

6. The Issue of Inheritance

7. Virtues of Qurbani

8. Islamic Finance

9. Haj

10. The Spirit of West

11. From Eid to Eid
12. Answer to a Young Doctor

13. Saviours of the Islamic Spirit


1. EDITORIAL

All thanks for Almighty, the most Merciful and Exalted.

DISINFORMATION CAMPAIGN ABOUT ISLAM

When the Jerusalem was occupied by the Muslims, the Christian world launched a propaganda campaign against them leading to series of crusades, As is said if you want to kill a dog, call it a bad name. The European Christian started to distort the image of the Islam. They characterised the Muslims as "Uncivilized, beasts, savages and cruel who knew only to plunder, kill and to make woman folk their slaves". The aftermath of the method is attested by Watt (1972) when he writes:

The image of Islam created at uptime by the Christian scholars enabled other Christians to feel that when they fought against Muslims, they were fighting for light against darkness. Through this, they were able to regain part of their territory. They latter began to manifest their deep interest in the intellectual culture of the Muslims. They studied Arabic works and translated them into many languages with the sole aim of portraying a negative picture of Islam. The orientalists, capitalizing on the ignorance of the Muslims, succeeded in depicting false image about Islam.

Nature of disinformation about Islam

Due to negligence or ignorance of the Muslims, the orientalists came out with nasty statements about Islam, the Prophet (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) and the Muslims.

Secondly, Goldziher claimed that many Hadith were fabricated and religious protocols were altered after the death of the Prophet (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) without any serious thought. Professor N.J.Coulson erred in his comments on the notable jurist Imam Malik and his noble work, Al-Mauwtta. Professor Schancht and his disciple Fyzee shared the view that many Islamic practices were borrowed from the Jews.

Thirdly, while carrying out the translation on the original works of the Islam into their languages useful information were either distorted or withheld. A case in point is that of the translation of the "Mukhtasar of Sidi Khalil by Perron and Ruxton. George Sale who translated the Qur'an into English embarked on his translation purposely to antagonise it.

Lastly, out of ignorance, many people were wrongly fed as regard some concepts in Islam which include the status of woman, polygamy, jihad and the wrong notion that Islam was spread by sword.

How disinformation campaign can be corrected

One of the ways of the correcting disinformation campaign about Islam is by discouraging Muslim youths from reading the fallacious books of the non-Muslim orientalists on Islam so as not to be wrongly informed about Islam. To achieve this objective there is the need for the musEm scholars to publish pristine and eximious books on Islam in English language and make them books readily available.

Another method is to encourage young Muslims to learn Arabic as this will afford them the opportunity of reading from the sources and prevent them from being influenced by the west. The fact that Islam can only be well understood through Arabic language is stressed by the Qur'an when it reads:

We have made it a Qur 'an in Arabic, that you may be able to understand." (43:3)

Further more, Muslims should enter into a dialogue with non-Muslims in accordance with the Qur'anic injunction which say,

Invite (all) to the way of thy lord with wisdom and beautiful preaching; and argue with them in ways that are best and more gracious... " (16:125).

Dawah programs should be organised by the Muslim bodies side by side with conferences, seminars and workshops. Mass media facilities should be made used by competent muslim scholars to educate youth about the beauty of Islam.

Finally, the books of the orientalists should be critically studied by scholars in Islam with the aim of showing the cloven hoof on Islam. They should write rejoinders and refute their wrong notions on Islam.

 

2. Question & Answer

Q.) Can you please explain to me in the light of Qur'an and Hadith what is the hijab for my husband to his brother's wives? Can he speak to them when there is no need? Can he also speak to them when their husband is not around and there is fear of fitnah? I am in purdah ie I cover my entire body except my eyes and hands and I make purdah from my husband's brothers. Lately after the incident of him speaking freely to my brother in laws wives I felt like not wearing my niqab anymore. Please clear my doubts. [A sister in Islam]

A.) It is necessary for a male to observe Hijab from his brother's wife (sister-in-law). Any contact whatsoever with her is prohibited. Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) also prohibited a male from going to a woman in the absence of her husband. Sister, you should discuss the issue with your husband with utmost wisdom and make him conscientious of the laws of Allah and the consequences of not following the Shari'ah. However, that should not drive you to removing your own hijab. Why should you incur the wrath of Allah on yourself due to somebody else's wrong? Two wrongs don't make a right.

And Allah Ta'ala Knows Best

Q.) Can a girl get married by herself if elders and her parents do not take interest in her marriage? Does she have the right? What does Islam say about the age for her marriage?

A.) A girl has the right to get married on her own. However, Shari'ah has considered, for her own well being, that a guardian see to her marriage, etc. If her guardians do not take interest in her, she should consult some other close relative to find her a suitable marriage partner.

Nabi "Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam" said, 'Do not delay in two things; The Janaaza Salat when the bier is ready and the marriage of a single woman.'

Therefore, as soon as a female reaches a marriageable age, she should get married.

And Allah Ta'ala Knows Best

Q.) What does the Shariah say with regard to dying hair? Is it permissible to dye one's hair?

A.) To apply pure black dye is not permissible. Rasulullah (Sallallaahu layhi Wasallam) said, "There will be people who will come later (in my Ummah) and apply black dye. They will not even smell the fragrance of paradise." (Abu Daawood). However, it is permissible for a Mujaahid (warrior) to apply black dye in order to give the impression of being young. (Jawahirul Fiqh vol2 pg421) It is also permissible for one to dye his/ her hair black to beautify himself/herself for one's marriage partner if he/she is young, and the hair has turned grey due to some sickness, etc.

To dye the hair any other colour besides black e.g. Mehndi or Katm (type of grass) is permissible. This was the practice of Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam) and the Sahaba (Radhiyallaahu Anhum). (Jawahirul Fiqh vol2 pg421) (Al-Mahmood Vol.1)

And Allah Ta'ala Knows Best

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3. Lesson From The Quran

Commentary: Mawln Mufti Mohammad Shafi Sahib (RA)

Verse 60

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And when Musa sought water for his people! We said, "Strike the rock with your staff." So, gushed forth twelve Springs from it. Each group of people came to know their drinking place. "Eat and drink of what Allah has provided, and do not go about the earth spreading disorder."

This incident too belongs to the story of the wanderings of the Israelites in the wilderness. Parched with thirst, they requested Sayyidna Musa (AS) to pray to Allah for water. Allah commanded him to strike a certain rock with his staff. As he did so, twelve streams gushed forth out of the rock, one for each of the twelve tribes. Sayyidna Ya'qub (Jacob) (AS) had twelve sons, and each had a large family of his own. So, the families were considered as tribes, each with its own administrative organisation and its own head. Hence, the number twelve. What they have been asked to eat is the Mann and the Salwa (manna and quails), and the water is, of course, the one which had come out of the rock.

The Israelites have, in this verse, been asked not to spread disorder which in this context signifies disobedience to Allah and transgression of His Commandments.

The great Commentator al-Qadi al-Baydawi points out that it is a great error to deny miracles. When Allah has given a certain stone the unusual property of drawing iron to itself, it cannot be, logically and rationally speaking, impossible that He should also give another stone the property of absorbing water from the earth and of releasing it again. Even this explanation is meant for those who take a superficial view of things. Otherwise, it is in no way impossible that Allah should produce water within a stone itself. Those who call it impossible do not actually understand the technical meaning of the term "impossible."

An answer to a doubt about the Israelites It has been asked whether it is necessary, in times of drought, to offer formal prayers in order to beseech Allah for rains. The present verse tells us that Sayyidna Musa (AS) just prayed for water, and Allah made a miraculous provision. It shows that the essential thing in beseeching Allah for rains is just a prayer. In the Shari'ah of Sayyidna Musa (AS), a mere prayer was considered to be sufficient for the purpose. According to Imam Abu Hanifah, this principle holds good for the Islamic Shari'ah too. The Holy Prophet j|j- has, in this respect, acted differently on different occasions. An authentic hadith reports that once he went outside the city to the open space where the congregational prayers were held on the day of the 'Id, offered formal prayers, delivered a Khutbah (address), and then prayed to Allah for rains. According to another hadith reported by Al-Bukhari and Muslim from the blessed Companion Anas, once the Holy Prophet (S)prayed for rains while delivering the Khutbah on Friday, and Allah sent down rains.

No matter what form the prayer takes, all the scholars agree that it cannot be effective unless it is accompanied by a repentance for one's sins, a confession of one's powerlessness, a sincere expression of humility and an affirmation of servitude to Allah. So long as one persists in sin and transgression, one has no right to hope that the prayer would be answered. But if Allah may, in His mercy and benevolence, grant the prayer without this condition being fulfilled, it is His will, and He is All-Powerful.

Verse 61

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And when you said, "Musa we will no longer stay on a single food: So, pray for us to your Lord that He may bring forth for us of what the earth produces its wheat, its lentils and its onions." He said, "Do you want to take the inferior in exchange of what is better? Go down to a town, and you will have what you have asked for." And disgrace and misery were stamped over them and they returned with wrath from Allah. That was because they used to deny the signs of Allah, and would slay the prophets unjustly. That was because they disobeyed and would go beyond the limits.

This episode has been indirectly referred to in verse 58, and it also occurred in the wilderness of Tih. The Israelites grew weary of eating the Mann and the Salwa (manna and quails) everyday, and wished to have ordinary vegetables and grain. Allah commanded them through Sayyidna Musa (AS) to go to a certain town which lay somewhere in the wilderness, to till the land there, to grow to eat whatever they liked.

The Israelites were thus being ungrateful and impertinent. Even otherwise, it was so usual with them not only to transgress divine commandments but also to deny them outright. They had also been slaying a number of prophets at different times - they knew they were committing a misdeed, but their hostility to the truth and their stubbornness in disobedience made them blind to the nature of their conduct and its consequences. Through such persistent and wilful misdemeanour they drew upon themselves the wrath of Allah. Disgrace and degradation settled upon them for ever. That is to say, they no longer had any respect in the eyes of others, nor magnanimity in themselves.

One form of this disgrace is that temporal power has been taken away from them for ever. For only forty days, however, - and that too when the Day of Judgment will have come close - the Dajjal (Anti-Christ) belonging to the Jewish race, will have an irregular dominion like that of a robber. This cannot be described as having temporal power, in the proper sense of the term. Allah had made it quite clear to the Jews through Sayyidna Musa (AS) (Moses) that if they continued to be disobedient, they would always have to live under the domination of other nations. Says the Holy Qur'an: : "And when your Lord proclaimed He would send forth against them, unto the Day of Resurrection, those who should visit them with evil chastisement." (7:167)

As to how the Companions, their successors and the great commentators have interpreted the disgrace and degradation which has settled on the Jews, let us present a summary in the words of Ibn Kathir: : "No matter how wealthy they grow, they will always be despised by other people; whoever gets hold of them will humiliate them, and attach to them the emblems of servitude." The commentator Dahhak Ibn Muzahim reports from the blessed Companion 'Abdullah Ibn 'Abbas that the Jews will always remain under the domination of others, will be paying taxes and tributes to them - that is to say, they will themselves never have power and authority in the real sense of the term.

Another verse of the Holy Qur'an also speaks of the disgrace of the Jews, but with some addition:

And disgrace has been stamped over them wherever they are found, unless (saved) through a rope from Allah and through a rope from men." (3:112)

Now, the 'rope' or means from Allah refers to the case of those whom Allah Himself has, through His own commandment, saved from this disgrace - for example, children, women, or those who are totally devoted to prayer and worship and never go to war against Muslims.

The 'rope' or means from men refers to a treaty of peace with the Muslims, or a permission to live in a Muslim country on payment of the Jizyah (the tax levied on non-Muslims living in a Muslim country, which exonerates them from military service etc.) Since the Holy Qur'an uses the expression "from men" and not "from Muslims", a third situation is also possible - the Jews may make political arrangements with other non-Muslims, live under their backing and protection, and thus be in 'peace'.

There is another aspect to the question - we must look into the nature of the exception that has been made in the verse which we have just cited. Now, when an exception is added to a statement, the exception may fall into either of these two categories: (1) What has been excepted formed, or still forms, a part of what it has been excepted from. For example, take this statement: "The tribe came except Zayd." Zayd was and still is a member of the tribe, but he has been excepted from it in so far as the act of coming is concerned. (2) What has been excepted did not form, or no longer forms, a part of what it has been excepted from. For example: "The tribe came except the donkey." The donkey, of course, never formed a part of the tribe, and he has been excepted from the act of coming in so far as the act pertains to the tribe. If the exception made in the present verse is of the first kind, then the statement would mean that all the Jews always and everywhere live in disgrace with the exception of two situations - protection provided to women and children etc. by the commandment of Allah Himself, or by a treaty of peace with the Muslims or with some non-Muslim nations. On the other hand, if the exception is of the second kind, the verse would mean that the Jews as a group would essentially and always remain in disgrace with the exception of some who may find protection under the commandment of Allah, or of some others who may receive support from other nations and thus disguise their own disgrace.

