Published From Srinagar.
Editor, Printer & Publisher: Mawlana Hamidullah Lone.
April. 2007. VOL.8, No: 04.
Best of this World and the Hereafter
The Holy Qur'an warns us against becoming complacent and heedless because of prolonged passage of time and inaction. "Do not be like those who were given the Book aforetime, and whose hearts have hardened with the passing of time so that many of them have become rebellious..."
Moral degeneration, a loss of purpose and hard-heartedness are but some of the failings of the passing of time. We eventually lose the capacity to appreciate Divine Guidance; we lose the humility to search for the truth and the foresight to understand prophetic wisdom. We gradually embrace values that are bereft of Divine Guidance and become victims of spiritual and emotional insecurity.
The Holy Prophet (s.a.w.) has said: "Whoever has been blessed with four things has indeed been given the best of this world and the hereafter. A heart full of gratitude, a tongue occupied with the Zikr of Allah, a body able to patiently endure hardships and a wife that does not breach his trust regarding herself and his property."
In order to achieve the best of both worlds we need to consciously work towards acquiring the following four ‘blessings’.
Too often, we take the favours of Allah for granted. We feel aggrieved, deprived, and display ingratitude when destiny does not accord with our insatiable dreams and desires.
Consider the following:
If you have food in the refrigerator, clothes on your back, a roof over your head and a place to sleep ... you are richer than 75% of this world.
If you have money in the bank, in your wallet, and spare change in a dish someplace ... you are among the top 80% of the world's wealthy.
If you woke up this morning with more health than illness ... you are more blessed than the million who will not survive this week.
If you have never experienced the danger of battle, the loneliness of imprisonment, the agony of torture, or the pangs of starvation ... you are more blessed than three million people in the world.
If your Parents are still alive and still married ... you are very rare.
If you hold up your head with a smile on your face and are truly thankful ... you are blessed because the majority can, but most do not.
If you can read this message ... you just received a double blessing in that someone was thinking of you and, furthermore, you are more blessed than over two billion people in the world that cannot read at all.
The Holy Prophet (s.a.w.) has said: "The first (condition) for the reformation of this Ummah is conviction and abstinence, whilst the first cause of its destruction will be miserliness and (unending) desires."
The Holy Prophet (s.a.w.) has said: "The parable of one who remembers Allah and one who does not, is like the living and the dead."
We have become spiritually dead individuals with no sense of drive. We neither fear the Wrath of Allah, nor yearn for His Pleasure. Hence, religion has become an oppressive imposition designed to deprive us of the pleasures of life. How often do we recite the Holy Qur'an? When last did we spend time pondering and chanting the Glory of Allah? The Holy Qur'an refers to this kind of spiritual death in the following words: "They have hearts with which they fail to grasp the truth, and eyes with which they fail to see, and ears with which they fail to hear, They are like cattle: nay even less conscious of the right way ..."
They live like animals conscious only of fulfilling their natural desires without giving any thought to the purpose of existence. Hearts rust as metal does, and the polish for the heart is the Zikr of Allah! Zikr is the spiritual rain that renders the heart fertile and allows for the lush growth of virtue.
We have become selfish, impatient and intolerant, losing our self-composure at the least bit of irritation. We have become pessimists who fret at the presence of thorns oblivious to the beauty of the rose. We become despondent and repeatedly bemoan the sad state of our affairs least convinced that every experience good or bad has a meaning and purpose. The Holy Prophet (s.a.w.) has said, "Patience is half of faith."
The Holy Qur'an states: "Fighting is ordained for you even though it be hateful to you, but it may well be that you hate a thing while it is good for you, and it may well be that you love a thing while it is bad for you; for Allah knows whereas you do not know."
What may at first seem to be a disaster, may later turn out to be a means of betterment and enhancement. Hardships, disaster, and calamities are like the thunder and lightening that we have to endure before we are blessed with torrential rains. Consider the birth of Islam in South Africa. Islam reached the Cape Province in 1654 when the Dutch East India Company decided to use the Cape as a penal settlement for Muslim prisoners from Batavia in Indonesia. The Cape was chosen as the official place of confinement for political prisoners. They came as slaves yoked in chains and lived under barbaric and subhuman conditions. They were treated in the same beastly and savage manner as our brothers in Guantanamo Bay in Cuba. Yet slavery became the basis for the rise of Islam in South Africa, so will Camp X-Ray become the basis for the rise of Islam in Cuba Insha Allah!
"And seek assistance in patience, and prayer, surely it is difficult except for those who fear Allah."
A Stable Family:
Over the past decade, our society has undergone a rapid social and religious transformation, resulting in high divorce rates, separation, single parent families, and common-law relationships. It is becoming extremely difficult to find happiness in marriage and to develop a healthy and vibrant relationship with your spouse. This is because of a fundamental shift from an ‘obligations-oriented bond’ to a ‘rights-orientated relationship’. We tend to demand our rights instead of fulfilling our obligations, which breeds a culture of conflict and tension. The Prophet (s.a.w.) not only encouraged marriage among his followers, he also emphasized the importance of appropriate conduct after marriage so that the marriage endures and in the words of the Holy Qur'an becomes the "coolness of our eyes." We need to study the life of our Holy Prophet (s.a.w.) to see how far we have drifted and alienated ourselves from prophetic teachings.
The Holy Qur'an states, "Sufficient is Allah as a Protector and sufficient is Allah as a Helper."
Muslims are promised that Allah will be on their side and will favour them with His help. However, this Divine Intervention and support are not granted to those who sit idle and wait for things to change, nor to those who adopt a lukewarm approach and commitment to Deen. If we refuse to work towards the best of both the worlds, Allah forbid, we will have to contend with a terrible loss in both worlds. How long will we continue to profess Islam, while discarding its teachings and refusing to abide by its laws or heed its warnings? If we stubbornly persist in revering the social, cultural and moral decorum of the Kuffar, we have by our own violation opted for a life of barren existence.
Q.) Can you please explain to me in the light of Qur'an and Hadith what is the hijab for my husband to his brother's wives? Can he speak to them when there is no need? Can he also speak to them when their husband is not around and there is fear of fitnah? I am in purdah ie I cover my entire body except my eyes and hands and I make purdah from my husband's brothers. Lately after the incident of him speaking freely to my brother in laws wives I felt like not wearing my niqab anymore. Please clear my doubts. [A sister in Islam]
A.) It is necessary for a male to observe Hijab from his brother's wife (sister-in-law). Any contact whatsoever with her is prohibited. Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) also prohibited a male from going to a woman in the absence of her husband. Sister, you should discuss the issue with your husband with utmost wisdom and make him conscientious of the laws of Allah and the consequences of not following the Shari'ah. However, that should not drive you to removing your own hijab. Why should you incur the wrath of Allah on yourself due to somebody else's wrong? Two wrongs don't make a right.
And Allah Ta'ala Knows Best
Q.) My friend's uncle died few months ago, he left two sons and a house. He made no will at all as to how to divide the estate.
One son lived with the father till he died and the other son lived separately. The son who lived with the father made renovations and decorated the house while the father was alive.
A surveyor has valued the house, and it valued at £80,000.00 (Eighty thousand pounds).
The situation at present is as follows:
1. Now that the father has died the question is how should the estate be divided Islamically, as no Will was left?
2. The younger brother is saying, because he spent money on the house while his father was alive that amount should be deducted from the total value of the house when the wealth is distributed. The younger brother spent £20,000.00 in renovations.
The two brothers are arguing between themselves. What is the correct way to divide the estate Islamically?
A.) In principle, if the deceased was survived only by two sons and had no other children, or both or one of the two parents, then the entire estate will be divided into two equal parts. Each son will inherit one share.
If the son who lived with the father and decorated the house by himself, it will be regarded as Tabarru (voluntary act) for which he cannot make any claim against his brother. He had decorated the house and enjoyed the benefits of the decorated house while staying there. If the value of the house is $80,000, each brother is entitled to $40,000. The elder brother may offer his brother an amount as a gesture of goodwill for decorating the house which enhanced the value of the house. And Allah Ta'ala Knows Best
Q.) Can a girl get married by herself if elders and her parents do not take interest in her marriage? Does she have the right? What does Islam say about the age for her marriage?
A.) A girl has the right to get married on her own. However, Shari'ah has considered, for her own well being, that a guardian see to her marriage, etc. If her guardians do not take interest in her, she should consult some other close relative to find her a suitable marriage partner.
Nabi "Sall-Allahu alayhi wa sallam" said, 'Do not delay in two things; The Janaaza Salat when the bier is ready and the marriage of a single woman.'
Therefore, as soon as a female reaches a marriageable age, she should get married.
And Allah Ta'ala Knows Best
Mawlana Mufti Mohammad Shafi Sahib (RA)
ÃõæáóÆößó ÇáøóÐöíäó ÇÔúÊóÑóæõÇ ÇáúÍóíóÇÉó ÇáÏøõäúíóÇ ÈöÇáúÂÎöÑóÉö ÝóáóÇ íõÎóÝøóÝõ Úóäúåõãõ ÇáúÚóÐóÇÈõ æóáóÇ åõãú íõäúÕóÑõæäó ()
Those are the ones who bought the worldly life at the cost of the Hereafter. So, punishment shall not be lightened for them, nor shall they be helped.
This verse explains why the Jews will have to undergo such a severe punishment. They have been disobeying Allah in order to satisfy their desires and to enjoy worldly pleasures; they have also sacrificed for these things their salvation in the other world. Their sin being so great, Allah will not reduce or mollify their punishment, nor will He allow anyone to intercede on their behalf.