Thus, Verse 3:112 helps to elucidate Verse 2:61, and also dispels the doubt which sometimes arises in the minds of the Muslims at the sight of the so-called "Israeli state" imposed on Palestine. For, they find it difficult to reconcile the two things - the Holy Qur'an seems to indicate that the Jews will never have a sovereign state, while they have actually usurped Palestine and set up a state of their own. But if we go beyond the appearances, we can easily see that "Israel" is not an independent sovereign state, but only a stronghold of the Western powers which they have established in the midst of Muslim countries in order to protect their own interests; without the backing of these super-powers the Jewish "state" cannot survive for a month, and the Western powers themselves look upon the Israelis as their henchmen. The "Israeli state" has been living, as the Holy Qur'an says, "through a rope from men," and, even at that, living as a parasite on the Western powers. So, there is no real occasion to have a misgiving about what the Holy Qur'an has said on the subject.

Moreover, the half of Palestine which the Jews have usurped and the parasite state they have set up there is no more than a spot on the map of the world. As against this, we have vast expanses of the globe covered by Christian states, by Muslim states, and even by the states of people who do not believe in Allah at all. Can this tiny blot on the map and that too under the American-British umbrella, negate the disgrace which Allah has made to settle upon the Jews?

Verse 62

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Surely, those who believed in Allah, and those who became Jewish, and Christians, and the Sabeans --whosoever believes in Allah and in the Last Day, and does good deeds -- for them, with their Lord, is their reward, and there is no fear for them, nor shall they grieve. (Verse 62)

The previous verse spoke of how the Israelites drew upon themselves the wrath of Allah through their habitual insolence and disobedience. Now, this account may lead the listeners, or the Jews themselves, to suppose that, in view of such transgression, their Taubah (repentance), if they agree to offer it, would not be acceptable to Allah. In order to dispel such a misgiving, the present verse lays down a general principle: no matter how a man has been behaving earlier, so long as he submits himself fully to the commandments of Allah in his beliefs and in his deeds both, he is acceptable to Allah, and will get his reward. It is obvious enough that after the revelation of the Holy Qur'an, which is the last message of Allah, perfect obedience to Allah can only mean accepting Islam and following the Last Prophet Muhammad (S) (Contrary to the flaccid fancies of some "modernizers" who are very happy with themselves over their "liberalism" and "tolerance", the present verse does not open the way to salvation for each and every "man of good will" irrespective of the creed he follows. If one reads the verse in its proper context and along with other relevant verses of the Holy Qur'an, one will easily see that the verse, in fact, promises salvation in the other world only to those who accept Islam. It is an invitation to Islam extended to the Jews, the Christians, the Sabeans and, as a matter of fact, to the followers of all possible religions, and even to non-believers specific names only serve as examples).

The verse, in effect, assures everyone that once a man has accepted Islam, all his former transgressions, whether in the matter of beliefs or in that of deeds, will be forgiven, and he will become worthy of receiving the rewards of the other world.

Let us note, in passing, that nothing is definitely known as to the beliefs and the practices of the Sabeans, and different opinions have been expressed on the subject. (Most probably they used to worship the stars).

One might also ask why the verse mentions the Muslims, for if it is an invitation to Islam, there is no need to extend the invitation to those who have already accepted Islam. But if we keep in mind the richly concentrated style of the Holy Qur'an, and try to look beyond the literal sense of the words into the implications and suggestions contained in the verse, we would find that the inclusion of the Muslim factor has added a new dimension to the meaning. It is as if a king should, in a similar situation, say that his laws are impartially applicable to all his subjects, and that whosoever obeys them shall receive his reward for obedience irrespective of whether he has earlier been a friend or a foe. Obviously, the friend has always been loyal and obedient, and the warning and the promise have really been addressed to the foe. But the suggestion contained in such a formulation is that the favours of the king do not proceed from any personal attachment to the friends, but depend on the quality of obedience and loyalty, and hence the foes too will become worthy of his favours if they acquire the necessary quality. This is the raison d'etre of mentioning the Muslims along with the non-Muslims in this verse, which should never be taken to imply that salvation can be attained without accepting Islam.

We had better dispel another misunderstanding which is likely to arise from the wordings of the present verse - and, which is actually being promoted by certain 'modernizers'. The verse mentions only two articles of faith of the Islamic creed ~ faith in Allah and faith in the Day of Judgment. This should not be taken to mean that in order to attain salvation it is enough to have faith only in Allah and in the Day of Judgment. Fcr, the Holy Qur'an repeatedly declares that he who does not believe in the prophets, in angels and in the Books of Allah is not a Muslim. Faith in Allah is the first article in the Islamic creed, while faith in the Day of Judgment is the last. By mentioning only these two, the verse intends to say in a succinct manner that it is necessary to have faith in all the articles of the creed, from the first to the last. Moreover, it is through the prophets and the Books of Allah alone that man can acquire any knowledge of the essence and the attributes of Allah and of what is to happen on the Day of Judgment, while the Books of Allah are revealed to the prophets through an angel. So, it is not possible to have faith in Allah and the Day of Judgment until and unless one has faith in the angels, in the Books of Allah and in the prophets.

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4. Lesson From The Bukhari Sharief

Dr. Rafiq Ahmad

Hadith No. 48 Cont'd

The appearance of Yajooj and Majooj (gog and magog)

Yajooj and Majooj is a tribe from the progeny of Yafas the son of Hadhrat Nuh (AS).

They have been imprisoned behind a wall built by Zul Qarnain between two mountain ranges. They will emerge and wreak great destruction and turmoil on earth. Hadhrat Eis (AS) will go away to the mountains and pray to Allh for their destruction. Allh Tal will finally eliminate them by a natural disaster. Thereafter Allh will create birds with long necks who will their bodies and throw their remains into the sea. There will be a great flood thereafter that will cleanse the earth of the smell and diseases that will result from the destruction of this tribe. After the destruction of this tribe, there will be great bounties and blessing of Allh on earth.

This prosperity will remain for seven years. Thereafter, Hadhrat Eis (AS) will die a physical death after accomplishing his duty. He will be buried in a grave next to Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam). In his lifetime Hadhrat Eis (AS) will appoint his Khalifah (successor), a man named Jahjaf of Yemen from the tribe of Quhtn. He will rule with great justice and piety. After him will follow several rulers and slowly evil and corruption will once again set in.

During this time the heavens will be covered with a dense fog which will envelope the earth for forty days. All Muslims will develop cold as a result of the fog and all non believers will lapse into unconsciousness, some will recover after a day while others after two or three days.

Proof

Wait for that day when a smoke will appear from the heavens. (44:11)

The rising of the sun in the west

Among the major signs of Qiymah is the rising of the sun in the West.

It is reported in a Hadith that the night preceding the rising of the sun in the West will become extremely extended. The duration of the night will instill restlessness and fear into people and animals. Children will awaken crying, travellers will tire, people will repent for their sins on seeing these signs. Eventually the sun will rise the following morning from the West. On this occasion the rays of the sun will be very dull. The sun will rise from the West until it reaches more or less the meridian and then again set in the West thereafter it will rise in the East as normally.

When this event will occur, neither Imn nor Tawbah will be valid. If any non believer repents and accepts Imn thereafter his repentance and belief will not be acceptable.

First proof

The day that certain of the signs of Allh do come, believing shall not profit anyone who had not believed before or had not earned some good in his belief. (6:158)

It is stated in Bukhari and Muslim that the words certain of the signs means the rising of the sun from the West.

Second proof

Hadhrat Abu Hurairah (RA) reports that Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) said:

Qiymah will not appear but after the Rising of the sun from the West. On seeing this people will ,accept Imn but their acceptance will be of no use to them. (Bukhari, Muslim)

After the rising of the sun in the West, an earthquake will grip mount Safa in Makkah. The mountain will split open and a strange animal will emerge. This animal will speak to people.

Third proof

And when the word is fulfilled concerning them, we shall bring forth a beast of the earth, who will speak unto them for mankind did not believe." ( 27:82)

After the disappearance of this creature an extremely fresh and fragrant breeze will commence from the South. This breeze will cause all the believers to die, and there will remain no person to differentiate between virtue and evil.

The reign of Africans

After the death of all Muslims (in the way mentioned above) the world will be filled with non believers. The world will be under the domination of the Kuffr and the Habashies (Africans) will rule. They will destroy the Kabah Sharief, and remove the treasures buried under it.

The world will be plunged in immorality, evil and corruption. People will satisfy their sexual desires like animals in public. The Qurn will be raised, there will remain no believers and the worst epoch of moral degeneration and oppression will be witnessed. There will also be severe sicknesses and diseases.

First Proof

Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) has said that a short legged Habshi (negro) will remove the treasure of the Kabah.

Second proof

Hadhrat Abu Hurairah (RA) reports that Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) has said:

Qiymah would not occur until the women of the tribe of Daus would worship their idols.

Thereafter peace will prevail in Shm. It would be the greatest period of technology and science.

The last sign of Qiymah

The last sign of Qiymah is that a large and raging fire will burn in Adan (Yemen) which will turn the people towards the plains of congregation. Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) has made mention of this fire to be among the major signs of Qiymah.

After all these signs appear Allh will command Hadhrat Israfeel (AS) to sound the Soor (trumpet). The Soor is a gigantic horn shaped trumpet. It will bring about the destruction of the entire universe and the creation will die. The souls of those who have died will become unconscious. However, those whom Allh wishes to save will be saved.

A period will pass in this condition. Thereafter, Hadhrat Israfeel (AS) will be again commanded to sound the trumpet, which will result in all the dead to be resurrected. The period between the two soundings of the trumpet will be forty years or 40 months.

After this resurrection everybody will gather on the plains of congregation. Experiencing the difficulties of this day, people will go to the Ambiy for intercession. Finally Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) will intercede. and the scales of deeds will be set up. Deeds of every person will be weighed. The pious and virtuous will receive their book of records in their right hand and the evil will receive it in their left hand, On this occasion Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) will offer water from Haudhi Kawther (the well of blessing and intercession) to his followers . This water will be whiter than milk and sweeter than honey.

First proof

And you will see men drunken, yet they will not be drunken but the chastisement of Allh will be severe on them. (22:2)

Second proof

It is He who has created this the first time and it will be Him who will create it the second time. And the second creation is easier than the first for Him" (30:27)

Third proof

And the hour will come, there is no doubt thereof and Allh will raise those who are in the graves. (22:7)

The nature and condition of Qiymah

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When the Sun is overthrown, and when the stars fall. (81:1-2)

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And when the trumpet will sound one blast, and the earth and the mountains shall be lifted up and crushed with one crash. Then on that day will the event befall. (69:14-15)

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When the event befalleth -there is no denying that it will befall - abasing (some) exalting (others) when the earth is shaken a shock and the hills are ground to powder -so that they became a scattered dust. And ye will be three kinds -(first) those on the right hand, what of those on the right hand? And (then) those on the left hand, what of those on the left hand? (56:1-8)

There are many such verses regarding Qiymah. After the first sounding of the trumpet everything will perish. Only Allh will remain. Allh will then ask:

Whose kingdom is it today? (40:16)

And then Allh will reply Himself:

It is the kingdom of Allh most Powerful. (40:16)

Forty years hence Allh will give life to Hadhrat Israfeel (AS) who will be commanded to sound the trumpet once more.

The angels who carry the Throne of Allh will be resurrected first. Thereafter Hadhrat Jibraeel (AS), Meekaeel (AS) and Israeel (AS) will be resurrected. Then the earth, sky, sun and the moon will be restored.

A rain will fall due to which all living things and people will be resurrected with body and soul.

When the second trumpet will sound people will raise from their graves and go towards their Allh. (36:51)

On the day when the earth will be changed to other than the earth." (15:48)

Hence the plain of congregation and reckoning will not be the earth we live in.

After waiting a very long period on the plains of reckoning and after becoming disturbed and frustrated due to the heat and thirst there, people will turn towards Hadhrat Adam (AS) and request him for intercession so that the task of reckoning may commence. Hadhrat Adam (AS) will send all the people to Hadhrat Nuh (AS). Hadhrat Nooh (AS) will send them to Hadhrat Ebrahim (AS). Hadhrat Ebrahim (AS) will send them to Hadhrat Mus (AS). Hadhrat Mus (AS) will send them to Hadhrat Eis (AS). Hadhrat Easa (AS) will guide all the creation and to Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) and request for intercession.

Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) will then intercede and ask Allh Tal to begin the reckoning.

The distribution of deeds

After this intercession of Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) the distribution of deeds will take place. Those who were obedient, virtuous and pious will receive their book of deeds in their right hands whereas the disobedient with evil deeds will receive their book of deeds in their left hands.

Those who will receive their book of deeds in the right hand will be pleased and in comfort and shall gain entrance into Jannah and those who will receive their book of deeds in their left hand will be in grief and pain. They shall be sent to Jahannam.

First proof

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Then he who is given his record in his right hand. Soon will his account be taken by an easy reckoning and he will turn to his people rejoicing but he who his given his record behind his back soon will he cry for Protection and he will enter a blazing fire. (84-7-12)

Second proof

(It will be said to him) Read your (own) record- sufficient is your soul this day to make out an account against you." (17:14)

At this juncture the Ambiy and the two angels Kirman Ktibeen will be summoned. Allh Tal says:

And the Ambiy and the witnesses will be brought forward and a just decision pronounced between them. (39:69)

The Ambiy will say we have delivered the message but the non believers refused to accept. The non believers will deny and reject the Ambiys testimony. Allh Tal will then ask the Ambiy to produce witness.

Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) and his Ummah will bear witness for the Ambiy (AS) that they had delivered the message. The angels Kirman Ktibeen will present their records of deeds. The non believers will deny this too. Allh will give the organs of the human body power to speak and they will testify against the non believers.

Third proof

On the day when their tongues, their hands and their feet will bear witness against them.(24:24)

And if there be (no more than) the weight of a mustard seed we will bring it (to account) and sufficient are we to take account. (21:47)

Hadhrat Aisha (RA) reports that Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) used to recite the following Dua in his prayers.

O Allh ease my reckoning.

Hadhrat Aisha (RA) says, once when Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) completed his Salh she asked him What is ease of reckoning? Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) replied that Allh forgives you on receipt of your actions of reckoning.

It is reported in a Hadith that Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) has said: Allh will execute justice between animals also. If an animal with horns had hurt another animal without horns, justice will be executed between them also. All animals will be commanded to perish thereafter.

After that the actions of everyone will be weighed. Allh will erect a bridge over Jahannam called Pul-i-Sirt. The believers will cross it and enter into Jannah and the people destined for Jahannam will fall over into Jahannam while crossing it.

Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) will be the first to cross this bridge with his followers. Some believers will cross it with the speed of lightening others slower and others even slower depending on their deeds. There will be complete darkness over the bridge but for the believers there will be a light (the light of Imn) with which they will see.

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5. Muslim Unity

Khalid Baig

"I gave a lot of thought to the causes of the sorry state of this ummah, during the years of my captivity in Malta," said Sheikh-ul-Hind Maulana Mahmood-ul-Hasan. It was 1920, and at 69, he was not only one of the most distinguished scholars of his time, he also had spent a life time in political activism. His audience was a gathering of ulema, eager to hear the lessons of a life time of study, struggle, and reflection. His conclusion: "Our problems are caused by two factors; abandoning the Qur'an and our in-fighting." He spent the few remaining days of his life addressing these causes.

These reasons are valid even today. They are also related, the second being caused by the first. The Qur'an had declared us one brotherhood and had warned us against in-fighting. We have ignored those teachings and the billion-strong ummah has turned into an ummah fragmented into a billion segments.

A very large number of our internal battles is the result of narrowly defined self-interests. Islam could have been the force that helped us overcome that. Unfortunately, instead of letting it fulfill that role, today we have made even religion provide us with additional and unresolvable points of conflict. We fight over petty issues of fiqh. We fight over fine points of religious interpretation. We turn minor points of religious law into big battlegrounds while most important and fundamental teachings of religion are violated.

We do all this even as this religion has been under attack from all directions. Thousands of people become apostates every year in Pakistan. Qadianis (who declare Mirza Ghulam Ahmed of Qadian to be a prophet), and munkareen-e-hadith have been busy attracting our new generations to their falsehoods. Haram is being declared as halal. Our masses are ignorant of their religion and easily indulge in customs borrowed from polytheists. On top of all that is the western culture of hedonism, of shamelessness, of moral anarchy, that is invading our societies through film, television, radio, and obscene literature. Corruption of all sorts has permeated all layers of our society. Should not we be reflecting on this and asking ourselves what would the Prophet, Sall-Allahu alayhi wa sallam, expect of us, the heirs of the prophets? In the hereafter shall we be able to give a sufficient answer by mentioning that we wrote a book on rafa-yadain (the issue of raising hands during certain movements in obligatory prayer)?

Once I saw Maulana Anwar Shah Kashmiri in a very sad mood. What is the matter, I asked. "I have wasted my whole life," he said. "You have spent your entire life in spreading Islamic teachings.

Thousands of your disciples are themselves ulema who are serving the religion. If that is a waste, what hope can anyone else have?" I insisted. "Look, what has been the main thrust of all our efforts," he replied. "It has been to show why Hanafi school is better than others. Imam Abu Hanifa did not need this. His grandeur did not need our approval. Imam Shafii, Imam Malik, and Imam Ahmed ibn Hanbal could not care less about it. All that one can ever prove in these matters is that a certain position is right but has the probability of being wrong and the other position is wrong but has the probability of being right. Moreover, these issues will not be resolved even in the hereafter. For Allah will not humiliate Imam Shafii, Abu Hanifa, Malik, or Ahmed bin Hanbal by showing that they were in error." Then he added: "Today when the roots of Islam are under attack, we have been busy taking care of the leaves."

It is not that debates or disagreements in religious interpretation are themselves evil. Today many western educated Muslims, with scant understanding of their religion do think that way. Some even suggest that we should bury all fiqhi schools and create a new one. This is neither possible nor desirable. Differences of opinion are inevitable wherever people have both intellect and honesty. Complete consensus on every issue is possible only when either everyone is dumb, so they cannot think of a different idea, or they are dishonest so they willingly agree with a position that they consider wrong. After all religious interpretations are not personal rights that can be sacrificed away.

The problem occurs when we overstate these differences. There were differences of opinion in fiqh among the Companions, their followers, and great Mujahideen. But they did not turn these into fights. They disagreed but they maintained respect and love for each other. The brotherhood remained intact. They had tolerance for the other view.

How can we have tolerance for something we know is wrong? Of course we cannot have any tolerance for anything clearly established as wrong by Qur'an or Hadith. We can never show accommodation for apostasy. We can never agree on changing the Shariah's established definitions of halal and haram. But beyond this there are issues about which Qur'an and Sunnah are silent or are subject to more than one interpretation. Here the mujahideen deduce the intent of Qur'an and Sunnah based on their best ability. Here disagreements are possible. As long as those involved are qualified mujahideen (like the four respected imams), their differing views have to be respected. We can follow only one opinion, and we should try and determine the one closest to the intent of the Shariah, but we cannot declare opposing views as evil. We exaggerate when we deal with people holding valid opposing views as if they were outside the bounds of Islam.

Overstatement (ghuloo) is the main cause of most fights involving our religious groups. It also happens with Islamic organizations. Most are doing useful work in the areas they chose based on their abilities and inclinations. Had they developed a spirit of cooperation and considered their differences as just a natural division of labor, together they could have become a formidable force. Unfortunately each one of them considers their work and methodology as the only methodology for Islamic work. If a person leaves one of these organizations to join another, he is treated as if he had recanted his faith. This is ghuloo. It produces the tribalism of jahiliya (the pre-Islamic period of ignorance) among religious workers.

Pious people are not extinct today. What we sorely need is the reformers who can rise above their narrow perspectives and heed the universal and unifying call of Islam.

[Adapted from two talks of Mufti Muhammad Shafi, the late grand Mufti of Pakistan, given in 1963.]

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6. The Issue of Inheritance

Compiled by:- Majlisul Ulema, South Africa

The effects of Tasarrufat (Operations) during Maradhul Maut

If during Maradhul Maut a man acknowledges a right/obligation which is common knowledge or evidenced by witnesses, then such acknowledgement will be fully valid and its discharge will be just as incumbent as all other rights and obligations which were confirmed prior to Maradhul Maut.

If during Maradhul Maut a man acknowledges a right/obligation in favour of non-heirs, which is neither confirmed by common knowledge nor evidenced by witnesses, then this acknowledgement too is valid. This obligation will also have to be incumbently discharged before the distribution of the mayyit's assets among his heirs.

There is, however, one difference. The debt/obligation of the first kind will be discharged first. After this, if there are assets available, the second class of obligations/liabilities will be paid.

If during Maradhul Maut a man makes an acknowledgement of any obligation in favour of a heir or he makes a gift of an asset to a heir, it will have no validity. These operations are null and void. However, if all of the adult heirs uphold the operation, the obligation will be executed from the assets remaining after funeral expenses and payment of debts.

If a person who is an heir of the testator ceases to be his heir, the acknowledgement in his favour will be valid. This will happen if the beneficiary of the acknowledgement predeceases the testator. In view of him dying first, he no longer remains an heir, hence the acknowledgement of debt/obligation in his favour is valid and the debt/obligation will be paid to the heirs of the predeceased former heir.

If the acknowledgement is confirmed by common knowledge or evidenced by witnesses it will constitute a debt of the first category of Qardh. In the absence of such evidence the obligation will be assigned to the second class of Qardh.

All charitable acknowledgements and endowments of a non-obligatory nature made during Maradhul Maut come within the scope of Wasiyyat.

Directives issued regarding payment of compensation (Fidya/Kaffarah) for unfulfilled Salat, Saum, Hajj, Qasam (oath), etc., also come within the scope of Wasiyyat. (Wasiyyat will be explained in a separate chapter, Insha'Allah).

If a man divorces his wife during Maradhul Maut, whether by Talaq Ba-in or Talaq Raj'i, the Talaq is effective. If the man dies before expiry of her iddat, she remains his heir and will inherit in his estate. If he dies after the expiry of the iddat, she will not inherit in his estate.

If during her Maradhul Maut a woman enters into a Khula' contract in which she pays her husband a sum of money, the Khula' will be valid.

If a man marries during Maradhul Maut and the Mahr fixed is the normal Mahr-e-Mithl of the woman's family/tribe, such Mahr will be a valid debt on the mayyit. If the Mahr fixed is more than Mahr-e-Mithl, the excess will be in the category of Wasiyyat.

During Maradhul Maut a man purchased an asset and paid for it. This purchase and payment are valid provided it is borne out by witnesses or common knowledge. Documentary evidence such as title deeds, official receipts and other instruments of proof will be accepted as valid evidence.

If a man during Maradhul Maut acknowledges that he has misappropriated or destroyed the property/amanat (an item held in trust) of a certain heir and that he is liable for payment of compensation, then this acknowledgement will constitute a debt of the first category provided that there is evidence to confirm this acknowledgement of debt.

If during Maradhul Maut a man declares that a certain debt owing to him, - i.e. a debt which he gave prior to his Maradhul Maut, has already been paid by the debtor, then such declaration is valid provided the debtor is not one of his heirs.

If during Maradhul Maut a man makes an acknowledgement of debt/obligation in favour of a non-heir and the heirs accept this declaration, then the acknowledgement will be valid even in the absence of evidence.

If during Maradhul Maut a man marries a woman after having acknowledged a debt in favour of her, then this acknowledgement is valid. If there is no evidence to corroborate his statement, the debt will be of the second category.

If during Maradhul Maut an insolvent man waives debt owed to him, then such a waiver is not valid. The creditors can claim the debt from his debtors.

If during Maradhul Maut a woman says that she has already received her mahr or she waives her mahr, then both acts are invalid. However, if there is evidence to support her in the claim of having received her mahr, her statement will be valid. If the heirs uphold the waiving of her mahr, the waiver too will be valid.

If during Maradhul Maut an insolvent man accords preferential treatment to a particular creditor by making a payment to him, such an act is not valid. The rights of all creditors are equally related to his estate which will be distributed among the creditors in proportion to the respective amounts owing. The preferential payment made will be reclaimed by the creditors.

The same rule pertaining to preferential treatment as mentioned in No. 17 above, will apply if a man pays his wife's mahr during his Maradhul Maut or if he pays any outstanding wages/fees owing to employees. The payment thus made will not be valid.

NOTE: A payment of debt will only be described as preferential on the death of the debtor. While he is living, all payments made by him are valid since it cannot be claimed with certitude that his illness is in fact Maradhul Maut. However, on his death it will be conclusively established that the illness was in fact Maradhul Maut, hence the other creditors are entitled to annul the preferential payments.

A gift made to a non-heir in Maradhul Maut will be in the category of Wasiyyat. If the value of the gift is less than the value of one third of he estate or equal to one third, it will be valid. Any amount in excess of one third the value of the estate is not valid and will be reclaimed by the heirs.

WASIYYAT

A bequest made by a person for part of his wealth to be contributed after his death to a person or institution is termed Wasiyyat.

The Shariah permits a Wasiyyat of one third or less of a man's estate. It is not permissible to make a Wasiyyat of more than one third. The amount in excess of a third of the value of the estate is not valid.

The following acts of a person come within the classification of Wasiyyat:

Contributions made during Maradhul Maut, e.g. gifts, waiving debt, charity.

Relating any disbursement or contribution of wealth to his inaut (death) , e.g. a sum should be contributed to a Musjid, Madrasah, etc. or a certain amount should be given to a non-heir or a specific sum should be spent on feeding the poor, etc.

Payment of Fidyah (compensation) for Salat, Saum and Hajj which were not executed during the lifetime of the deceased.

Payment of Kaffarah (penalty) for violated oaths, fasts, etc.

MASAAIL

When a man makes a Wasiyyat, it devolves as an incumbent duty on the heirs to execute the Wasiyyat. The obligation of fulfilling the mayyit's Wasiyyat is incumbent only up to one third the value of the total assets in the estate. It is not incumbent to pay the amount in excess of one third, e.g. the mayyit had made Wasiyyat for R5,000 to be contributed to a Musjid. However, the total value of his estate is R9,000. Thus only R3,000 will be given to the Musjid.