æóáóÞóÏú ÂÊóíúäóÇ ãõæÓóì ÇáúßöÊóÇÈó æóÞóÝøóíúäóÇ ãöäú ÈóÚúÏöåö ÈöÇáÑøõÓõáö æóÂÊóíúäóÇ ÚöíÓóì Èúäó ãóÑúíóãó ÇáúÈóíøöäóÇÊö æóÃóíøóÏúäóÇåõ ÈöÑõæÍö ÇáúÞõÏõÓö ÃóÝóßõáøóãóÇ ÌóÇÁóßõãú ÑóÓõæáñ ÈöãóÇ áóÇ Êóåúæóì ÃóäúÝõÓõÜßõãõ ÇÓúÊóßúÈóÑúÊõãú ÝóÝóÑöíÞðÇ ßóÐøóÈúÊõãú æóÝóÑöíÞðÇ ÊóÞúÊõáõæäó ()
And, indeed, We gave Musa the Book, and after him We sent messengers, one following the other; and We gave clear signs to Isa, the son of Mariam (Jesus, the son of Mary), and supported him with the Holy Spirit. Then, how is it that every time a prophet came to you with what does not meet your desire, you grew arrogant? So, you falsified a group (of the messengers) and killed others.
The Qur'an again reminds the Israelites how Allah in His mercy forgave them their transgressions again and again, and provided them with all the means of guidance. First of all, He gave them a Divine Book, the Torah, through Sayyidna Musa (Moses AS); then, sent them a number of prophets; and, at the end of this line, sent down Sayyidna 'Tsa (Jesus AS) along with clear and irrefutable evidences of his prophethood, like the Evangel and miracles, and appointed the Archangel Jibra'il (Gabriel AS) to give him support.
The Archangel Jibra'il has often been called "Ruh al-Qudus" (the Holy Spirit) in the Noble Qur'an and the Hadith. For example, in Verse 16:102 – Þá äÒøáå ÑæÍ ÇáÞÏÓ "Say: the Holy Spirit has brought it (the Noble Qur'an) down;" or in a couplet of the poet and blessed Companion Hassan ibn Thabit, reported in the Hadith:
æ ÌÈÑíá ÑÓæá Çááå ÝíäÇ
æ ÑæÍ ÇáÞÏÓ áå ßÝÇ
Jibra'il, the messenger of Allah, comes to us;
he is the Holy Spirit, the incomparable."
Allah helped and supported Sayyidna 'Isa (AS) through Jibra'il (AS) in several ways. (1) He was conceived through the breath of the Archangel. (2) Jibra'il (AS) protected him against being touched by Satan at the time of this birth. (3) The Archangel always accompanied him in order to defend him against the hostility of the Jews. (4) It was through him that Sayyidna 'Isa (AS) was raised to the heavens.
In spite of all these divine favours, the Jews persisted in their rebellion. They were so stubborn in the worship of their desires, that whenever the prophets brought to them certain divine injunctions which did not please them, the Jews would deny the prophets – they denied even Sayyidna 'Isa (AS) --, or would kill them outright — for example, they dealt in this vile manner with Sayyidna Zakariyya (AS) (Zachariah) and Sayyidna Yahya (AS) (John the Baptist).
æóÞóÇáõæÇ ÞõáõæÈõäóÇ ÛõáúÝñ Èóáú áóÚóäóåõãõ Çááøóåõ ÈößõÝúÑöåöãú ÝóÞóáöíáðÇ ãóÇ íõÄúãöäõæäó ()
And they said, "Our hearts are veiled." Rather, Allah has cast damnation upon them for their disbelief. So, they believe just a little.
The Jews used to say sarcastically that their hearts were "veiled", by which they meant that their hearts were so well protected against Islam that it could never touch them. This was their way of congratulating themselves on being staunch in their belief. The Holy Qur'an points out that this is not the firmness of faith, but a damnation, for they deny Islam which now is the true religion, and stick to a religion which has been abrogated. They, consequently, possess only "a little" faith ('Iman). Since a little faith is not acceptable, they turn out to be infidels.
The little faith" which they possessed pertained to the doctrines which are common to Islam and Judaism - for example, belief in Allah, or belief in the Day of Judgment. But they did not accept Sayyidna Muhammad (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) as a prophet, and the Holy Qur'an as the Word of Allah. So, their faith was not complete.
If the Verse describes 'the little faith' as 'Iman, it does so only in the lexical sense, for 'Iman signifies total certitude, even if it pertains to certain things, and not to others. But from the point of view of the Shari'ah, such a partial faith cannot be described as 'Iman. The Shari'ah would accept as valid only that 'Iman which affirms with certitude each and everything that the Shari'ah requires one to affirm.
æóáóãøóÇ ÌóÇÁóåõãú ßöÊóÇÈñ ãöäú ÚöäúÏö Çááøóåö ãõÕóÏøöÞñ áöãóÇ ãóÚóåõãú æóßóÇäõæÇ ãöäú ÞóÈúáõ íóÓúÊóÝúÊöÍõæäó Úóáóì ÇáøóÐöíäó ßóÝóÑõæÇ ÝóáóãøóÇ ÌóÇÁóåõãú ãóÇ ÚóÑóÝõæÇ ßóÝóÑõæÇ Èöåö ÝóáóÚúäóÉõ Çááøóåö Úóáóì ÇáúßóÇÝöÑöíäó ()
And when there came to them a Book from Allah, which confirms what was with them, while earlier, they used to seek help against those who disbelieved, yet when there came to them that they did identify, they denied it. So the curse of Allah is upon the disbelievers.
The Torah had in several places foretold the coming of the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam). In fact, the Jews themselves used to tell the Arabs that a new prophet and a new Divine Book was soon to come. But when the Holy Qur'an came down from Allah, and even when they had recognized its authenticity, the Jews denied it out of sheer spite.
The verse says that the Holy Qur'an confirms the Torah - it means that the Holy Qur'an is a concrete evidence of the truth of the prophecies made in the Torah with regard to the coming of the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) and of the Holy Qur'an. One who believes in the Torah cannot justifiably deny the Holy Qur'an and the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam), for such a denial would involve a denial of the Torah itself.
Knowledge is not enough for 'Iman
One may want to know why the Holy Qur'an calls the Jews Kafirin (infidels), when they did recognize the truth as truth, which should qualify them to be called "believers." Let us explain that 'Iman (faith) does not merely mean "knowing the truth", but really signifies "accepting the truth and affirming it deed-wise." Otherwise, Satan too will have to be called a believer, for he knows fully well what the truth is. In fact, this knowledge of the truth on the part of Satan intensifies the gravity of his Kufr (infidelity) all the more.
However, the next verse attributes the infidelity of the Jews to their malice.
ÈöÆúÓóãóÇ ÇÔúÊóÑóæúÇ Èöåö ÃóäúÝõÓóåõãú Ãóäú íóßúÝõÑõæÇ ÈöãóÇ ÃóäúÒóáó Çááøóåõ ÈóÛúíðÇ Ãóäú íõäóÒøöáó Çááøóåõ ãöäú ÝóÖúáöåö Úóáóì ãóäú íóÔóÇÁõ ãöäú ÚöÈóÇÏöåö ÝóÈóÇÁõæÇ ÈöÛóÖóÈò Úóáóì ÛóÖóÈò æóáöáúßóÇÝöÑöíäó ÚóÐóÇÈñ ãõåöíäñ ()
Vile is that for which they have sold out their selves: that they should deny what Allah has revealed, grudging that Allah should send down some of His bounty to whomsoever He wills from among His servants. So, they came out with wrath upon wrath. And for unbelievers there is humiliating punishment.
Prophethood cannot be earned through one's own efforts or one's own merit; it is a special grace which Allah bestows on whomsoever He likes. But the Jews were so envious and malicious that they denied the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) and the Holy Qur'an out of sheer spite. In doing so, they were questioning the will of Allah Himself. Thus, they earned divine wrath in two ways - firstly, for denying a true prophet; and secondly, for their envy and malice.
The Holy Qur'an says that the Jews will have to undergo a punishment which would involve not only pain, but also disgrace and abasement. The latter condition has been added to suggest that this kind of punishment is peculiar to the infidels, and is not meant for a true Muslim at all, for a Muslim, no matter how great his sins are, will be punished for the purpose of being purified, not for being disgraced.
The next verse reports what the Jews used to say with regard to the Holy Qur'an, which clearly shows their envy and malice as well as their infidelity (Kufr).
æóÅöÐóÇ Þöíáó áóåõãú ÂãöäõæÇ ÈöãóÇ ÃóäúÒóáó Çááøóåõ ÞóÇáõæÇ äõÄúãöäõ ÈöãóÇ ÃõäúÒöáó ÚóáóíúäóÇ æóíóßúÝõÑõæäó ÈöãóÇ æóÑóÇÁóåõ æóåõæó ÇáúÍóÞøõ ãõÕóÏøöÞðÇ áöãóÇ ãóÚóåõãú Þõáú Ýóáöãó ÊóÞúÊõáõæäó ÃóäúÈöíóÇÁó Çááøóåö ãöäú ÞóÈúáõ Åöäú ßõäúÊõãú ãõÄúãöäöíäó ()
And when it is said to them, "Believe in what Allah has revealed," they say, 'We believe in what has been revealed to us" — and they deny what is beyond, whereas that is the truth, confirming what is with them. Say, "Why then have you been slaying the prophets of Allah earlier, if you were believers?"
The Jews flatly refused to believe in any Book of Allah ~ like the Evangel or the Holy Qur'an - except in the Torah. This denial is a clear evidence of their infidelity (Kufr). Moreover, they also used to add that they believe in the Torah, for it had been sent down to them. This comes to mean that they denied the other Books just because they had not been sent down to them. Such an argument betrays their envy and malice.
The Holy Qur'an refutes their argument in three ways:-
1. When the truth and authenticity of the other Books has been established on the basis of irrefutable arguments, what does, then, this denial mean? If they had any doubts as to the arguments on the basis of which authenticity was being claimed for these Books, they could very well have voiced this doubt, and satisfied themselves on this point. But why this flat refusal to believe?
2. The other Books, like the Holy Qur'an, confirm the Torah., If one denies them, one at the same time denies the Torah itself.
3. To slay a prophet is tantamount to infidelity (Kufr), according to all the Divine Books. Moreover, the prophets whom the Jews had killed were themselves Israelites, and their teachings, were based on the injunctions of the Torah. But the Jews not only killed these prophets, but also accepted the killers as their chiefs. This is a direct denial of the Torah, and falsifies their claim that they believe in the Torah.