If all the heirs voluntarily accede to execute the full Wasiyyat even in excess of one third, it will be permissible. However, the consent of minor heirs is not valid. Hence, nothing may be taken from their shares for payment towards
the excess.

The 'third' in this context refers to one third of the value of the estate's assets after payment of funeral expenses and debts.

The consent of an adult heir who is absent cannot be assumed. Hence, nothing may be taken from the absent heir's share for the execution of the excess Wasiyyat.

When requesting the consent of an absent heir, it is essential to furnish full details of the Wasiyyat and the amount. His consent without him having been informed of the details of the Wasiyyat is not valid.

Only the consent which heirs give after the death of their Murith is valid. If during the lifetime of the mayyit the heirs had consented to a Wasiyyat more than a third, but withdrew such consent after the death of the murith, then the initial consent will be invalid.

When a person has neither heirs nor creditors and he makes a Wasiyyat for all his wealth to be contributed as he directs, then such a Wasiyyat will be valid.

8. The Wasiyyat will be valid only if the Musi (the one who makes the bequest) is sane and an adult.

9. The Wasiyyat will be discharged only if there are assets after payment of funeral expenses and debts.

The Wasiyyat will remain valid even if the beneficiary of the Wasiyyat dies before he accepts the benefit of the Wasiyyat. The Wasiyyat amount will be paid to the heirs of the beneficiary. The essential condition is that the beneficiary should be alive at the time the Wasiyyat is made in his favour. Thus, if a Wasiyyat is made in favour of a deceased person, the amount will not be paid to the heirs of the deceased in whose favour the Wasiyyat was made since such a Wasiyyat is not valid.

The subject of Wasiyyat should be an object or a right which can be owned, e.g. a fixed property, a vehicle, garments or the right to live in a house for a specific time, e.g. 5 years. If a right (i.e. a right which is valid in the Shariah) is bequeathed, the asset (e.g. house) will remain the property of the heirs while the beneficiary of the Wasiyyat will enjoy the right of occupying the house for whatever time specified in the Wasiyyat.

A Wasiyyat in favour of an heir is not valid. However, if all the adult heirs uphold the Wasiyyat it will be valid. But, nothing will be taken from the shares of minor heirs to fulfil the Wasiyyat in excess of one third which the adult heirs have accepted to uphold.

A Wasiyyat is not valid for such a person who happens to be an heir on the death of the murith. Sometimes a person becomes an heir in the absence of a closer heir, e.g. a grandson (son's son). If a man is survived by a grandson and no sons of his own, the grandson will become an heir. But, if a son is living, the grandson will not I herit. Thus, if at the time of the Murith's death the person is not an heir, the Wasiyyat in his favour will be valid. Another example is a brother who is not an heir if tne mayyit is survived by either his father or sons. A Wasiyyat in favour of a brother will, therefore, be valid. However, if the mayyit has no father, sons or grandsons (i.e. son's son), then the brother will be a heir, hence a Wasiyyat for him will not be valid.

A Wasiyyat for a non-Muslim is valid although there are no ties of inheritance between Muslims and non-Muslims.

The beneficiary of the Wasiyyat is termed Musa Lahu. Both the acceptance and rejection of a Wasiyyat during the lifetime of the Musi (the one who makes the Wasiyyat) are not valid. The Musa Lahu's acceptance or rejection is valid only after the death of the Musi.

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7. Virtues of Qurbani

Shaikh Mohammad Saleem Dhorat

Qurbani is a practice commanded by Allah:

So turn in prayer towards your Lord and sacrifice (animals). (108.2)

There is nothing dearer to Allah during the days of Qurbani than the sacrificing of animals. The sacrificed animal shall come on the Day of judgment with its horns, hair, and hooves (to be weighed). The sacrifice is accepted by Allah before the blood reaches the ground. Therefore sacrifice with an open and happy heart. (Tirmizi, Ibne Majah)

Zayd lbne Arqam radhiyallahu anhu relates that the Companions (radbiyallahu anhum) asked, "O Rasoolullah!(Sallallahu Alayhi Wasalaam)What is Qurbani?" He replied, "It is the sunnah of your father lbraheem (alayhis salam)." They asked again, "What benefit do we get from it?" He answered, "A reward for every hair (of the sacrificed animal)." "And (what reward is there for animals with) wool, 0 Rasoolullah (Sallallahu Alayhi Wasalaam)?" they asked. "A reward", he said, "for every fibre of the wool.",(Ibne Majah)

When a person slaughters a Qurbani animal, he is forgiven at the fall of the first drop of blood, and verily, the animal shall be brought forward on the Day of Judgment with its blood, meat etc, and shall be increased in weight seventy times more than its own weight, and thereafter it will be placed on the scale of deeds. (Kanzul'Ummal)

ON WHOM IS QURBANI WAJIB?

Qurbani is wajib on every Muslim who is of sound mind, mature (who has reached the age of puberty), muqeem (i.e. he is not a Shar'ee traveler) and possesses the amount of fifty two and half tolas of silver (612-36 grams) or wealth equivalent to that value which is in excess of one's aslee (basic) needs. It is not necessary that this amount be in one's possession for a complete lunar year. It's possession during the three days of Qurbani will make Qurbani obligatory. Qurbani is not incumbent on a child or an insane person whether they own wealth equivalent to the amount above or not, nor is it wajib upon their guardians to perform it on their behalf. Similarly, it is not wajib on a Shar'ee traveler.

NOTE: A Shar'ee traveler is he who goes on a journey with an intention of traveling forty eight miles. He will be treated as a traveler as soon as he goes out of his town.

* It is highly virtuous for one on whom Qurbani is not wajib to offer sacrifice for the Pleasure of Allah. He will be eligible for all the reward mentioned in the Ahadeeth.

* During the days of Qurbani, sadaqah and charity cannot compensate for Qurbani nor fulfil the wajib. Qurbani is a unique ibadah. Just as Zakah cannot compensate for Hajj, or Sawm (Fasting) cannot compensate for Salaat, similarly charity cannot compensate for Qurbani. However, if the days of Qurbani had passed, and the Qurbani was not offered due to not knowing, negligence or for some other valid reason, then it becomes wajib to give in sadaqah the price of Qurbani animal or the animal itself to the poor.

* If a traveler returned home or a person acquired the required wealth on the 12th of Zul Hijjah before sunset, it will be wajib upon him to perform Qurbani.

* A traveler who makes intention of staying at a certain place for fifteen days or more, no longer remains a traveler. He must offer Qurbani if he possesses the prescribed amount.

DAYS OF QURBANI

* The days of Qurbani are the tenth, eleventh and twelfth of Zul Hijjah. The first day is better than the second, and the second better than the last.

TIME FOR QURBANI

* In towns and cities where jumu'ah and 'Eid are performed, Qurbani is not permissible before the 'Eid Salat. If the Qurbani has been offered before the 'Eid Salat, it will have to be repeated. Therefore, the time for Qurbani commences after 'Eid Salat on 1Oth Zul Hijjah until before sunset of 12th Zul Hijjah.

* It is permissible, but not preferable to perform Qurbani at night.

THE QURBANI ANIMAL

* It is permissible to offer in sacrifice a goat or she-goat, sheep of all kinds, cow, bull, buffalo or camel.

* It is necessary that the goat is one (full) year old, whether male or female. A cow, bull or buffalo will have to be two years old, and a camel five years. .Animals that are younger are not suitable for Qurbani.

* A sheep (of any kind) not less than six months old, so strong and fat that it appears to be one year old will suffice for Qurbani, otherwise it will have to be one (full) year old.

* A cow, bull, buffalo or camel will suffice for seven persons provided no one's share is less than one seventh and the niyyah (intention) of all partners is to attain thawab (for Qurbani), and not merely to obtain meat.

* The Qurbani of only one person can be performed from a goat, sheep or ram.

* If an animal seller says that the animal has reached the required age, and outwardly there is no sign to disprove it, then it is permissible to rely on his statement.

* Animals that are castrated can be used for Qurbani. In fact this type of animal is preferable.

* The following cannot he used for Qurbani:

- Animals that are blind, one-eyed or has lost one-third or more of its eyesight.

-Animals that have lost a third of the ear or the tail. Similarly, the animal which has no ear from its very birth.

- Animal whose horn has been broken off from the root.

- Animal which has one leg lame to the extent that it walks on three legs only and is unable to use the fourth leg.

- Animal so lean and thin that its bones have no marrow.

- Animal so weak that it cannot walk to the place of slaughtering on its own.

- Animal completely toothless or one that has lost most of its teeth.

* It is virtuous to purchase the animal for Qurbani a few days prior to slaughtering and care must be taken in feeding and nursing it.

MASNOON METHOD OF SACRIFICE

* It is more virtuous to slaughter the animal with one's own hands. If one does not know how to slaughter, it is preferred that he remain present while someone else is sacrificing the animal. It is not necessary to make the niyyah (intention) of Qurbani with the tongue, however it is necessary to say Bismillahi Allahu Akbar when slaughtering.

* Use a sharp knife and slaughter the animal quickly so that it does not suffer.

* Do not sharpen the knife in front of the animal.

* After slaughtering, do not skin the animal before it becomes completely cold.

* Do not slaughter one animal in the presence of another.

* It is mustahab (desirable) for one who intends to perform Qurbani to refrain from cutting hair or clipping nails from 1st Zul Hijjah to 10th Zul Hijjah,(i.e. until after Qurbani).

THE QURBANI MEAT AND SKIN

* It is permissible to eat the Qurbani meat.

* It can also be distributed to relatives and friends whether wealthy or poor, Muslims or non-Muslims. It is better to divide it into three parts. One for the family, one for relatives and friends and one for the poor and needy.

* The skin of the Qurbani animal can be kept for personal use, e.g. using it as a prayer-mat, water bag, etc.

* If the skin of the Qurbani animal is sold, then it is wajib to give that amount in sadaqah to the poor (i.e. those who are eligible for Zakah).

* It is not permissible to give meat, fat, etc. of the sacrificed animal to the butcher as his wages.

* The meat of the animal slaughtered by partners should be shared by weight and not by estimation.

* The rope, cover, etc. of the animal should be given away as sadaqah.

QURBANI ON BEHALF OF THE DECEASED

If one has been favoured by Allah with wealth, then he should also perform Qurbani on behalf of Rasoolullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam), his Sahabah, his Ummah, the Prophets and for his own living or deceased relatives, friends and teachers who have conveyed Deeni knowledge.

One should always remember and never overlook our beloved Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) and perform Qurbani on his behalf. Aboo Talhah ( radhiyallahu anhu) has related that the Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) sacrificed one ram and while sacrificing the other he said, "This is on behalf of every one of my Ummah who believed in me and testified (to my prophethood). (Tabrani)

It is a matter for deep thought and consideration that the Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wasallam ) kept his Ummah in his mind while offering the sacrifice and it is deplorable for the Ummah not to remember him at the time of Qurbani.

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8. Islamic Finance

Justice Mawlana Taqi Usmani (DB)

Ijarah

1) Introduction

2) Basic Rules of Leasing

3) Lease as a mode of financing

4) The commencement of lease

5) Different relations of the parties

6) Expenses consequent to ownership

7) Variable Rentals in Long Term Leases

8) Penalty for Late Payment of Rent

9) Termination of lease

10) Insurance of the assets

11) Sub-Lease

12) Assigning of the Lease

13) Securitization of Ijarah

14) Head-Lease Islamic Finance

Introduction

"Ijarah" is a term of Islamic fiqh. Lexically, it means 'to give something on rent'. In the Islamic jurisprudence, the term 'Ijarah' is used for two different situations. In the first place, it means 'to employ the services of a person on wages given to him as a consideration for his hired services." The employer is called 'mustajir' while the employee is called 'ajir'.

Therefore, if A has employed B in his office as a manager or as a clerk on a monthly salary, A is mustajir, and B is an ajir. Similarly, if A has hired the services of a porter to carry his baggage to the airport, A is a mustajir while the porter is an ajir, and in both cases the transaction between the parties is termed as Ijarah. This type of Ijarah includes every transaction where the services of a person are hired by someone else. He may be a doctor, a lawyer, a teacher, a laborer or any other person who can render some valuable services. Each one of them may be called an 'ajir' according to the terminology of Islamic law, and the person who hires their services is called a 'mustajir', while the wages paid to the ajir are called their 'ujrah'. Labor

The second type of Ijarah relates to the usufructs of assets and properties, and not to the services of human beings. 'Ijarah' in this sense means 'to transfer the usufruct of a particular property to another person in exchange for a rent claimed from him.' In this case, the term 'Ijarah' is analogous to the English term 'leasing'. Here the lessor is called 'Mujir', the lessee is called 'mustajir' and the rent payable to the lessor is called 'ujrah'.

Both these kinds of 'Ijarah' are thoroughly discussed in the literature of Islamic jurisprudence and each one of them has its own set of rules. But for the purpose of the present book, the second type of Ijarah is more relevant, because it is generally used as a form of investment, and as a mode of financing also.