In short, nothing that the Jews say or do is acceptable and valid from any possible point of view.
The next verses proceed to refute the Jews on several other counts.
æóáóÞóÏú ÌóÇÁóßõãú ãõæÓóì ÈöÇáúÈóíøöäóÇÊö Ëõãøó ÇÊøóÎóÐúÊõãõ ÇáúÚöÌúáó ãöäú ÈóÚúÏöåö æóÃóäúÊõãú ÙóÇáöãõæäó ()
And certainly Moses came to you with clear signs, then you took to yourselves the calf thereafter - and you were transgressors.
The "clear signs" mentioned in the verse refers to the miracles which had manifested themselves even before the Torah was given to Sayyidna Musa (Moses AS) - for example, his staff that turned into a snake, the palm of his hand which shone brightly, the splitting of the sea to make a path for the Israelites, etc. These miracles were meant to affirm the Oneness of Allah and His omnipotence, and to provide an evidence for the prophethood of Sayyidna Musa (AS).
In refutation of the Jews, the verse points out that although they lay a claim to 'Iman (faith), yet have been falling into the sin of Shirk (association), which involves a denial not only of Sayyidna Musa but even of Allah Himself.
Although the Jews who were the contemporaries of the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam), did not themselves take part in the worship of the golden calf, yet they respected such of their forefathers as had done so, and took their side. So, for all practical purposes, they too were guilty of the same sin.
The verse also suggests that no wonder if these people, whose forefathers denied Sayyidna Musa (AS), should now be denying the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam).
æóÅöÐú ÃóÎóÐúäóÇ ãöíËóÇÞóßõãú æóÑóÝóÚúäóÇ ÝóæúÞóßõãõ ÇáØøõæÑó ÎõÐõæÇ ãóÇ ÂÊóíúäóÇßõãú ÈöÞõæøóÉò æóÇÓúãóÚõæÇ ÞóÇáõæÇ ÓóãöÚúäóÇ æóÚóÕóíúäóÇ æóÃõÔúÑöÈõæÇ Ýöí ÞõáõæÈöåöãõ ÇáúÚöÌúáó ÈößõÝúÑöåöãú Þõáú ÈöÆúÓóãóÇ íóÃúãõÑõßõãú Èöåö ÅöíãóÇäõßõãú Åöäú ßõäúÊõãú ãõÄúãöäöíäó ()
And when We took pledge from you, and raised high the (Mount of) Tur above you: "Hold fast to what We have given you, and listen" — they said, 'We have heard and disobeyed." And, on account of their denial, they were soaked with the love of the calf in their hearts. Say: "Evil is that which your faith enjoins upon you, if you are believers."
In refuting the claim of the Jews to be authentic and true believers, the Holy Qur'an again recounts an incident which it has already referred to in Verse 63. When the Israelites succeeded, with the help of Allah, in escaping from Egypt and crossing the sea, they came upon a people who used to worship idols. They found this cult so attractive that they requested Sayyidna Musa (Moses AS) to fabricate a visible and concrete god for them too. When he reprimanded them, they realized their error, and offered repentance. But repentance has many degrees. Since their repentance was not of a very high order, the darkness of their error did not altogether leave their hearts, but continued to grow, and finally manifested itself in the worship of the golden calf. As an act of penance, some of them had to be slain, and others, as some commentators report, were forgiven and not slain. Possibly the repentance of these latter was again of a low order. As for those who had not indulged in the worship of the calf, they did not hate the action of the worshippers of the calf as much as they should have. So, their hearts too carried a trace of the sin of association (shirk). So, either through the feebleness of their repentance or through a want of proper hatred for infidelity, their hearts, became indolent in religious matters, so much so that when Allah asked them to take a pledge to follow the injunctions of the Torah steadfastly, Mount Tur (Sinai) was suspended over their heads to threaten them.
This verse reports the Jews as having replied that they had heard the Command of Allah, but they would not obey, or would not be able to obey. It means that out of sheer fright they said (only with their tongues) that they had heard (that is to say, accepted) the Command of Allah. But there was no real consent in their hearts, and their posture and attitude was such as if they were saying that they would not or could not obey.
Having referred to such example of their perversity and rebellion, the Holy Qur'an asks the Jews to have a look at themselves and also at their claim to genuine faith. Could a true faith ever inspire men to such deeds? If it is their brand of "faith" which leads them into such grave sins, then it cannot be a true faith. Hence their claim to be true believers is evidently false.
Dr. Rafiq Ahmad
ÈÇÈ ãÇ ÌÇÁó Ãäø ÇáÃÚúãóÇá ÈÇáäøöíøóÉö æÇáÍöÓúÈóÉö æáößõáøö ÇãÑöìÁ ãÇ äóæóì ÝóÏóÎóáó Ýíåö ÇáÅíãÇäõ æÇáæÖõæÁ æÇáÕøóáÇÉõ æÇáÒøóßÇÉõ æÇáÍóÌøõ æÇáÕøóæúã æÇáÃÍúßÇãõ æÞÇá Çááå ÊÚÇáì Þõáú ßõáøñ íóÚúãóá Úáì ÔÇßöáóÊöåö Úáì äíøóÊöåö æäÝóÞóÉõ ÇáÑøóÌõáö Úáì Ãåúáöåö íóÍúÊóÓöÈõåóÇ ÕóÏóÞóÉð ÞÇá ÇáäøóÈíøõ æáóßöäú ÌåöÇÏñ æäöíøóÉñ
Chapter (Bâb) 42 : What came in the saying “The reward of deeds depends upon the intention and seeking the reward from Allâh. And every person will have reward according to what he has intended”. And this includes Faith, Ablution, Salâh, Fasting, Zakâh, Hajj and other commands of Allâh and Allâh Ta’âlâ said: “Each one does (deeds) according to his intentions and the spending of a man for his family with the intention of having reward from Allâh, will be rewarded as alms (Sadqah). And the Prophet (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) said: “But Jihâd and intention”.
Purpose of Tarjamatul Bâb
As per Imâm Bukhari a deed will fetch reward only if it is done with sincere intention (Niyyat) with the sole aim of seeking reward from Allâh (Hisbat).
Hadith No. 52
ÍÏøËäÇ ( ÚÈÏõ Çááøóåö Èäõ ãóÓúáóãóÉ ) ó ÞÇá ÃÎúÈóÑóäóÇ ( ãÇáöß ) ñ Úäú ( íóÍúíóì Èäö ÓóÚöíÏ ) ò Úäú ( ãõÍóãøÏö Èäö ÅöÈúÑóÇåöíã ) ó Úä ( ÚóáúÞóãóÉó Èäö æóÞøóÇÕ ) ò Úäú ( ÚõãóÑ ) ó Ãäø ÑÓæáó Çááøóåö ÞÇá ÇáÃóÚúãóÇáõ ÈÇáäøöíøóÉö æáößõáøö ÇãúÑöìÁò ãÇ äóæóì Ýóãóäú ßÇäóÊú åöÌúÑóÊõåõ Åáì Çááøóåö æÑÓæáöåö ÝóåöÌúÑóÊõåõ Åáì Çááøóåö æÑÓæáöåö æãóäú ßÇäóÊú åöÌúÑóÊõåõ áÏäúíóÇ íõÕöíÈõåóÇ Ãæ ÇãúÑóÃóÉò íóÊóÒóæøóÌõåÇ ÝóåöÌúÑóÊõåõ Åáì ãÇ åÇÌóÑó Åöáíåö
Narrated by Hadhrat Umar bin Khattab (RA)
Allâh’s Apostle (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) said, "The reward of deeds depends upon the intention and every person will get the reward according to what he has intended. So whoever emigrated for Allâh and His Apostle, his emigration was for Allâh and His Apostle. And whoever emigrated for worldly benefits or for a woman to marry, his emigration was for what he emigrated for."
Hadith No. 53
ÍÏøËäÇ ( ÍóÌøóÇÌõ Èäõ ãöäúåóÇá ) ò ÞÇá ÍÏøËäÇ ( ÔõÚúÈóÉ ) õ ÞÇá ÃÎúÈóÑóäöí ( ÚóÏöíøõ Èäõ ËÇÈöÊ ) ò ÞÇá ÓóãöÚúÊõ ( ÚÈóÏ Çááøóåö Èäó íóÒöíÏ ) ó Úäú ( ÃÈí ãóÓúÚõæÏ ) ò Úäö ÇáäÈíøö ÞÇá ÅÐÇ ÃäúÝóÞó ÇáÑøóÌõáõ Úáì Ãåúáöåö íóÍúÊóÓöÈõåÇ Ýóåõæó áóåõ ÕóÏóÞóÉñ
Narrated by Hadhrat Abu Mas’ud (RA)
The Prophet (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) said, "If a man spends on his family (with the intention of having a reward from Allâh) sincerely for Allâh's sake then it is a (kind of) alms-giving in reward for him.
Hadith No. 54
ÍÏøËäÇ ( ÇáÍóßóãõ Èäõ äÇÝÚ ) ò ÞÇá ÃÎúÈóÑóäóÇ ( ÔõÚóíúÈ ) ñ Úäö ( ÇáÒøõåúÑöí ) øö ÞÇá ÍÏøËäí ( ÚÇãöÑõ Èäõ ÓóÚúÏ ) ò Úäú ( ÓóÚúÏö Èäö ÃÈí æóÞÇÕ ) ò Ãäøóåõ ÃÎúÈóÑóåõ Ãäø ÑÓæá Çááøóåö ÞÇá Åäøóßó áóäú ÊõäúÝöÞó äóÝóÞóÉð ÊóÈúÊóÛöí ÈöåÇ æóÌúåó Çááøóåö ÅáÇøó ÃõÌöÑúÊó ÚóáíúåÇ ÍÊøóì ãÇ ÊóÌúÚóáõ Ýöí Ýã ÇãúÑóÃóÊößó
Narrated by Sa’d bin Abi Waqqas (RA)
Allâh’s Apostle (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) said, "You will be rewarded for whatever you spend for Allâh's sake even if it were a morsel which you put in your wife's mouth."
What came in the saying “the reward of the deeds depends upon the intention and seeking the reward from Allâh.
This is the first part of Tarjamatul Bâb. al-Hisbah (ÇáÍÓÈÉ) means to do a deed with the intention of seeking reward from Allâh. Ibn Hajar says that Imâm Bukhari considers Imân as a deed, so according to him Niyyat or intention is necessary for it (Imân) as well as it is required for rest of the deeds like Salâh, Zakâh and Hajj etc. Ibn Hajar further says that if Imân is taken as testifying by heart (Tasdeeq), then Niyyat is not needed for it as one does not make intention for fear and love of Allâh. The same view is held by Hanafi school of thought that Niyyat is not needed for Imân.
There is consensus among the Ummah that Niyyat is important for deeds like Salâh, Zakâh, Saum (fasting) and Hajj etc., but there is difference of opinion as to whether it is important for Wudhu or not. Imâm Bukhari has included Wudhu also in those deeds for which Niyyat is a must while as according to Hanafi school of thought actual deed is Salâh for which Niyyat is a must and since Wudhu is for Salâh and is not aimed primarily, hence it is not necessary to make Niyyat for it i.e., they say that Wudhu is not “independent purpose” (ãÞÕæÏ ÈÇáÐÇÊ).
Ibn Hajar says that Niyyat is important in all those deeds which are done mutually like trade, Nikah and Talâq etc. Allâmah Aini does not agree with Ibn Hajar on this point.
Þõáú ßõáøñ íóÚúãóáõ Úóáóì ÔóÇßöáóÊöåö
Say: "Everyone acts according to his own disposition: but your Lord knows best who it is that is best guided on the Way." (17:84)
In this verse the word Shakilatihi (ÔóÇßöáóÊöå) has been translated by Imâm Bukhari as intention. Then the meaning of the verse would be that everyone acts as per his intention. Same translation has been quoted from Hasani Bisri and Qatâdah whereas Mujâhid translates it as nature (ØÈíÚÇÊ). In short it would mean that every one acts as per his intention, nature and religion and Allâh, being all knowing, knows the best as to who is on the right path.
Spending on one’s family
And the spending of a man on his family with the intention of having a reward from Allâh, will be rewarded as alms (Sadqah).
This is related to the second part of the Tarjamatul Bâb i.e., Al-Hisbah. It means that if one feeds his family and at the same time makes the intention of seeking reward from Allâh, it will fetch him more reward.
"But Jihâd and intention."
This is related to the third part of the Tarjamatul Bâb. This is the part of a Hadith from Ibn Abbas (RA) in which he says that after the victory of Makkah, when people embraced Islâm they felt regretted not having embraced Islâm earlier so that they could also have got the reward of Hijrah (migration). On this Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) said:
áÇ åÌÑÉ ÈÚÏ ÇáÝÊÍ æ áßä ÌåÇÏ æ äíÉ
"There is no Hijrah (migration) after victory (of Makkah), but Jihâd and intention."
Ulema say that it means that though there is no Hijrah now but one can still get reward by making the Niyyat for his deeds and also by participating in Jihâd in which also one has to leave the home.
ÈÇÈ Þóæúáö ÇáäÈíøö ÇáÏøöíäõ ÇáäøóÕöíÍóÉõ ááøóåö æáöÑóÓõæáöåö æáÃóÆöãøóÉö ÇáãõÓúáöãöíäó æÚÇãøóÊöåöãú æÞæáöåö ÊÚÇáì ÅÐÇ äóÕóÍõæÇ ááøóåö æóÑóÓõæáöåö
Chapter (Bâb) 43 : The saying of the Prophet (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) “religion is exhortation to Allâh, to Allâh’s Apostle (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam), to the leaders of Muslims and to the common Muslims”. And the saying of Allâh, “If they are sincere (in duty) to Allâh and His Apostle (9:91)
Purpose of Tarjamatul Bâb and its status
Imâm Bukhari has ended the Kitab-ul-Imân (chapter on faith) with a very comprehensive and great Hadith. The words of the Tarjamatul Bâb are the words of Hadith but Imâm Bukhari has not included this Hadith in his book whereas Imâm Muslim has mentioned this Hadith in Muslim Sharief. Imâm Muhammad bin Aslam al-Toosi has included this Hadith in those four Ahâdith which he believed enough for one's Deen. Imâm Nawawi says that this Hadith alone is enough.
Hadith No. 55
ÍÏøËäÇ ( ãõÓóÏøóÏ ) ñ ÞÇáó ÍÏøËäÇ ( íóÍúíóì ) Úóäú ( ÅÓúãóÇÚöíá ) ó ÞÇáó ÍÏøËäí ( ÞóíúÓõ Èäõ ÃÈí ÍóÇÒöã ) ò Úóäú ( ÌóÑöíÑö Èúäö ÚÈúÏö Çááøóå ) ö ÞÇá ÈóÇíóÚúÊõ ÑÓæáó Çááøóåö Úáóì ÅöÞóÇãö ÇáÕøóáÇóÉö æÅöíÊóÇÁö ÇáÒøóßÇÉö æÇáäøõÕúÍö áößõáøö ãõÓúáöãò
Narrated by Hadhrat Jarir bin Abdullah (RA)
I made the pledge of allegiance to Allâh's Apostle (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) for the following:
1. offer prayers perfectly
2. pay the Zakâh (obligatory charity)
3. and be sincere and true to every Muslim.
Hadith No. 56
ÍÏøËäÇ ( ÃÈõæ ÇáäøõÚúãÇä ) ö ÞÇá ÍÏËäÇ ( ÃÈõæ ÚóæóÇäóÉ ) ó Úóäú ( ÒöíóÇÏö Èúäö ÚöáÇÞóÉ ) ó ÞÇá ÓóãöÚúÊõ ÌóÑöíÑó Èúäó ÚóÈúÏö Çááøóåö íóÞõæáõ íóæúãó ãóÇÊó ÇáãõÛöíÑóÉõ Èúäõ ÔõÚúÈóÉó ÞóÇãó ÝóÍãöÏó Çááøóåó æÃËúäóì Úóáóíúåö æÞÇáó Úóáóíúßõãú ÈöÅöÊøÞóÇÁö Çááøóåö æÍúÏóåõ áÇó ÔóÑöíßó áóåõ æÇáæóÞóÇÑö æÇáÓøóßöíäóÉö ÍóÊøóì íÃúÊöíóßõãõ ÃãíÑñ ÝÅöäøóãÇó íÃúÊöíßõãú ÇáÂúäó Ëõãøó ÞÇáó ÇÓúÊóÚúÝõæÇ áÇãöíÑßõãú ÝÅöäøóåõ ßÇäó íõÍöÈøõ ÇáÚóÝúæó Ëõãøó ÞÇáó ÃãøÇ ÈóÚúÏõ ÝÅöäøöí ÃÊóíúÊõ ÇáäÈíøö ÞõáúÊõ ÃõÈóÇíöÚõßó Úóáóì ÇáÅöÓúáÇóãö ÝóÔóÑóØó Úóáóíøó æÇáäøõÕúÍö áößõáøö ãõÓúáöãò ÝóÈóÇíóÚúÊõåõ Úóáóì åóÐóÇ æÑóÈøö åóÐóÇ ÇáãóÓúÌöÏö Åäøöí áóäóÇÕöÍñ áóßõãú Ëõãøó ÇÓúÊóÛúÝóÑó æóäóÒóáó
Narrated by Ziyâb bin Ilâqa (RA)
I heard Jarir bin 'Abdullah (Praising Allâh). On the day when Al-Mughira bin Shu'ba died, he (Jarir) got up (on the pulpit) and thanked and praised Allâh and said, "Be afraid of Allâh alone Who has none along with Him to be worshipped. (You should) be calm and quiet till the (new) cheif comes to you and he will come to you soon. Ask Allâh's forgiveness for your (late) cheif because he himself loved to forgive others." Jarir added, "Amma badu (now then), I went to the Prophet and said, 'I give my pledge of allegiance to you for Islâm." The Prophet conditioned (my pledge) for me to be sincere and true to every Muslim so I gave my pledge to him for this. By the Lord of this mosque! I am sincere and true to you (Muslims). Then Jarir asked for Allâh's forgiveness and came down (from the pulpit).
To be sincere to Allâh
Ibn Hajar quotes in Fathul Bâri that once the Disciples of Hadhrat Eisâ (AS) asked him ,"O! Roohullah, who is Nâsih (äÇÕÍ) to Allâh?" (When this word "An-Naseehah" is used in relation to Allâh, it does not mean advice, as Allâh needs no adviser.) Hadhrat Eisâ (AS) said, "One who gives preference to the rights of Allâh over the rights of people. Being sincere to Allâh means to believe in Him as taught by Rasulullah not to attribute any partners to Him, to follow His commands sincerely, to refrain from His forbidden things and to love and fear Him.
To be sincere to al-Qur’ân
To believe that it is the word of Allâh, its every word is guarded by Allâh from any addition or alteration and that it is not like the word of creation. To recite it with Imân and Ahtesâb and to take lessons from it.
To be sincere to Allâh’s Apostle (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam)
It means to believe in everything that Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) came with. To believe him as the seal of Prophethood and to follow his Sunnah sincerely.
To be sincere to the Imâms (leaders and rulers) of Muslims
It means to obey them as long as they do not order that thing which is sinful in Shari'ah, to offer Salâh behind them and to advise them if found to be negligent.
Ulema and Mujtahideen can also be included in this category.
To be sincere to the common Muslims
It means to teach them Deen, be kind to them, wish for them as one wishes for one's own self and to exhort them for the right things and to stop them from bad things etc.
Al-Hamdulillah– Kitaabul Imaan has ended here.
Siraj Islam Mufti
There is a great deal of despondency among Muslims. This, despite the fact that we have tremendous human potential of some 1.3 billion, and we lead the world in growth — especially in productive youngsters.
We are also blessed with an abundance of natural resources such as petroleum and natural gas, and we inhabit the most strategic areas of the globe. Place these factors into the context of Islam’s uniquely transcendental message, alongside the testimonials of a glorious historic past, and you have all the ingredients for a respectable place in the comity of nations.