The rules of Ijarah, in the sense of leasing, is very much analogous to the rules of sale, because in both cases something is transferred to another person for a valuable consideration. The only difference between Ijarah and sale is that in the latter case the corpus of the property is transferred to the purchaser, while in the case of Ijarah, the corpus of the property remains in the ownership of the transferor, but only its usufruct i.e. the right to use it, is transferred to the lessee.

Therefore, it can easily be seen that 'Ijarah' is not a mode of financing in its origin. It is a normal business activity like sale. However, due to certain reasons, and in particular, due to some tax concessions it may carry, this transaction is being used in the Western countries for the purpose of financing also. Instead of giving a simple interest - bearing loan, some financial institutions started leasing some equipments to their customers. While fixing the rent of these equipment, they calculate the total cost they have incurred in the purchase of these assets and add the stipulated interest they could have claimed on such an amount during the lease period. The aggregate amount so calculated is divided on the total months of the lease period, and the monthly rent is fixed on that basis.

The question whether or not the transaction of leasing can be used as a mode of financing in Shariah depends on the terms and conditions of the contract. As mentioned earlier, leasing is a normal business transaction and not a mode of financing. Therefore, the lease transaction is always governed by the rules of Shariah prescribed for Ijarah. Let us, therefore, discuss the basic rules governing the lease transactions, as enumerated in the Islamic Fiqh. After the study of these rules, we will be able to understand under what conditions the Ijarah may be used for the purpose of financing.

Although the principles of Ijarah are so numerous that a separate volume is required for their full discussion, we will attempt in this chapter to summarize those basic principles only which are necessary for the proper understanding of the nature of the transaction and are generally needed in the context of modern economic practice. These principles are recorded here in the form of brief notes, so that the readers may use them for quick reference.

Basic Rules of Leasing

1. Leasing is a contract whereby the owner of something transfers its usufruct to another person for an agreed period, at an agreed consideration.

2. The subject of lease must have a valuable use. Therefore, things having no usufruct at all cannot be leased.

3. It is necessary for a valid contract of lease that the corpus of the leased property remains in the ownership of the seller, and only its usufruct is transferred to the lessee. Thus, anything which cannot be used without consuming cannot be leased out. Therefore, the lease cannot be effected in respect of money, eatables, fuel and ammunition etc. because their use is not possible unless they are consumed. If anything of this nature is leased out, it will be deemed to be a loan and all the rules concerning the transaction of loan shall accordingly apply. Any rent charged on this invalid lease shall be an interest charged on a loan.

4. As the corpus of the leased property remains in the ownership of the lessor, all the liabilities emerging from the ownership shall be borne by the lessor, but the liabilities referable to the use of the property shall be borne by the lessee.

Example:

A has leased his house to B. The taxes referable to the property shall be borne by A, while the water tax, electricity bills and all expenses referable to the use of the house shall be borne by B, the lessee.

5. The period of lease must be determined in clear terms.

6. The lessee cannot use the leased asset for any purpose other than the purpose specified in the lease agreement. If no such purpose is specified in the agreement, the lessee can use it for whatever purpose it is used in the normal course. However if he wishes to use it for an abnormal purpose, he cannot do so unless the lessor allows him in express terms.

7. The lessee is liable to compensate the lessor for every harm to the leased asset caused by any misuse or negligence on the part of the lessee.

8. The leased asset shall remain in the risk of the lessor throughout the lease period in the sense that any harm or loss caused by the factors beyond the control of the lessee shall be borne by the lessor.

9. A property jointly owned by two or more persons can be leased out, and the rental shall be distributed between all the joint owners according to the proportion of their respective shares in the property.

10. A joint owner of a property can lease his proportionate share to his co-sharer only, and not to any other person.

11. It is necessary for a valid lease that the leased asset is fully identified by the parties.

Example:

A said to B. "I lease you one of my two shops." B agreed. The lease is void, unless the leased shop is clearly determined and identified.

Determination of Rental

12. The rental must be determined at the time of contract for the whole period of lease.

It is permissible that different amounts of rent are fixed for different phases during the lease period, provided that the amount of rent for each phase is specifically agreed upon at the time of effecting a lease. If the rent for a subsequent phase of the lease period has not been determined or has been left at the option of the lessor, the lease is not valid.

Example (1) : A leases his house to B for a total period of 5 years. The rent for the first year is fixed as Rs. 2000/- per month and it is agreed that the rent of every subsequent year shall be 10% more than the previous one. The lease is valid.

Example (2): In the above example, A puts a condition in the agreement that the rent of Rs. 2000/- per month is fixed for the first year only. The rent for the subsequent years shall be fixed each year at the option of the lessor. The lease is void, because the rent is uncertain.

The determination of rental on the basis of the aggregate cost incurred in the purchase of the asset by the lessor, as normally done in financial leases, is not against the rules of Shariah, if both parties agree to it, provided that all other conditions of a valid lease prescribed by the Shariah are fully adhered to.

14. The lessor cannot increase the rent unilaterally, and any agreement to to this effect is void.

15. The rent or any part thereof may be payable in advance before the delivery of the asset to the lessee, but the amount so collected by the lessor shall remain with him as 'on account' payment and shall be adjusted towards the rent after its being due.

16. The lease period shall commence from the date on which the leased asset has been delivered to the lessee, no matter whether the lessee has started using it or not.

17. If the leased asset has totally lost the function for which it was leased, and no repair is possible, the lease shall terminate on the day on which such loss has been caused. However, if the loss is caused by the misuse or by the negligence of the lessee, he will be liable to compensate the lessor for the depreciated value of the asset as, it was immediately before the loss.

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9. H A J

Mawlana Ashraf Ali Thanvi (RA)

Hajj is Fardh when the conditions therefore are found. In the absence of the necessary conditions, Hajj is Nafl. Like Salaat, Saum (Fasting), and Zakaat, Hajj too is of fundamental importance. It is one of the Pillars of Islam.

1. Allah Taala says: It is obligatory upon people to make Hajj of this House (Kabah) for the sake of Allah. It is obligatory on the person who has the means of reaching there. (Quraan)

If Hajj has become Fardh on a person, observance of Salaat, Saum (Fasting), and Zakaat will not suffice for salvation (Najaat). Hajj is a demonstration of love for Allah. The flavour of love which permeates the acts of Hajj distinguishes it from other Ibaadat. Thus those who posses love for Allah is deficient, it will be strengthened by their engagement in the acts of love which belong to the Ibaadat of Hajj. Love for Allah established in the heart will solidify ones Deen. The presence of love for Allah in the heart establishes ones Deen on a firm basis. Hajj is specially efficacious for strengthening ones Deen.

1. Hadhrat Aishah (radiallahu anhu) narrates that Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) said: Making Tawaaf of Baitullah, to walk between Safa and Marwah and to pelt stones (at the Jimaar) have been ordained for establishing the remembrance of Allah Taala. (Abu Dawood)

An observer might wonder at the wisdom underlying the circumambulation, the running and the pelting, but the Muslim should not be concerned about the wisdoms beneath these acts. Render these acts believing them to be the commands of Allah Taala and that His Remembrance will be grounded in the heart by observing these acts. The relationship of the Believer with Allah Taala is strengthened and his love is tested. Without understanding the wisdom of these acts, the Muslim in love with Allah, executes them because of the Command of Allah Taala. All Commands of Allah Taala carried out because of His love.

The acts of Hajj are permeated with love. Love overwhelms intelligence regarding the acts of Hajj. Idhtiba (baring the shoulder) and Raml (walking with shoulders swaying in soldier-like fashion) acts done in Hajj were initiated in the beginning as a display of physical strength when there was yet kuffaar domination over Makkah. However, these practices were retained even after Allah Taala destroyed the power of the kuffaar and established Islam over Makkah. Hadhrat Umar (radiallahu anhu) states in this regard: Inspite of the cause of these acts no longer existing, we shall not give them up, for we rendered these acts since the time of Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) and Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam), himself rendered these acts in Hajjatul Wida when there was not a single kaafir in Makkah. (Abu Dawood)

If Hajj was not dominated by the attitude of love, these acts (Idhtiba, Raml and running) would have been terminated because of already having served their purpose.

Hadhrat Aabis Bin Rabeeah (radiallahu anhu) narrates that once Hadhrat Umar (radiallahu anhu) after kissing Hajr-e-Aswad (The Black Stone) said:
I know that you are a stone. You can neither benefit nor harm anyone. If I did not see Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) kissing you, I would not have kissed you. (Abu Dawood)

Hadhrat Umar (radiallahu anhu) kissed the stone merely because he saw Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) doing so. It was the relationship of love with Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) which motivated Hadhrat Umar (radiallahu anhu) to kiss Hajr-e-Aswad, and by his statement, Hadhrat Umar (radiallahu anhu) clarified the Muslims do not regard Hajr-e-Aswad as an object of worship.

Hadhrat Ibn Umar (radiallahu anhu) narrates that Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wsasallam) placed his lips on Hijr-e-Aswad, and for a long shile remained in this sate crying. When Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) turned around, he saw Hadhrat Umar (radiallahu anhu) also crying. Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) said:

O Umar! This is indeed an occasion of shedding tears. (Ibn Majah, Ibn Khuzaimah, Hakim, Baihaqi)

When it is the day of Arafah (when all the Hujjaaj gather), Allah Taala says to the Malaaikah: Look at My servants. They have come to Me from far off, crying to Me in their state of forlornness and worry while they are wandering around in the heart. I make you witness that I have forgiven them. (Baihaq, Ibn Khuzaimah)

A few narrations which indicate the nature of love of the acts of Hajj have been mentioned. All acts of Hajj, it will be found, are permeated with the flavour of love. A cursory glance at the various rites of Hajj will make this abundantly clear. Wandering in the hills of Muzdalifah and Arfaat; shouting and proclaiming Labbaik; wandering about bareheaded; donning two unsewn garments; wearing garments like the dead; refraining from cutting or trimming the hair and nails; not even being allowed to kill lice; running to and fro between Safa and Marwah; circumambulating the Kabah; kissing the Black Stone; glancing with melancholy at the Kabah; pelting the Pillars sacrificing animals; together with the many prohibitions and restrictions are all acts which are strongly influenced by Love for Allah Taala. In this Ibaadat of Hajj, love over whelms intelligency. The Ibaadat of Hajj is for those in love with their Creator.

Certain things in these acts are waived for women because of the Shariahs consideration of Purdah.
Like the acts of Hajj are permeated with love, so too are the places, viz., Makkah Mukarramah and surroundings where these rites of love are offered. The holy places too play their part in strengthening the love of Allah in the hearts of the Mumineen who have come to offer their love to their Creator. It is mentioned in the Quraan Shareef in Surah Ibraheem, that Nabi Ibraheem (alayhis salaam) while making dua requested Allah Taala to incline the hearts of people to his progeny who will settle around the Holy Kabah. Allah Taala accepted this dua and its effect is plainly visible to all Muslims. There is not a single Mumin whose heart is not attached to the Kabah.

Hadhrat Ibn Abbas (radiallahu anhu) says that if Hadhrat Ibraheem (alayhis salaam) had not specified the hearts of some people in his dua, then even multitudes of Jews and Christians would have gathered at the Kabah. But, because Nabi Ibrahim (alayhis salaam) asked for only the hearts of Believers to be inclined to his progency who settled in the vicinity of the Kabah, it (Kabah) has become place of love and veneration for only Believers.

Hadhrat Ibn Abbas (radiallahu anhu) narrates that on the occasion when Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) migrated from Makkah, he turned towards the city as he was departing and said in grief and sorrow:

How pure and beloved a city you are to me. If my people had not expelled me, I would never have left you to live elsewhere. (Mishkaat)

Since every Mumin has a bond of love with Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam), it is only necessary that this love will extend to the city which Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) loved so dearly. Thus, love for Makkah Muazzamah is the result of the dua of two Nabis, viz., Nibi Ibraheem (alayhis salaam) and Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam).

What has been so far explained is the true, actual and Deeni significance of Hajj and the places of Hajj. Besides these Deeni significance there are also some worldly benefits in Hajj although ones intention and gaze must not be on the worldly advantages. Without even being concerned of the worldly benefits, they are acquired automatically.

Another Ibaadat similar to Hajj is Umrah which is a Sunnatul Muakkadah obligation. Umrah too is an Ibaadat of love and consists of certain acts which are rendered in Hajj. For this reason Umrah has been described as Hajj Asghar or Lesser Hajj. Umrah is rendered during the period of Hajj as well. Thus two Ibaadat of the greatest significance are united on one occasion. Besides the period of Hajj, the Ibaadat of Umrah may be discharged at any other time also.

Allah Taala says in the Quraan:

"Fulfil Hajj and Umrah in full measure for the sake of Allah.

It is necessary to observe all conditions, acts and etiquettes of these acts of Ibaadat. In addition, of the greatest importance is sincerity of intention.

Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) said that whoever fails to perform Hajj inspite of having the means and inspite of their being nothing to prevent him, may die as a Jew or Christian. This stern warning applies to those who forgo the Fardh Hajj for no valid Shari reason. The harshness of this warning indicates the absolute importance of Hajj-Hadhrat Ibn Abbaas (radiallahu anhu) narrates that Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) said:

Whoever intends to go on Hajj should make a haste. (mishkaat)

Hadhrat Ibn Masood (radiallahu anhu) narrates that Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) said:

United Hajj and Umrah (during the Hajj period). Both acts of Ibaadat) eliminate poverty and sins in a similar way in which the impurities of gold, silver and iron are eliminated. The reward of a Hajj which was performed correctly is nothing other than Jannat. (Mishkaat)

The above hadith mentions a worldly benefit and a Deeni benefit, viz., elimination of poverty and elimination of sins. Sins here refer to Huqooqullah (sins committed against Allah Taala and in which the rights of others were not involved). Regarding Huqooqul Ibaad (the rights of others), sins committed in this relation are not forgiven even by martyrdom. For the forgiveness of sins involving the rights of others it is essential to obtain first the pardon of those whose rights were usurped or destroyed.

Allah Taala accepts the dua of the one who performs Hajj and Umrah and if he seeks forgiveness, Allah Taala forgives him. (Mishkaat)

Hadhrat Abu Hurairah (radiallahu anhu) narrates that Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) said:

Whoever sets out for Hajj, Umrah or Jihad but dies on the journey (before being able to render these obligations), Allah Taala records for him the thawaab of the ghazi (one who returns victorious from the Jahaad field) and the thawaab of one who has performed the Hajj and Umrah. (Mishkaat)

In relation to Hajj there is another act of Ibaadah as well. This is the Ziyaarah (Visiting) of the auspicious Raudhah (Grave) of Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam). The majority of Ulama say that the visit to the gracious Raudhah of Nabi-e-Kareem (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) is Mustahab. This act too is permeated with love. While Hajj is love for Allah Taala, Ziyaarah of the Holy Raudhah is love for Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam). Hajj produces progress in the love for Allah Taala and Ziyaarah of the Holy Raudhah produces progress in the love for Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam):
Hadhrat Ibn Umar (radiallahu anhu) narrates that Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) said:

The one who after having made Hajj visits me after my death (i.e. visits the Holy Raudah) is like one who has visited me while I was alive. (Mishkaat)

Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) has equated visiting his Grave to visiting him when he was alive. The tremendous significance of Ziyaarah of the Raudha-e-Mubaarak should thus be manifest. The benefit to be gained is indeed great. The effect of Ziyaarah is the inculcation of love in the heart for Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) similar to the effect of love which generated in the hearts of Believers when they visited Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) during his lifetime. Increase in love for Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) by Ziyaarah of the Holy Grave is readily felt in the hearts of the true Believers. This is a true and common experience for all those who make the Ziyaarah to the auspicious Grave of Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam).

Madinah Munawwarah too, is a place of holiness and love like Makkah Muazzamah. Hadhrat Abu Hurairah narrates in a length hadith that Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) made dua to Allah Taala and said:

O Allah! He is (i.e. Nabi Ibraheem-alayhi salaam) made dua to you for Makkah. I make dua to You for Madinah .) (Mishkaat)

Hadhrat Aishah (radiallahu anhu) narrates that Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) said:

O Allah! Make Madinah beloved to us just as we love Makkah .. and even more beloved than Makkah .. (Mishkaat)

Hadhrat Anas (radiallahu anhu) narrates that when Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) returned from a journey, he would spur on his camel as soon as he saw the houses of Madinah. This, Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) would do so as to reach Madinah quickly. This action indicates the profound love which Nabi-e-Kareem (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) had for Madinah Munawwarah.

Hadhrat Yahaya Ibn Saeed (radiallahu anhu) narrates that Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) said:

On the surface of the earth there is no place which I love more for my grave to be located than Madinah.  (Mishkaat)

Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) repeated this statement thrice.
The aforegoing narrations will suffice to indicate the profound love which engulfs the acts of Hajj, Umrah, Ziyaarah and the Holy Places. The love of all these is indeed embedded in the hearts of the Believers. There is no need to provide proof for this. Believer who have the means should, therefore, not neglect these noble, important and great acts of Ibaadat. These acts are indeed a great treasure.

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10. The Spirit of West

Mohammad Asad

In the foregoing chapter an attempt has been made to give an outline of the moral fundaments of Islam. We easily realise that the Islamic Civilisation is the most complete form of Theocracy history has ever known. Religious consideration is here above everything and underlies everything. If we compare this attitude with that of the Western Civilisation, we are impressed by the vast difference of outlook.

The modern West is ruled, in its activities and endeavours, by considerations of practical utility and dynamic expansion alone. Its inherent aim is the experimenting with, and the discovery of, the potentialities of life, without attributing to this life a moral reality of its own. For the modern European the question of meaning and purpose of life has long since lost all its practical importance. Important for him is only the question as to what forms life can assume, and whether the human race as such is progressing towards ultimate mastership over nature, or not. This last question the modern

European answers in an affirmative sense; and here he is in agreement with Islam. In the Holy Qur'an God says of Adam and his race :

"Behold, I am placing a vicegerent on earth." (2:30)

This means that man is destined to rule and to progress oil earth. But the difference between the Islamic and the Western view-points is as to the quality of the human progress. The modern West believes in the possibility of a progressive spiritual improvement of mankind, in the collective sense, by means of their practical achievements and the development of scientific thought. The Islamic view point, however, is diametrically opposed to this Western, dynamic, conception of humanity. Islam regards the spiritual possibilities of the collective " mankind " as a static quantity : as something that has been definitely laid down in the very consititu-tion of the human nature as such. Islam has never accepted for granted, as the West does, that the human naturein its general, super-individual senseis undergoing a process of progressive change and improvement in a similar way as a tree grows; because the basis of that nature, the human soul, is not a biological quantity. The fundamental mistake of the modern European thought, to regard an increase of material knowledge and comfort as identical with a spiritual and moral improvement of mankind, was possible only because of the equally fundamental mistake which consisted in applying biological rules to non-biological facts. At the root of it lies the Western unbelief in the existence of a soul as distinct from matter. Islam, on the contrary, being based on transcendental conceptions, regards the existence of a soul as a reality beyond any discussion. Though certainly not opposed to each other, material and spiritual progress are, according to Islam, two distinctly different aspects of human life; the one has nothing to do with the other, neither in a positive nor in a negative sense. They may exist side by side, and again they may not. While clearly admitting the possibility, and strongly asserting the desirability, of an outward, that is, material, progress of mankind as a collective body, Islam as clearly denies the possibility of a spiritual improvement of humanity as a whole by means of its collective achievements. The dynamic element of spiritual improvement is limited to the individual being, and the only possible curve of spiritual and moral development is that between birth and death of the single individual. We cannot possibly march towards perfection as a collective body. Every one must strive towards the spiritual goal within himself, and every one must begin afresh with himself. This decidedly individualistic outlook on the spiritual destinies of man is counterbalanced, and indirectly confirmed, by the Islamic rigorous conception of society and social collaboration. The duty of society is to arrange the outward life in such a way that the single individual may find as few obstacles as possible, and as much encouragement as possible, in his spiritual endeavours. This is the reason why the Islamic Law, the Shart'ah, is concerned with human life from its spiritual as well as from its material sides, and both with its individual and its social aspects.

Such a conception, as has been said before, is possible only on the basis of a positive belief in the existence of the human soul/ and, therefore, in a transcendental purpose of the human life. For the modern European, with his negligent unbelief in soul as a practical reality, the question as to the purpose of life also has no longer practical importance. He has left all transcendental speculations and considerations behind him.

Religious attitude is always based on the belief that there exists an all-embracing, transcendental moral law, and that we human beings are bound to submit ourselves to its requirements. But the modern Western Civilisation does not recognise the necessity of any submission save that to economic or social or national requirements. Its real deity is not of a spiritual kind : it is Comfort. And its real, living philosophy is expressed in the Will to Power for the power's sake. Both are inherited from the old Roman Civilisation.

The mention of the Roman Civilisation asat least to some extentgenetically responsible for the materialism of modern Europe probably would sound strange to those who have heard the frequent comparison of the Roman Empire with the old Islamic Empire. How is such a pronounced difference between the fundamental conception of Islam and the modern West possible, if in the past the political expressions of both were akin to each other? The simple answer is : they were not akin. That popular, so often quoted comparison is one of the many historical platitudes with which a superficial knowledge feeds the minds of the present generation. There is nothing whatever in common between the Islamic and the Roman Empires, with the exception of the fact that both extended over vast territories and heterogeneous populations. But both Empires were directed, during the whole of their existence, by utterly different motive forces and had, so to say, different historical purposes to fulfil. Even on the morphological side we observe a vast difference between the Islamic and the Roman Empires. It took the Roman Empire nearly 1000 years to grow to its full geographical extent and its political maturity; while the Islamic Empire sprang up and grew to its full might within the short period of about 80 years. As regards their respective decay the difference is even more enlightening. The downfall of the Roman Empire, finally caused by the migrations of the Huns and Goths, was effected during one single century and was effected so completely that nothing of it remained but works of literature and architecture. The Byzantine Empire, which is commonly supposed to be the direct heir of the Roman Empire, was a heir only in so far as it continued to rule over some of the territories which once had formed part of the latter. Its social structure and political organisation had hardly anything to do with the conceptions of Roman polity. The Islamic Empire, on the contrary, as embodied in the Caliphate, underwent certain deformations and many dynastic changes in the course of its long existence, but its structure essentially remained the same. As to external attacks, even that of the Mongols, which was far more violent than anything the Roman Empire ever had experienced at the hands of the Huns or Goths, had not been oble to shake the social organisation and the unbroken political existence of the Empire of the Caliphs, though it undoubtedly contributed to the economic and intellectual stagnation of the later times. In contrast to the one century which was needed to destroy the Roman Empire, the Islamic Empire of the Caliphs needed more than 1200 years of slow decay till its ultimate political breakdown, represented in the extinction of the Ottoman Caliphate, was effected and followed by the first signs of dissolution in the Islamic social structure which we are witnessing at present.

This forces the conclusion upon us that the inner strength and social soundness of the Islamic World were superior to anything mankind has ever experienced by way of social organisation. Even the Chinese Civilisation, which has shown similar powers of resistance through many centuries, cannot be used as a comparison here. China lies on the edge of a continent, and was till half a century agothat is, till the rise of modern Japanbeyond the reach of any rival power; the wars with the

Mongols at the time of Jenghiz Khan and his successors touched hardly more than the fringe of the Chinese Empire. But the Islamic Empire stretched over three continents and was all the time surrounded by inimical powers of considerable strength and vitality. Since the dawn of history the so-called Near East was the volcanic centre of conflicting racial and intellectual energies ; but the resistance of the Islamic social organisation was, till recently at least, invincible. We have not to search far for an explanation of this wonderful spectacle: it was the religious teaching of the Qur'an that gave a solid fundament, and the life-example of the Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings be upon him) that became a band of steel around the grand social structure. The Roman Empire had no such spiritual element to keep it together, and therefore it broke down so rapidly.

But there is yet a further difference between these two old Empires. While in the Islamic Empire there was no privileged nation, and power was made subservient to the propagation of an idea regarded by its torchbearers as the sublime religious truth, the idea underlying the Roman Empire was the conquest of power and the exploitation of other nations for the benefit of the mother country alone. To promote better living for a privileged group, no violence was for the Romans too bad, no injustice too base. The famous " Roman justice" was justice for the Romans alone. It is clear that such an attitude was possible only on the basis of an entirely materialistic conception of life and civilisationa materialism certainly refined by an intellectual taste, but none the less foreign to all spiritual values. The Romans never in reality knew religion. Their traditional gods were a pale imitation of the Greek mythology, colourless ghosts silently accepted for the benefit of social convention. In no way the gods were allowed to interfere with real life. They had to give oracles through the medium of their priests, if they were asked; but they never were supposed to confer moral laws upon men.

This was the soil out of which the modern Western Civilisation grew. It undoubtedly received many other influences in the course of its development, and it naturally changed and modified the cultural inheritance of Rome in more than one respect. But the fact remains that all that is real to-day in the Western outlook on life and ethics is directly traceable to the old Roman Civilisation. As the intellectual and social atmosphere of old

Rome was utterly utilitarian and anti-religious not admittedly, to be sure, but in factso is the atmosphere of the modern West. Without having a proof against transcendental religion, and without even admitting the need for such a proof, modern European thought, while tolerating and sometimes even emphasising religion as a social convention, generally leaves transcendental ethics out of the range or practical consideration. The Western Civilisation does not strictly deny God, but it has simply no room and no use for God in its present intellectual system. It has made a virtue out of an intellectual difficulty of man, that is, his inability to grasp the totality of life. Thus, the modern European is likely to attribute practical importance only to such ideas as He within the scope of empiric sciences or, at least, are expected to influence the social relations of men in a tangible way. As the question of the existence of God falls neither under the one nor the other category the European mind is a-priori inclined to exclude God from of the sphere of practical considerations.