Given all this, and especially during the post-colonial era, we should have taken off on sound footing — building a grand society on our traditional Islamic principles of justice, freedom, peace and prosperity; yet, we did not.
Add to this the fact that our masses are among the world’s poor, hungry, and illiterate. With an over 60% illiteracy rate, our people are being held backwards with few avenues of gainful productivity. As a result, nearly 40% live below the poverty line (on less than $2.00 a day). And while they continue to suffer, corrupt autocratic dictators plunder the resources and loot the public treasury. When they finally leave their thrones of power, they take billions with them to stash in foreign banks.
These dictators have perfected the tools of corruption through deceit and nepotism; silencing and terrorizing the masses through coercion, detention and murder; maintaining their status quo by subservience to foreign masters; and attending to their interests rather than the interests of their own people.
The current havoc being wrought on Muslim lands amply demonstrates that it is past time for our masses and genuine leadership to take affairs into their own hands. We can no longer afford to leave them to autocratic rulers or their cliques and protégés, and the circumstances that necessarily result. Each and every one of us has to be earnestly committed and involved in all our Ummah’s affairs.
First and foremost, we must acquire knowledge. Indeed, the era of inquiry, inquisition and application started with the first word, Iqra, that was revealed to the Prophet (pbuh). He made it incumbent on every Muslim, male or female, to acquire it from the cradle to the grave; thereby, creating a great civilization unparalleled in the history of humankind. Unfortunately, this enlightened culture was weakened because this noble tradition of scholarship was neglected by the rulers of the day; subsequently, colonialists subjugated these Muslim states.
Since there is no dearth of talent among Muslims within or without Muslim countries, public education and accessibility to knowledge must now constitute our primary concern. One less barrier to this has been breached with the free flow of information via the Internet. Essential also is the establishment of educational programs by dedicated individuals at the local level, and each one of us should be involved in one form or another — either through study or its promotion. Those with financial means should open wide their purse strings in order to uplift our people; they will ensure rewards with the Creator in the Hereafter by doing so.
It is important, however, that the knowledge and information being imparted be relevant to our crucial understanding of Islam — offering Islamic solutions to the exigencies of our times while adopting modern means for their application. Public education should make our Ummah conscious of where to go from here.
Muslims must also establish institutions that guarantee that the gains achieved at grassroots levels are sustained and nourished at the collective level. These must include institutions that serve as watchdogs for our rights and civil liberties; that preserve and protect public funds against misappropriation and corruption; that maximize public scrutiny and debate; and work for the unity and solidarity of the Ummah. We must also revive the institutions from our historic past that were considered essential for Islamic development and growth, such as nasiha (advice), shura (consultation), ikhtilaf (airing and resolving disagreements), al-amr bil maruf (commanding right and virtue), al-nahi an al-munkar (forbidding wrong and vice) and hisbah (public accountability).
In addition, we must stop wasting time by focusing on peripheral issues, as our collective existence is currently very much at stake. While it is healthy for us to have different viewpoints, they should not be allowed to develop to the extent that they are detrimental to our community. Thus, while encouraging diversity for the greater good, we must shun sectarianism, discord and conflict, and seek to resolve all of our issues through amicable discussion. Islam places utmost emphasis (second only to submission to Allah) on the unity of our Ummah, and condemns in the strongest terms any willful attempt to split the Ummah. Entrenched rulers often exploit our sectarian differences, and the West utilizes them for its purposes to “create wars with Islam.”
In pursuing the above, Muslims must be committed to the sublimation of human values that is ascribed by Islam, which seeks the good for humanity, in toto. As Muslims, we should embrace goodness wherever it is — irrespective of whence it emanates. This is in accordance with the Qur’anic message: “You are the best Ummah evolved for humankind; you enjoin what is good, and check what is wrong and evil for humankind while having faith in Allah” (Al Imran, 3:110).
Another Islamic characteristic is Ummatan Wastan, a median or balanced community that has been given the responsibility of exemplifying as “witnesses (to the truth) before humankind” (Al Baqarah, 2:143). The greatness of our Ummah is contingent upon its carrying out this great role for humankind.
As Muslims — committed to Allah, our Lord and Creator — we must put our trust in Him and know that success will come if we are true believers and if we do our best to implement the above. We must be conscious of our accountability to Him for all our actions and in conformity with the maxim, “seeking the good of this world and the good of the Hereafter.” This commitment necessarily entails that we root out any and all selfishness, and work hard for the collective good of the community, the Ummah, and humanity at large.
Most noteworthy is a remarkable 21st century phenomenon: during these sad times for Muslims, coupled with an Islamic resurgence, Providence has enlisted a worldwide movement to promote justice and peace. Strangely, its birth took place at the exact time that the design for re-colonizing Muslim lands was taking hold, starting with Iraq. The informal movement’s slogan is, “People power versus Superpower,” (the U.S.), and they are convinced that People Power shall ultimately win out, because it is on the side of humanity and represents truth.
Muslims cannot remain on the sidelines of this movement; rather, they must get earnestly involved — with a holistic, transcendental vision of taking the lead and guiding role in it. This is because Islam — literally and purposely — is peace; it represents an unreserved stand for justice for humankind as a whole. The Qur’anic injunctions are clear; for example, “Allah commands you to render back your trusts to those to whom they are due. And when you judge between humankind, that you judge with justice: Verily how excellent is the teaching, which He gives you! For Allah is He who hears and sees all things” (Al Nisa, 4:58). Further on in the same chapter, the Qur’an instructs, “O You who believe! Stand firmly for justice, as witnesses to Allah, even as against yourselves, or your parents, or your kin, and whether it is (against) rich or poor; for Allah can best protect both. Follow not the lusts (of your heart), lest you swerve, and if you distort (justice) or decline to do justice, verily Allah is well-acquainted with all that you do” (4:135).
Mr. P. Newton with Mr. Rafiqul-Haqq has written an article titled: "Grammatical Errors in the Qur'an". He writes:
Muslims claim the Qur'an not just to be a human literary masterpiece, but a divine literary miracle. But this claim does not square with the facts. For the Qur'an, which we have in our hands contains obvious grammatical errors which is plain to see for all who know Arabic.
Mr. Newton has cited the following verses of the Qur'an to substantiate his claim:
Al-Maaidah 5: 69
Al-Nisaa 4: 162
Ta Ha 20: 63
Al-Baqarah 2: 177
Aal Imraan 3: 59
Al-Anbiaa 21: 3
Al-Mominun 22: 19
Al-Hujraat 49: 9
Al-Munaafiqun 63: 10
Al-Shams 91: 5
Fussilat 41: 11
Al-Aa`raaf 7: 57
Al-Aa`raaf 7: 160
After citing these examples, Mr. Newton ends his article with the following words:
The Qur'an, because of these errors, is not even a masterpiece. If, humanly speaking, the Qur'an cannot be called a masterpiece, can anyone honestly call it a divine literary miracle?
The object of this article is to give answers to the following questions:
How does the grammar of a language develop?
Why and how did the Arabic grammar develop?
What were the sources of deriving grammatical rules of the Arabic language?
The writer believes that answers to these questions will themselves be an adequate evidence of the absurdity of trying to find Grammatical Errors in the Qur'an.
Grammar - A Stage in the Development of a Language
It is a commonly known and an established fact that compilation of grammar is a stage in the development of a language. This statement needs a little explanation.
Laying down 'Grammatical Rules' of any language does not and cannot precede speaking and comprehension of that language by its native speakers. For instance, the English language was being spoken for a long time before someone sat down to lay down the rules of the English language. The grammar of a language is created, but not before that language is spoken and understood by the natives.
We can take Greek, as a case in point. Greek, as we know is a very old language. But it was only in the second Century B.C. that Dionysius Thrax, wrote a book of Grammar on the Greek language and that too was limited only to the word morphology. This work, incidentally, was the first systematic grammar of the Western tradition. It was not before the second century A.D. that a study of sentence syntax of the Greek language was conducted by Apollonius Dyscolus. Dionysius Thrax also defined Grammar. His definition is as under:
The acquaintance with [or observation of] what is uttered by poets and writers. A close look at this definition would further substantiate the obvious. According to it, Grammar was developed:
through the observation of the utterances of (established) poets and writer of that language - which obviously implies that before any grammatical rules were laid down, writers and poets were using that language to convey their messages and to do their works,
to get acquainted with the language of these (established) poets and writers - which, to some extent implies that such grammatical rules are not a need for a people whose native language is under consideration. It is a need for peoples for whom the language in question is either a foreign language or is a language not completely the same as the language they speak. For instance, a modern-day Englishman normally does not need to study English grammar to fully comprehend modern-day works. However, for comprehension of the classical English literature he may require to take a course in grammar and word usage of the classical English language.
It should be clear from the foregoing points that knowing the correct language is really a matter of knowing what and how the native speakers of that language speak. Grammatical rules are derived from this usage of the native speakers. This fact is irrefutable. This fact also points out the reason and basis of development and change in a language. It is stated in Britannica:
When a child learns to speak he tends to regularize the anomalous, or irregular, forms by analogy with the more regular and productive patterns of formation in the language; e.g., he will tend to say "comed" rather than "came," "dived" rather than "dove," and so on, just as he will say "talked," "loved," and so forth. The fact that the child does this is evidence that he has learned or is learning the regularities or rules of his language. He will go on to "unlearn" some of the analogical forms and substitute for them the anomalous forms current in the speech of the previous generation. But in some cases, he will keep a "new" analogical form (e.g., "dived" rather than "dove"), and this may then become the recognized and accepted form.
The reader should note the words: '... and this may become the recognized and accepted form.' This statement once again is evidence of the fact that what we refer to as 'correct language' is really the language recognized and accepted by the natives of that particular language as correct.