The question arises: how is such an attitude compatible with the Christian way of thinking ? Is not Christianity, which is supposed to be spiritual framework of the Western Civilisation, a faith based on transcendental ethics in a similar way as Islam ? Of course, it is. But then, there can be no greater error than to consider the modern Western Civilisation as an outcome of Christianity. The real intellectual fundaments of the modern West are to be found in the old Roman conception of life as a purely utilitarian proposition without any transcendental outlook. It can be expressed as follows : " As we don't know anything definite that is, by means of scientific experiments and calculationsabout the origin of human life and its destinies after the bodily death, so it is better to concentrate all our energies on the development of our material and intellectual possibilities, without allowing ourselves to be hampered by transcendental ethics and moral postulates based on presumptions which defy scientific proof." There can be no doubt that this attitude, so characteristic of the modern Western Civilisation, is as unacceptable for the Christian religious thought as it is for Islam or any other religion, because it is irreligious in its very essence. To ascribe, therefore, the practical achievements of the modern Western Civilisation to the Christian teachings, is almost ridiculous. Christianity has contributed very little to the powerful scientific and material development in which the present civilisation of the West excels all others. Indeed, those achievements emerged out of Europe's age-long intellectual fight against the Christian Church and its outlook.on life.

Through long centuries the spirit of Europe was oppressed by a religious system embodying the contempt of life and nature. The note of renunciation which pervades the Gospels from one end to the other, the passive submission to wrong inflicted, the repudiation of sex as being based on the fall of Adam and Eve in the Paradise, the original sin, atonement through Christ's crucifixion, all these ideas lead to an interpretation of human life not as a positive stage, but almost as a necessary evil, as an educative obstacle on the path of spiritual progress. It is clear that such a belief does not favour energetic endeavours concerning worldly knowledge and the improvement of the earthly conditions of life. And, indeed, for a very long time the intellect of Europe was subdued by this sinister conception of the human existence. During the Middle Ages, when the Church was omnipotent there, Europe had no vitality whatsoever in the realm of scientific research, it lost even all real connection with the philosophical achievements of Rome and Greece out of which European culture had once originated. The intellect revolted more than once; but it was beaten down by the Church again and again. The history of the Middle Ages is full of that bitter struggle between the genius of Europe and the spirit of the Church.

The liberation of the European mind from the intellectual bondage to which the Christian Church had subjugated it fell in the time of the Renaissance and was due, to a very large extent, to the new cultural impulses which the Arabs then were transmitting to the West.

To be concluded

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11. From Eid to Eid

The lesson of continuous sacrifice and striving

Mufti Zubair Bayat

Ramadhan has departed. It was a month of patience. It was a month that called for sacrifice of desires, sacrifice of time, at the same time calling for much bodily exertion and striving. Ramadhan was followed by the joyous day of Eid. The day of Eid wasn't a matter of taking the day off from acts of devotion and worship after a month long period of devotion, sacrifice and striving.It wasn't just relaxation and good times - it entailed extra salah, two khutbahs and distribution of fitra. The theme of sacrifice and striving was clearly evident in this! After Eid, the optional six Shawwal fasts are rewarding and virtuous. They present another wonderful opportunity for sacrifice and striving.

The fasts of the first 10 days of Zil Hajj (barring Eid) and the intensive Ibadah in these 10 holy nights is yet a continuation of the theme of sacrifice and striving. These days are also the days of the Hajj. The Hajj is one mammoth lesson in sacrifice of time, money and great physical and spiritual striving. Then Eid-al-Adha follows. Another lesson is sacrificing of time and money and striving!

This is the essence of the life of a believer in this world, from start to end, it is non-stop sacrifice and striving! All of these micro occasions of sacrifice and striving prepares a Muslim for greater sacrifices, until he is ready and willing for the ultimate sacrifice, the sacrifice of his own life.

Over and over, the Holy Quran repeats the theme of striving and sacrifice:

"And strive (jahidu) for Allah in such an endeavour which is His right." (22:78)

"And whosoever strives (Jahada), strives (Yujahidu) only for himself, for surely! Allah is independent of the universe." (29:6)

"Did you think that you would enter Paradise while yet Allah knows not those of you who really strives (Jahada), nor knows those (of you) who are steadfast." (3:142)

"As for those who strive (Jahada) in Our ways, We surely guide them to Our paths, and surely Allah is with the good doers." (29:69)

"The (true) believers are only those who believe in Allah and His messenger and afterward doubt not, but strive with their wealth and their selves for the cause of Allah. Such are the truthful." (49:15)

"O man! You must strive a hard striving (to attain) to thy Lord, until you meet Him."

The repeated mention of the theme of striving in so many verses of the Holy Quran, indicates that the Holy Quran wishes to prepare and build the mindset of the Muslim for ongoing sacrifice and striving in this world. These is no place in a Muslim's life for laziness, lethargy, indolence, carelessness, negligence and heedlessness. In fact, nothing is achieved even of worldly benefit, without effort, striving and sacrifice, then how can the endless bliss of the Hereafter be achieved without it, merely on wishful thinking or pious hopes?

In fact the fulfilment of every order and command entails striving and sacrifice. Abstaining from sin and evil also requires striving and sacrifice of ones desires. This is referred to as Mujahada or Jihad-an-Nafs the fight against desires. This striving against oneself is obligatory upon every Muslim male and female. The self of man calls towards transgression, preference of the world, and the desires and love of pleasures. But Allah calls to fear of His punishment, awe of His Might and great rewards for following His commands. "And as for the one who fears standing in front of His Lord and restrains himself from evil desires and lusts, verily, Paradise shall be his abode. [79:40-41]

The Messenger of Allah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) also said: "The MUJAHID (one who strives) is actually he who strives against himself (his desires) for the sake of Allah, and the MUHAJIR (one who emigrates) is he who emigrates from sin." (Sahih Ibn Hibban No. 4862)

Many a time we find a person saying: 'I have tried many times, to turn my soul away from committing these acts of disobedience but my efforts have failed.' Another person says: 'I tried to get myself to perform acts of obedience (to Allah), righteous deeds, but I am not able to remain firm upon them, I leave them so quickly.' And yet another says: 'I have repented from evil actions and promised myself that I would not commit them again. However after the passing of time and being occupied much it did not take long before I returned to them. In fact I fell into others and increased in them.' If we were to look at the condition of these people we would realise that the main reason for them not being able to dominate and control their souls and not being able to remain firm upon what they have promised themselves is their lack of sacrifice and striving against their souls. In fact they have left the steering wheel of the soul so that it leads them wherever it wills. The soul is such that if it is not fought against and controlled it commands its possessor to commit evil and obscene deeds.
This striving is all-encompassing and entails striving to learn the teachings of Islam, striving to make oneself act in accordance with what one has learned, striving against shaitaan to ward off the corrupt desires that he stirs in the heart, striving to bear patiently the difficulties involved in calling people to Allah and the insults of people.

Serving others and fulfilling their rights also requires striving and effort. A man asked Nabi Muhammad (sallallahu alayhi wasallam): "Should I join the jihad?" He asked, "Do you have parents?" The man said, "Yes!" The Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) said, "Then strive by serving them!" (Sahih Al-Bukhari No. 5972)

The life of the Nabi Muhammad (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) was a life of constant sacrifice and striving to call mankind to Allah, to convey to them the clear message of Islam, to save them from hell fire and to liberate them from the yokes of every form of tyranny.

People are despondent about the pathetic plight of the Muslim Ummah and how they are being massacred with impunity in many troubled spots. The reality of the matter is no amount of emotional outbursts, without action and commitment from the Muslims is going to achieve anything. Until the Muslim Ummah all of its members everyone of US - have not mastered the lesson of sacrificing and striving at every required moment, there can be no success. When feeble and frivolous desires are not being sacrificed, how will big sacrifices be given, which is a requirement for an easy and quick entry into Jannah? There are no short cuts to Jannatul-Firdaus It is an uphill path that has to be climbed with determination, sacrifice and striving. Those who make it to the summit will celebrate.

Even the success on the actual battlefield is an illusion without learning to strive and sacrifice. If not, the behaviour of Muslims will be characterised even there, by acts of emotionalism, irrationality, fear, cowardice, weak resolve, confusion, fleeing, etc. When a person is not able to struggle against his own self and overcome it in that which Allah commands, he will not be able to fight against the external enemy, nor overcome him. How can he, who is defeated and weak, both mentally and spiritually, and cannot even gain control over his own feeble soul, do so?

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12. Answer to a young doctor

Dr. Rafiq Ahmad

(This is the reply to a letter received from a young doctor who had some queries regarding an article that had been published in this journal)

We thank you for spending your some valuable moments for writing your ideas to us. We feel that the view point you have written to us is not the view point of an individual but you have represented the viewpoint of majority of modern Muslim educated youth. I wish to right a voluminous book on this subject as a reply to your questions but obviously is not possible in the limited space available in this journal.

First thing which has pained us is that a young Muslim who has graduated in medicine and has become a doctor, is so much ignorant about the world history. Remember the old saying, "History makes a man wise." you have had very superficial look at this 'west' of which you seem to be so fond of and by which you seem to he highly impressed. First of all do you know how old is the "present west", not more than 60-70 years. Your America was not on world map until as recently as 1776. Do you know what was the condition of 'your west* before world war-I i.e., at the beginning of this century? Have yon read anything about dark ages of Europe, just 3-4 centuries ago? Have read about the factors responsible for renaissance of Europe? Do you know what is the source of scientific knowledge of today's west, when church has always opposed knowledge and science and killed scholars and burnt libraries and observatories? Most unfortunate for us is that a youth of Islam like you is advising the Muslims to learn knowledge from those who were against knowledge and research, just a hundred years ago, without realising that Islam has given knowledge to the world and knowledge is a home commodity for Muslims. They need not borrow it from.

Now some unbiased and unprejudiced scholars of the west are openly admitting that original pioneers of science are Muslims and not western scientists.

Hazrat Maulana Anwar Shah Kasnmiri (RA) was once delivering a lecture on some topic in the light of Islam. Alama Dr. Sir Muhammad Iqbal was also present there. Dr. Iqbal told Maulana that what you have said is the theory of either Einstein or Newton (I have forgotten the name, I am not sure). It is said that when Dr. Iqbal said so, Hazrat Maulana Anwar Shah Kashmiri stood up, went in his library and got a very old book in Arabic written by some Arab scholar almost hundred years before this scientist who had received probably noble prize for this theory. Dr. Iqbal was astonished to see that this theory is not the original work of the scientist but he had copied it from that Arab scholar. You will still boast of their honesty! Same is true about most of the modern western scientific researches. This is a lengthy topic where you would have seen their real face of dishonesty, cheating, lies, robbery and cold blooded murders, but again cannot go in details now.

Now you may have here asked another question that Muslims are only boasting of past but, as you have already said, present belongs to west. Dear, this west is only 60-70 years old, before that you don't know how ugly and backward it was. I don't know how you have been fascinated by this immature baby who has acquired cancerous growth. This does not signify good health and strength. If you have a realistic analysis of this west, they have few things to their credit only viz., advance hi means of transport, telecommunications some electronic devices, electricity, weapons and some advance in medical science. We don't deny it. They have got these things just within these 60-70 years, before that there was nothing. Having been impressed by these few materialistic advances of the west, it seems that you have not as yet even smelt the Islamic concept of this universe and the truth Islam has come with, l am telling you, my dear, with authority without any prejudice and exaggerations that if you say that these people have the knowledge, this is the insult to the world knowledge. Their knowledge is not even in infancy as compared to the knowledge of Muslims.

You are true to ask here that I am claiming this but you don't see anything like that. Agreed, but listen as to what is the reason.***

Allah Ta'ala says in the Qur'an:

"Such days of (varying fortunes) We give to men and men by turns. That Allah may know who believe." (3:140)

In this verse Allah Ta'ala says in Qur'an that it is his sunnah that He does not give worldly fortunes to one community only but He goes on changing it. If Muslims are always dominant in the world then every one will become Muslim, knowing that the worldly fortunes are with the Muslims only so there is no fun in adopting other religion, hence the purpose of the creation of this universe will not be fulfilled. If Allah Taala would have wished that, then He would have not created Shaitan and non-believers. Allah Ta'ala wants to examine people here, so He has created opposites. With that thing in mind, if you have a look at world history right from its inception, you would see that this graph has always shown peaks and troughs and has never remained constant for any community.

Allah Ta'ala sent Adam (AS) to the world, Islam flourished, then-after bis death there was decline, then again Prophets (AS) came, again Islam flourished and after their death there was a decline. This process continued.

After Prophet Muhammad (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) the door of Prophethood has been closed forever and the message of Qur'an is the best message. Allah Ta'ala says in the Qur'an that this Ummat (Ummati-Muhammadiah) is the best Ummat but He continues with His habit of testing the people by changing fortunes. Don't you see that He makes somebody rich and some poor. Does He hate poor and that is why He keeps him poor. It is not so. The true mettle of a person is tested in adversity only. This period of adversity through which this Ummah is passing these days is a test for this Ummat. Will this Ummat remain steadfast on Islamic teachings during the period of this adversity or not. Here is the acid test for the Muslims of today, who are definitely passing through the days of adversity.