This process is the usual case in the development of grammar and the dependable sources of deriving its 'rules'. Now, once these concepts are clearly understood, consider the following example:
Suppose that Group X was the accepted and recognized literati of Latin, prior to the compilation of Latin grammar. Later on, some scholars of Latin sat down to compile the Latin grammar. They looked for various sources for their work. The scholars find that the works of Group X comprises of Latin literature, recognized and accepted to be correct by the natives of that language. So these scholars, without any reservations accept the works of Group X as one of the sources for their work. Time moved on. After a few hundred years, some other 'scholars' sit to analyze the works of Group X on the basis of the work done by the 'grammarians' (the scholars who compiled the rules of grammar). Now, after "thorough deliberation" if they declare, on the basis of the work of the grammarians, that the writings of Group X contains a number of 'grammatical' errors, these modern "scholars" in their exuberance may even claim (or at least expect) a literary award for their findings, yet even an ordinary person would only laugh at their findings. For he would hopefully have the common sense of asking himself: "How can something be analyzed for errors on the basis of another thing which itself is based on the first thing". This basis for analysis would really be like saying: "the human body (the source) does not correspond to the books written on human physiology (the derived result), and therefore, the human body (the source), when analyzed on the basis of these books has such and such errors". The common man, rather than going into such "sick" logic, would almost certainly take to the point that the books written on human physiology (the derived result) do not adequately describe the human body (the source). Obviously, the same principle would also apply to the appraisal of the writings of Group X on the basis of the work of the grammarians. If the rules laid down by the grammarians do not correspond to the writings of Group X, then the fault lies with the rules of the grammarians and not with the writings of Group X. Obviously, appraising the source, on the basis of the results derived from that very source is nothing but absurd.
Two Distinct Stages in the Development of a Language
There is yet another important aspect of history of the development of a language.
If we analyze the development of a language closely, we shall see that in relation to conformity to grammatical rules, the history of a language can normally, be divided into two distinct stages. One is the "Pre-grammar" stage, and the other is the "Post-grammar" stage. Each of these stages has a set of characteristics peculiar to it.
First let us see the Pre-grammar stage. In this stage, a language is in its purest and most natural form. The natives of the language speak their hearts and minds out, and whatever and however they speak and accept and recognize as correct is the standard for correct language. In these times, poets, writers and orators are criticized, not for wrong grammar, as no such thing as compiled grammar has any existence, but for lack of clarity, non-idiomatic use of language, improper use of words and poor style. It is not just improbable, but inconceivable that these writers, poets or orators commit such mistakes as may be termed as "grammatical errors". For whatever they say and however they say it provides the very grounds on which, later on, the grammarians base their "grammatical rules". It is on the very authority of these writers, poets, orators and other established users of a language that "rules" of grammar are laid down. For instance, in later times, a grammarian might say: "XYZ is a rule of language A, as is obvious from the statements/verses of the poet D, who was accepted and recognized by the natives of language A, as qualified to be held as an authority on that language", or "XYZ is a rule of language A, because this is how it is spoken by the natives of that language". Another important aspect of this stage is that even such deviations from the common and regular usage as are recognized and accepted by the natives of that language to be correct, cannot be termed as incorrect. What the grammarians, in fact, do is to try and find out the reasons for such deviations and the added meaning a certain deviation provides to the regular and common usage, but even if some grammarians are unable to find out the reasons for these deviations, they still cannot be termed as incorrect.
Now, let us also have a brief look at the Post-grammar stage of a language. In the first stage, it is the poets, writers, orators and users of that language that provide guidelines for the work of the grammarians. In the Post-grammar stage, it is normally, the other way round. In this stage, generally, grammatical rules are held by the writers, poets, orators and other users, as the standard for the correctness of their written or spoken words. In the first stage, grammatical rules are derived from the usage of writers, poets etc., and every grammatical rule along with every deviation from such a rule, which can be substantiated by the usage of such writers and orators is held to be correct. On the other hand, in the second stage it is normally the accepted rules (and the accepted deviations from these rules) that substantiate the correctness of a writer's, poet's, orator's or anyone else's usage. Obviously, it can so happen that a writer uses a style, which is considered to be against the general grammatical rules of the language. The writer is then criticized for this deviation. Nevertheless, sometimes the writer can provide examples of such deviations from the 'Original' authorities of the language, which had previously been missed by the grammarians of that language. In such an event, the style of the writer is then accepted to be correct. Furthermore, sometimes a writer, because of the native acceptance that he may acquire over time for his usage and style, can become so influential that even his deviations may later on be considered as authentic. Thus, grammatical rules may even be modified on the authority of the deviations of such a writer. This tendency of accepting new grammatical rules because of any new styles introduced by modern writers is far less in peoples who are more conscious and conservative about maintaining the purity of their language, as compared to those who are not.
These are some of the major changes that take place in the development of a language before and after the compilation of grammatical rules.
The Particular Case of the Arabic Language
Generally, the grammar of a language is developed to teach that language to such peoples, who are not native speakers of that language. However, in the case of the development of the Arabic grammar there was a difference. One other factor played an important role in the initiation of the compilation of Arabic grammar. This factor was the concern and the consciousness of the Arabs for maintaining the purity of their language.
It is quite clear to all those who are aware of the history and psyche of the Arabs that they were a people who took great pride in the beauty, simplicity, purity and eloquence of their language. This pride was so deep-rooted in their psyche that the word used for non-Arabs in the Arabic language - 'ajami' - means 'a person who stammers and is not eloquent'.
The conquests of the Arabs and the conversion of a large number of non-Arabs to Islam, during the first century after the Prophet (pbuh) created a need for the compilation of Arabic grammar as a large number of non-Arabs, now developed an inclination of learning the Arabic language to understand the Qur'an and the sayings of the Prophet (pbuh). Furthermore, these conquests and the resultant expansion of the Muslim state also opened up the hitherto closed Arabian society. This situation, on the one hand, provided an opportunity of rich social, cultural, political and economic exposure to the Arabs and, on the other, threatened the more conscious among them with the adulteration of their language by the social and cultural interaction with other peoples. This fear provided the other important basis for the yet unknown and unconsidered task of the compilation of Arabic grammar. 
The first person to take up this task was Abu al-Aswad Al-Du'wali (A.D. 605-688). Some people ascribe the book "Usul al-Nahw al-`Arabi" to Abu al-Aswad. Later on, a chain of grammarians made their contribution to the now esteemed task of the compilation and research on Arabic grammar. The grammarians' job, in the later stages became so esteemed and exalted that the most outstanding grammarian, along with the best Jurist, was given a distinct position in the royal assemblies.
The Primary Sources in the Compilation of the Arabic Grammar.
The Grammarians and other scholars of linguistic fields, in their task of compiling their rules, used all the compiled or scattered Arabic literature that was accepted by the Arabs to be in its unadulterated verbal tradition and representative of the correct usage of their language. The two major, unanimously accepted sources of this literature were the Qur'an and the pre-Islamic and Islamic poetry. There was a difference among the linguists regarding whether or not the words of the Prophet (SWS) and addresses of well known orators as reported in isolated narrations may be used as source material in their work. Those who were in favor of using these narratives believed such material to be reliable enough for the derivation of linguistic and grammatical rules and were of the opinion that because of the recognition of the Prophet (SWS), in particular, and the considered orators, in general by the Arabs as authorities in the Arabic language, such material should be held as a source for their work. On the other hand, those who were against using these traditions as source material gave their dissent on the basis that contrary to the Qur'an and the poetic works, it is difficult to rely on these narratives to be verbally accurate and unadulterated. The basis of their argument was that the Qur'an, because of its religious importance and the Arabic poetry, because of the Arab culture were not only accepted authorities in Arabic language, but were also transmitted from one generation to the other, in their exact and unaltered verbal form, whereas the narratives of the Prophet (SWS) and the addresses of the well known orators lacked this quality. `Abd al-Qadir ibn `Omar al-Baghdadi states in his book "Khazanatul-Adab" writes:
explaning his colleague's - Ibn Jabir's - literature, says: "There are six
sciences related with language: Linguistics, Morphology, Syntax, Rhetoric,
Connotation and the science related to the figures of speech. In the first
three, a citable authority can only be the Classical Arab speech. While in the
later three, as they are a matter related to the common sense and reason, even
the post-classical people or even non-Arab people may be cited. This is the
reason why in these fields citations have also been made from the literature
of people like Buhtari, Abu-Tamam, Abu-Tayyeb etc.
My point of view is that a citable authority in linguistic sciences is of two kinds: one is poetry and the other anything besides poetry. As far as the first category is concerned, scholars have divided the Arab poets in four categories: 1) "Al-Sho`ara al-Jahiliyyah", that is the Classical, pre-Islamic poets... 2) "Al-Mukhadhramun" or the poets who witnessed the pre-Islamic as well as the Islamic era... 3) "Al-Mutaqaddimun" or the poets of the early Islamic era... and 4) "Al-Muwalladun" those after the early Islamic era till the poets of our day. Citations from the first two groups are unanimously accepted by all linguists as authority... As far as the third group is concerned, [although there exists some difference] but it is [normally held to be] correct to accept their references as authoritative... While from the fourth group, citations from only those who are held to be reliable among them are accepted as authority, this opinion is also held by Zamakhshuriy...
The non-poetic sources include either the Blessed Book of our Lord, the purest, the most fluent and the most eloquent piece of Arabic literature, citations therefrom are accepted to be authoritative, whether they are from its continual [most well known] tradition or from its irregular [not so well known] traditions, as has been declared by Ibn Janni in the beginning of his book "Al-Mohtasib". Besides [the Qur'an] such [non-poetical] sources include [speech] references from the first three categories of Arabs, as we have mentioned in the categorization of poets, above. As far as citations from the Hadith (narrative traditions) of the prophet are concerned, Ibn Malik accepts them as authoritative... while, Ibn Dhai` and Abu Hayyan refuse to do so. Their refusal is based on two reasons: 1) these traditions are not verbal narrations of the speech of the Prophet. On the contrary, only their content has been narrated [in the words of the narrators]. And 2) the great grammarians of Basra and Kufa do not hold them as citable authorities [in the derivation of Grammatical rules].