Dear, don't be led astray from the path of Islam these days as you have come in the world at a time when Islam is not at its peak but at the decline. Islam is there, it will remain there, Insha-Allah. Don't get baffled by this apparently glittering colour of today's west. All that glitters is not gold. It is immensely hollow from inside. For sometime many Muslims were impressed by communism and many people even in this valley adopted communism and were openly ridiculing Islam. By the grace of Allah they have seen the fate and the real face of communism. All thanks to Almighty Allah. Similarly you will see the fate and the real face of your 'west' Insha-Allah, very soon. Don't lose courage and don't be short sighted. Islam is the Deen of Allah. Allah is punishing Muslims at the hands of other religions so that Muslims can come to the senses. It is high time that we keep our senses intact, believing firmly in Islam and be proud of Islamic principles. We have not to learn honesty and morality from west. I told you. Muslims went astray and are being punished. We have not to learn science from the west, they have learnt it from Muslims particularly Muslim Spain. Muslims have to explore their own treasures which are still unexplored in the world.

Don't worry, Islamic renaissance has started, you will see that Muslims will surpass their opponents in all fields of knowledge. How much time it win take, I cannot predict, 100 years in total life span of the world means nothing, but our ages are not that long, we don't know whether we can see that or not. May Allah show us also. But remember that Islam will never regain its glory unless Muslims stick to the principles of the Shari'ah, follow the Sunnats of Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam), and observe the rules and regulations of the Shari'ah strictly.

Unfortunately there are some Muslims even today who still think that Muslims can progress only when they follow the footsteps of west. Remember, Muslims can progress only in the world if they follow Muhammad (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam), there is no way out for Muslims. You have advised thatMuslims should see their own faults and not criticize west. True, if you have an old ruined house and you want to construct a new house in its place, what will you do? Unless you demolish this existing old house, you can never dream of living in a new house. When will you demolish an old house? when you realise it is ruined and not serving your purpose. Similarly in such articles, on which you have commented, it is tried to emphasise upon the Muslims that this house of west is ruined from inside and it is only shinning from outside, so if you want to have beautiful house of Islam, you will have to shun off this old house first.

Another point which you have mentioned that Muslims should take care of their dwindling Imaan. May I know that how can this be done! Allah Ta'ala says that this Kalima LA-ILAHA-IL-LAL-LAH is like a tree. If you want that this tree should bear fruits of lmaan, then you will have to sow this seed in the right piece of land. If you sow this seed of lmaan in the poisonous field, how can you expect that this tree of lmaan will grow, sending young girls to such schools is just like sowing the seed in the poisonous field. On one hand you are bomered about dwindling Imaan and on the other hand you are advocating to sow the seed in poisonous field. Leave aside Imaan, see the fruits of immorality of this poisonous field not only in Muslim girls but in female folk of western society. I wonder if you have visited any western country and seen the plight of women-folk there. You have also asked about the contribution of Muslims. I wonder whom are you asking this. You should have better asked yourself as to what is your contribution towards Islam Do you think it is the duty of Maulvis to set up modern educational institutions. You have sighted the example of mission schools of this place. May I know, who are the teachers there, Muslims or non-Muslims. If our Muslim teachers, can run those schools, why cannot they run Islamic standard schools? The reason is simple, that they don't realise as yet the level of degradation this modern set up is bringing in an Islamic society. Such articles are written, just for such awakening, so that Muslim intellectuals may rise to the occasion and set up healthy Islamic trends.

It is not too late, May Allah bestow upon us the wisdom and show us the right path. (Aamin)

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13. Saviours of Islamic Spirit

S. Abul Hasan Ali Nadvi (RA)

Ibn Jawzi (RA)

Said al-Khatir:

Not strictly an autobiographical work, the book also contains reminiscences of Ibn al-Jawzi, his ideas and feelings and personal experiences. In describing the incidents he had come across, Iba al-Jawzi frankly admits his mistakes and weaknesses. Ibn al-Jawzi often addresses his own self to criticise its longings and aspirations, gives an account of his mental and emotional states, describes his social experiences with the help of common and everyday happenings and relates the wisdom derived from the trials and tribulations, rough and tumble of life or his dealings with women, friends and servants. An outstanding feature of this book is its immaculate sincerity and simplicity. The book is also noted for the easy eloquence and lucidity of its style, which marks the first attempt made by an Arab writer in this direction, since the then prevailing style was to use a heavily embellished language in the literary works.

Ibn al-Jawzi possessed a special gift to draw out wisdom from insignificant occurrences which many of us come across and pass over without paying any heed to them. Here is an example from the Said al-Khalir:

"I saw two labourers who were carrying a heavy beam. Both were humming a song; when one recited a verse, the other listened to it attentively and then repeated it or came out with another verse in reply to the first. I thought that if they do not do so they would have a greater consciousness of their exertion. By singing the labourers made their work easier. On further reflection I found that by engaging themselves in singing the minds of the labourers get a little respite; they get busy in another work for a short duration and thus refresh themselves. This diversion also decreases the consciousness of the burden by diverting attention from the exertion of their work. My attention was diverted from it to the burden of responsibilities and obligations enjoined by the Shariah. I thought that perhaps the consciousness of these liabilities constitutes the heaviest burden on the self of man while the greatest effort lies in controlling and checking the propensities and impulses for which the self has a liking. Thus, I arrived at the conclusion that one should cover the path of endurance with the help of giving it necessary respite and by allowing the consciousness to refresh itself by yielding to lawful pleasures. A poet was rightly said that when the caravan gets tired of travelling for the whole night, tell the people that the dawn is at hand and that they would get the needed respite during the day.

"A similar story is told about Bishr Hafi who was going somewhere along with a companion. The friend of Bishr Hafi got thirsty and he asked Bishr to wait a bit so that he could get water from a well. Bishr, however, advised him to wait till they reached the next well, and then to the next one. After they had covered a considerable distance, Bishr told his friend that the life in this terrestrial world is also a journey which can be completed in that manner. The truth is that whoever is aware of the fact alluded to by Bishr, will console his self, cheer it up when in distress and assure it of lessening the burden so that it may bear the weight of its responsibilities with endurance. A certain preceptor of the times past addressed his self thus: 'O myself, if I check thee from thy fancies and attractions, it is only on account of my affection for thee'. Another master and devine, Ba Yazid al-Bustami, once said: I used to lead my wailing self flooded with tears towards God, then it gradually got familiar with the way and began to forge ahead cheerfully.' It should thus be remembered that it is absolutely necessary to console and enliven the self so that it may bear its burden patiently." At another place he writes:

"I have seen that when hounds pass by the side of wild dogs, the latter bark at them and try to chase them. The wild dogs are envious of the hounds because of their dog-belts and clothings, but the hounds do not pay any attention to them as if they do not belong to the same species. The wild dogs are, fat and clumsy, and are not trustworthy; the hounds, on the other hand, are lean, well-proportioned and quick. They are also well-trained and trustworthy. It is out of the fear or on account of the gratitude to their master that they bring back the game to him. I have drawn two conclusions from this comparison. First, the frame and appearance of a man has a bearing upon his morals. If the former has a finer countenance, the latter would also be of a nice demeanour. Secondly, nobody is envious towards one whom he does not consider his equal. Likewise, a man who has been favoured by Allah with faith and wisdom bears no ill-will against those who lack these qualities even though the latter might be moved by jealousy towards him. In fact the faithful does not consider the faithless worthy of his attention, for, their spheres of hopes and aspirations are quite different: one harbours a feeling of hostility at another's good in this world but the other aspires for success in the world-to-come. There is a world of difference between the two."

Dialogue with the Self:

Ibn al-Jawzi sometimes applies the method of tracing an incident to its source so as to discover the general principles underlying that phenomenon. Once he prayed to Allah along with another saintly person. The prayer was answered by Allah and this made him to think as to whose prayer had found favour with Allah. Here Ibn al-Jawzi analyses the incident with the help of self-dialogue.

"Once I was confronted with a difficulty for which I had to invoke Divine blessings and succour. Accordingly, I prayed to Allah along with another godly person. I felt that my prayer was about to be answered by Allah but I thought that it was not on account of my beseeching but because of the prayer of that pious soul. I said to myself: I am aware of my own sins and weaknesses which should not apparently allow my prayers to be answered, but. who knows that Allah did not really accede to my own entreaties? I felt that although the reverend man of God who prayed for me should be free of those vices which, I knew, I suffered from, still there was a difference between him and myself. I had a sense of regret and self-reproach for my sins while he was cheerful and enlivened. And, it is not unoften that broken-hearted penitence is more propitious on occasions like this.

"There is, however, another matter in which both of us stood on an equal fooling. None of us solicited the favour of Allah on the ground of our moral excellence. Now, if in these circumstances, I owned my mistakes and humbly prayed to Allah: 'Take pity on me, Oh Lord, for I am empty-handed', there was every likelihood of my supplication having being granted. Also, it is just possible that the other person might have had an eye on his actions which would have caused hinderance in the acceptance of his prayer.

"Therefore, O my Self, thou shouldst not make it insufferable for an already broken-hearted man like me. I am aware of my guilt, and I do also confess my sins; while, at the same time, I am aware of what I implore, and have a faith in the beneficence of my Allah to Whom I prefer my entreaties. Allah may bless that devoted soul if he lacks this quality, but so far as I am concerned, the confession of my guilt is my most valuable possession."

At another place he again portrays his inner-struggle in these words : "I was once undecided about a matter that was improper and unbecoming under the Shariah but my mind had brought forth certain arguments in its favour which apparently made it look lawful to me. In truth, however, it was nothing but specious reasoning because, as I later found out, it was manifestly abominable. However, I addressed myself to Allah and implored Him to ward off this state of indecision.

"I also began the recitation of the Quran so as to set my mind at rest. As I had to teach the commentary of the Chapter 'Joseph'- I began my recitation from there. I was so engrossed with the problem I had in mind that I did not pay much attention to what I was reading, but I was taken aback when I recited the verse, He said: I seek refuge in Allah! Lo ! he is my lord, who hath treated me honourably. I felt as if this verse had been revealed for me. I said (O myself: Didst thou follow it? Joseph was free, he was wrongfully made a slave and sold to Potiphar. Joseph felt so grateful to Potiphar that he called him his lord, although neither Joseph was a slave nor Potiphar a master. The chief reason for this gratefulness of Joseph to Potiphar was that the latter had treated him honourably. 'Now think of thy own self, I said to myself. 'Thou art really slave of a Master who has been a benefactor ever since thy birth. Nobody knows how many times he has over-looked thy mistakes. Dost thou remember how He provided thy needs? It was by His grace that thou acquired knowledge and earned thy living. He guarded thee from every danger and guided thee to adopt the right course. He saved thee from the hostility of thy enemies. He bestowed on thee a goodly appearance as well as intellectual gift. He enabled thee to master the sciences in a short duration although others could not acquire these over a much longer period. He also favoured thee with eloquence, intellect and memory, caused the people to show thee kindness and reverence, and made it easy for thee to procure thy livelihood without having to lie under an obligation to others. It is not possible, in truth and reality, to thank Him for the innumerable favours He has bestowed on thee the good-looking countenance, well-propor-tioned limbs, worthy demeanour, refined taste, intellectual grit, discrimination to adopt the right path and to avoid lewdness, opportunity to acquire knowledge of the Traditions and to act on itVerily, if ye would count the bounty of Allah ye cannot reckon it How many of thy enemies laid snares for thee, but Alalh saved thee; how they wanted to discredit thee, but He exalted thee; how many favours were granted to thee, but denied to others; how many people left this world broken-hearted, but thou were crowned with success. Dost thou not see that thou are in good health, have sound intellect and a wholesome faith, thy knowledge is abounding, thy aspirations are fulfilled and if thou art ever thwarted in any desire, Allah makes thee patient and forbearing till thou knowest that it was really profitable that thy desire did not meet with success. It would be impossible to recount all the favours of Allah bestowed on thee ; since, the unknown bounties invested by Allah on man are far in excels of those that he can comprehend. Then, how didst thou consider it lawful to do something which was considered unclean by God Almighty: I seek refuge in Allah! Lo! He is my lord, Who hath treated me honourably. Lo ! wrong-doers never prosper."

Ibn al-Jawzi narrates another personal experience of the same nature: "Once I acted on a legal opinion which was upheld by certain schools of jurisprudence but rejected by others. However, I felt an uneasiness as if I had committed a sacrilege which was causing me spiritual contraction and a drift towards unorthodoxy. With a deepening sense of bereavement and sullenness, I realised as if my own Self was asking me: 'You didn't act against the advice of the jurists. Why is then this feeling of privation?' I replied: 'O my insinuating Self, I have two answers to thy question. First, thou turned aside from the teachings of thy own juristic school-If thou had been asked to pronounce a legal opinion on this question, thou wouldst not have advised it thus. 'I won't have acted on it, interjected the Self, 'if I had not considered it lawful.' I replied: 'No, thou wouldst not even advise others to act likewise. 'And the second reason is,' I added, 'that thou shouldst be happy over the gloom experienced by thee, for had thou not been already favoured with the illumination thou wouldst not have had this feeling of bereavement.' 'But I dislike the gloom coming over me,' replied the Self. 'Then thou shouldst make up thy mind,' said I, to give up the disputed act. Thou thinkest that it has been made lawful through consensus of opinion. Still thou shouldst decide to renounce it simply for the fear of God.' The Self was then saved of the spiritual contraction and gloominess after it had acted likewise.'

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