Thus, all the grammarians and other linguists of the Arabic language, without exception have accepted the Qur'an as a source of grammar and other linguistic sciences of the Arabic language. It is because of this reason that such well known grammarians and linguists as Al-Siibwayh, Al- Zamakhshuriy, Ibn Hisham, Malik, Al-Akhfash, Al-Kasai, Al-Farazdaq, Al-Farra', Khalil, Al-Farahidi and innumerable others, while stating a particular grammatical or linguistic rule present wherever possible, as evidence supporting their claim not only poetical but also Qur'anic verses. It would be accurate to say that for them - the fathers and founders of the compiled Arabic Grammar - the Qur'an has always been the most dependable source for their work. All that is required to appreciate the importance that these people give to the Qur'an is to have a look at their works. Al-Farahidi writes in the preface of his book, "Kitab al-Jumal Fi al-Nahw" (Muassasatul-Risalah, Beirut, 1987):
We have placed all the discussions in their respective chapters providing support for each argument from the Qur'an and Arabic poetry.
Likewise, Howell writes in the preface of his book, "A Grammar of the Classical Arabic language":
The object of the Grammarians being to demonstrate the classical usage, they endeavor to support every proposition and illustrate every rule by one or more evidentiary examples taken from the classical language. These examples consist of texts from the Kur`an, passages from tradition, proverbs, phrases transmitted by the learned from the Arabs of the desert, and verses from the poets.... A text from the Kur`an, as being the very word of God, delivered in the purest dialect of the Arabs, according to the theory of direct verbal inspiration inculcated by Muslim theologians, is of necessity infallible. A passage from tradition, if it be the word of the Prophet, is universally accepted as conclusive evidence; and if it be the word of a Companion, is generally so received, while some hyper critical purists affect to consider the Companions as liable to the suspicion of solecism. A proverb if it dates from heathen times, is admittedly excellent evidence of classical usage. But a saying transmitted by a Grammarian or a Lexicologist from an Arab of the desert varies in authority with the antiquity of its transmitter, a saying transmitted by Ibn Hisham, for instance, not being nearly so authoritative as one transmitted by Al-Akhfash al-Akbar.
This, then is the accepted and acknowledged position of the Qur'an in all the sciences of Arabic language and literature.
To be Concluded
Mawlana Mufti Mohammad Taqi Usmani (DB)
Salam as a mode of Financing
It is evident from the foregoing discussion that salam was allowed by Shari‘ah to fulfill the needs of farmers and traders. Therefore, it is basically a mode of financing for small farmers and traders. This mode of financing can be used by the modern banks and financial institutions, especially to finance the agricultural sector. As pointed out earlier, the price in salam may be fixed at a lower rate than the price of those commodities delivered at spot. In this way, the difference between the two prices may be a valid profit for the banks or financial institutions. In order to ensure that the seller shall deliver the commodity on the agreed date, they can also ask him to furnish a security, which may be in the form of a guarantee or in the form of mortgage or hypothecation. In the case of default in delivery, the guarantor may be asked to deliver the same commodity, and if there is a mortgage, the buyer / the financier can sell the mortgaged property and the sale proceeds can be used either to realize the required commodity by purchasing it from the market, or to recover the price advanced by him.
The only problem in salam which may agitate the modern banks and financial institutions is that they will receive certain commodities from their clients, and will not receive money. Being conversant with dealing in money only, it seems to be cumbersome for them to receive different commodities from different clients and to sell them in the market. They cannot sell those commodities before they are actually delivered to them, because it is prohibited in Shari‘ah.
But whenever we talk about the Islamic modes of financing, one basic point should never be ignored. The point is that the concept of the financial institutions dealing in money only is foreign to Islamic Shari‘ah. If these institutions want to earn a halal profit, they shall have to deal in commodities in one way or the other, because no profit is allowed in Shari‘ah on advancing loans only. Therefore, the establishment of an Islamic economy requires a basic change in the approach and in the outlook of the financial institutions. They shall have to establish a special cell for dealing in commodities. If such a special cell is established, it should not be difficult to purchase commodities through salam and to sell them in the spot markets.
However, there are two other ways of benefiting from the contract of Salam.
Firstly, after purchasing a commodity by way of salam, the financial institutions may sell it through a parallel contract of salam for the same date of delivery. The period of salam in the second (parallel) transaction being shorter, the price may be a little higher than the price of the first transaction, and the difference between the two prices shall be the profit earned by the institution. The shorter the period of salam, the higher the price, and the greater the profit. In this way the institutions may manage their short term financing portfolios.
Secondly, if a parallel contract of salam is not feasible for one reason or another, they can obtain a promise to purchase from a third party. This promise shoud be unilateral from the expected buyer. Being merely a promise, and not the actual sale, their buyers will not have to pay the price in advance. Therefore, a higher price may be fixed and as soon as the commodity is received by the institution, it will be sold to the third party at a pre-agreed price, according to the terms of the promise.
A third option is sometimes proposed that, at the date of delivery, the commodity is sold back to the seller at a higher price. But this suggestion is not in line with the dictates of Shari‘ah. It is never permitted by the Shari‘ah that the purchased commodity is sold back to the seller before the buyer takes its delivery, and if it is done at a higher price it will be tantamount to riba which is totally prohibited. Even if it is sold back to the seller after taking delivery from him, it cannot be pre-arranged at the time of original sale. Therefore, this proposal is not acceptable at all.
Some Rules of Parallel Salam
Since the modern Islamic Banks and Financial Institutions are using the instrument of parallel Salam, some rules for the validity of this arrangement are necessary to observe:
1. In an arrangement of parallel salam, the bank enters into two different contracts. In one of them, the bank is the buyer and in the second one the bank is the seller. Each one of these contracts must be independent of the other. They cannot be tied up in a manner that the rights and obligations of one contract are dependant on the rights and obligations of the parallel contract. Each contract should have its own force and its performance should not be contingent on the other.
For example, if A has purchased from B 1000 bags of wheat by way of Salam to be delivered on 31 December, A can contract a parallel Salam with C to deliver to him 1000 bags of wheat on 31 December. But while contracting Parallel Salam with C, the delivery of wheat to C cannot be conditioned with taking delivery from B. Therefore, even if B did not deliver wheat on 31 December, A is duty bound to deliver 1000 bags of wheat to C. He can seek whatever recourse he has against B, but he cannot rid himself from his liability to deliver wheat to C.
Similarly, if B has delivered defective goods which do not conform with the agreed specifications, A is still obligated to deliver the goods to C according to the specifications agreed with him.
2. Parallel Salam is allowed with a third party only. The seller in the first contract cannot be made purchaser in the parallel contract of salam, because it will be a buy-back contract, which is not permissible in Shari‘ah. Even if the purchaser in the second contract is a separate legl entity, but it is fully owned by the seller in the first contract the arrangement will not be allowed, because in practical terms it will amount to 'buy-back' arrangement. For example A has purchased 1000 bags of wheat by way of Salam from B, a joint stock company. B has a subsidiary C, which is a separate legal entity but is fully owned by B. A cannot contract the parallel salam with C. However, if C is not wholly owned by B, A can contract parallel salam with it, even if some share-holders are common between B and C.
'Istisna‘' is the second kind of sale where a commodity is transacted before it comes into existence. It means to order a manufacturer to manufacture a specific commodity for the purchaser. If the manufacturer undertakes to manufacture the goods for him with material from the manufacturer, the transaction of istisna‘ comes into existence. But it is necessary for the validity of istisna‘ that the price is fixed with the consent of the parties and that necessary specification of the commodity (intended to be manufactured) is fully settled between them.
The contract of istisna‘ creates a moral obligation on the manufacturer to manufacture the goods, but before he starts the work, any one of the parties may cancel the contract after giving a notice to the other . However after the manufacturer has started the work, the contract cannot be cancelled unilaterally.
Difference between Istisna‘ and Salam
Keeping in view this nature of istisna‘ there are several points of difference between istisna‘ and salam which are summarized below:
(i) The subject of istisna‘ is always a thing which needs manufacturing, while salam can be effected on any thing, no matter whether it needs manufacturing or not.
(ii) It is necessary for salam that the price is paid in full in advance, while it is not necessary in istisna‘.
(iii) The contract of salam, once effected, cannot be cancelled unilaterally, while the contract of istisna‘ can be cancelled before the manufacturer starts the work.
(iv) The time of delivery is an essential part of the sale in salam while it is not necessary in istisna‘ that the time of delivery is fixed.
Difference between Istisna‘ and Ijarah
It should also be kept in mind that the manufacturer, in istisna‘, undertakes to make the required goods with his own material. Therefore, this transaction implies that the manufacturer shall obtain the material, if it is not already with him, and shall undertake the work required for making the ordered goods with it. If the material is provided by the customer, and the manufacturer is required to use his labor and skill only, the transaction is not istisna‘. In this case it will be a transaction of ijarah whereby the services of a person are hired for a specified fee paid to him.
When the required goods have been manufactured by the seller, he should present them to the purchaser. But there is a difference of opinion among the Muslim jurists whether or not the purchaser has a right to reject the goods at this stage. Imam Abu Hanifah is of the view that he can exercise his 'option of seeing' (Khiyar-ur-ru’yah) after seeing the goods, because istisna‘ is a sale and if somebody purchases a thing which is not seen by him, he has the option to cancel the sale after seeing it. The same principle is also applicable to istisna‘.
However, Imam Abu Yousuf says that if the commodity conforms to the specifications agreed upon between the parties at the time of the contract, the purchaser is bound to accept the goods and he cannot exercise the option of seeing. This view has been preferred by the jurists of the Ottoman Empire, and the Hanafi law has been codified according to this view, because it is damaging in the context of modern trade and industry that after the manufacturer has used all his resources to prepare the required goods, the purchaser cancels the sale without assigning any reason, even though the goods are in full conformity with the required specifications.
Time of Delivery
As pointed out earlier, it is not necessary in istisna‘ that the time of delivery is fixed. However, the purchaser may fix a maximum time for delivery which means that if the manufacturer delays the delivery after the appointed time, he will not be bound to accept the goods and to pay the price. In order to ensure that the goods will be delivered within the specified period, some modern agreements of this nature contain a penal clause to the effect that in case the manufacturer delays the delivery after the appointed time, he shall be liable to a penalty which shall be calculated on daily basis. Can such a penal clause be inserted in a contract of istisna‘ according to Shari‘ah? Although the classical jurists seem to be silent about this question while they discuss the contract of istisna‘, yet they have allowed a similar condition in the case of ijarah. They say that if a person hires the services of a person to tailor his clothes, the fee may be variable according to the time of delivery. The hirer may say that he will pay Rs. 100/- in case the tailor prepares the clothes within one day and Rs. 80/- in case he prepares them after two days. On the same analogy, the price in istisna‘ may be tied up with the time of delivery, and it will be permissible if it is agreed between the parties that in the case of delay in delivery, the price shall be reduced by a specified amount per day.
Istisna‘ as a mode of financing
Istisna‘ can be used for providing the facility of financing in certain transactions, especially in the house finance sector. If the client has his own land and he seeks financing for the construction of a house, the financier may undertake to construct the house at that open land, on the basis of istisna‘, and if the client has no land and he wants to purchase the land also, the financier may undertake to provide him a constructed house on a specified piece of land.
Since it is not necessary in istisna‘ that the price is paid in advance, nor is it necessary that it is paid at the time of delivery, (it may be deferred to any time according to the agreement of the parties,1), therefore, the time of payment may be fixed in whatever manner they wish. The payment may also be in installments. On the other hand, it is not necessary that the financier himself constructs the house. He can enter into a parallel contract of istisna‘ with a third party, or may hire the services of a contractor (other than the client). In both cases, he can calculate his cost and fix the price of istisna‘ with his client in a manner which may give him a reasonable profit over his cost. The payment of installments by the client may start, in this case, right from the day when the contract of istisna‘ is signed by the parties, and may continue during the construction of the house and after it is handed over to the client. In order to secure the payment of the installments, the title deeds of the house or land, or any other property of the client may be kept by the financier as a security, until the last installment is paid by the client.
The financier, in this case, will be responsible for the construction of the house in full conformity with the specifications detailed in the agreement. In the case of any discrepancy, the financier will undertake such alteration at his own cost as may be necessary for bringing it in harmony with the terms of the contract.
The instrument of istisna‘ may also be used for project financing on similar lines. If a client wants to install an air-conditioning plant in his factory, and the plant needs to be manufactured, the financier may undertake to prepare the plant through the contract of istisna‘ according to the aforesaid procedure. Similarly, the contract of istisna‘ can be used for building a bridge or a highway.
The modern BOT (Buy, Operate and Transfer) agreements may also be formalized on the basis of istisna‘. If a government wants to construct a highway, it may enter into a contract of istisna‘ with a builder. The price of istisna‘, in this case, may be the right of the builder to operate the highway and collect tolls for a specified period.
Imam Ghazali (RA)
Advice to be True
Allah has created this whole universe on the basis of love, and has demanded of the people that they should build up their life on the foundation of truth, to make truth and straight dealing a practice of their life, and should give place to truth only in their talks and dealings.
When this clear sense is lost sight of by people, and false stories, superstitions and absurd beliefs rule their self, ideas and thoughts, then hardness and harshness are generated in them they move away from the right path, and they totally give up those realities the adoption of which was necessary.
For this reason the strong and firm pillar of a Muslim's character is straight dealing. It is his duty to be attached to truth in every matter and to see every problem and affair through the glasses of truth, To keep it before him in every decision is the clearest manifestation of his dealing and treatment, Similarly the construction of the society in Islam is made on this foundation that mere conjectures and superstitions should be opposed baseless things and imaginary stories should be thrown outs doubts and misgivings should not be encouraged, because strong and firm realities only deserve to be manifested; they should have their imprint on the society s and their help should be taken in strengthening various relations.
Allah's Messenger has said:
"Keep away from ill-thinking, because ill-thinking is the greatest falsehood,"(Bukhari)
Another hadith says:
"Leave alone doubtful things, follow those matters in which there is no doubts for truth is a means of satisfaction and falsehood is the cause of doubts and misgivings." (Tirmizi)
Quran has expressed condemnation of those communities who follow conjectures and superstitions that have filled their brains with absurdities and has staked their present and future, with the help of the false stories, on the gamble of corruption and disruption:
"They follow nothing but conjecture and what their own souls desire, even though there has already come to them Guidance from their Lord." (An-Najm ..23)
"But they have no knowledge therein. They follow nothing but conjecture and conjecture avails nothing against Truth" (An-Najm.. 28)
Since Islam respects truth most strongly, it turns away liars very harshly. It admonishes them very severely. Hazrat Ayesha narrates :
"Allah's Messenger did not hate anything as strongly as he hated falsehood, If he received in formation that a particular man has told a lie, he used to throwaway that man's respect and honour from his heart till the time he was not informed that he has repented for it," (Ahmed)
Another narration by her states:
"For the Messenger of Allah falsehood was the worst habit in a person, If any man told a lie in his presence, that man's thought always troubled him until the time he was informed that he has repented", (Ibn Habban)
This habit of the Prophet is not at all surprising. This was the policy of our forefathers. Their relations were formed on the basis of righteousness and good moral character. They knew each other. If anyone had blemishes in his character, and if he could be singled out on account of his misdeeds, then his position in that society would be like the position of a man suffering from an infectious itching disease in a healthy society, and he was not considered deserving of any
The distinctive characteristic of the Muslim society in its first period was truth, disciplines, tolerance and cautious manner of speaking, Falsehood, breaking of promises, false accusations, and baseless things are the signs of disruption or of breaking away relation from religion. Or if they are to be termed as having relation with the religion, then it would be caused the religious business of the false accusers, deceivers and tricksters, or the religiosity of liars and promise breakers.
Falsehood is a Great Curse
Falsehood is such an evil that discloses the internal corruption and wickedness of the liar; and this is a name of the wrong dealing which only acts in spreading evil, so much so that even without the needs that are troublesome or the forcing inclinations it leads persons to committing sins.
Some evils are such that a man is involved in them totally. They are like diseases which require a very long drawn treatment; they are like fright and cowardice, which always hinder the progress of a coward and a frightened man, or like greed which makes men miserly and stingy.
When some people come out for jihad to accompany the soldiers, they are shivering in their boots. Or some other people who are terrified when they work out the amount of Zakat that they have to pay. What is the comparison of these coward and miserly natures with those brave and generous natures which rush towards death laughing and which spend their wealth in the cause of Allah most willingly!
Here some excuse can be found for such person as they become a prey of their fears and doubts when called upon to offer sacrifices. But there can be absolutely no excuse for those who make lying their habit and who for the whole of their life go on deceiving people by their falsehoods.
Allah's Messenger said:
"All the evils can be found in a momin, except dishonesty and falsehood." (Ahmed)
The Messenger of Allah was asked whether any Muslim could be a coward. He answered : "Yes." He was asked: "Can a momin be a miser ?' He said that yea, he could be a miser. He was again asked: "Can a momin be a liar?" He replied: "No !" (Malik)
The replies of the Prophet show that these factors of deficiency and weakness enter some persons' nature and when they are called upon to do their duty or pay the dues of Arab and His slaves, then these factors adversely influence them. But this does not mean that miserliness is tolerated and cowardice is a lesser evil.
How is " possible when non-payment of zakat and running away from jihad are acts which touch the borderline of infidelity" (kufr),
The extent to which a liar and a defiant person may spread falsehood and however wide this extent may be his sin before Allah will be to the same extent. Journalists, who misguide the people by false news, politicians who misrepresent important public problems and slaves of selfishness who cast aspersions against eminent persons and ladies of good character-all these sections commit terrible crimes and their punishment is very severe.
Allah's Messenger said:
"One night I saw two men. They came to me and said:' Any man whom you see talking by widening his jaws, consider him a liar, He tells a lie which is copied through his medium, till it is talked of in the whole world. He goes on doing this till the Doomsday." (Fathul Bari)
Making false promises to their subjects by the rulers also comes in this category, because the falsehood spoken from the pulpit spreads to the four corners of the world.
It is in the Tradition that "Three persons can never enter Paradise. First the old man who commits illegal sex, second the man who tells lies and third that poor man who indulges in pride." (AI Bazzar)
To invent lies against Allah's religion is the worst evil. One who has the slightest relation with Allah and His Messenger will never indulge in this kind of activity.
This is the worst kind of liar, and the consequences which he will have to face are terrible.
The Prophet has said:
"The consequence of inventing falsehood against me is not as bad as it is for inventing falsehood against anybody. Let the man who purposely and wittingly makes a false statement about me make his destination Hell." (Bukhari)
In the list of false charges and accusations are included all those inventions and absurdities which the uneducated have fabricated against Allah's religion, which have no place in the faith. The general public has taken them to be the religion though they have nothing to do with it. In fact they are nothing but mere pastime and plaything.
Allah's Messenger has warned his followers against the sources of these invented absurdities, has admonished them to be wary of adopting other ways than those directed by the Quran and the Sunnah. He has said:
"In the last period of my Ummah there will come people who will be deceitful, liars. They will tell you things which you would never have heard, nor have your forefathers heard them. Be wary of them; let them not misguide you and let them not involve you in corruptions." (Muslim)
Accustom your Children to be Truthful
Islam commands that in the hearts of the children the seeds of the greatness and importance of truth be sown, so that they may grow up and develop on truth and may become young in its lap; and they may give it its due place in their talks.
Abdullah Ibn A 'amir says that once my mother called me when the Prophet was present in my house. My mother asked me to come and said that she would give me a certain thing. He asked what did she want to give? She said that she wanted to give me a date (fruit). The Prophet said: " If you had not given him this date, then the committing of a falsehood would have been entered into your record of deeds.". (Abu Daud).
Abu Huraira says that the Prophet has said:
"Anybody who called a child saying that he would give him a certain thing, and did not give it, then it is a lie." (Ahmed)
It is worth noting that in what a wise way the Prophet has instructed his followers to train their children in such a manner that they should consider truth and straight dealing respectable things and should avoid telling lies. Had the Prophet ignored these things and had not emphatically reminded about them, then there was a danger that the children on growing up would not have considered telling lies as sin.
Adoption of straight dealing and telling the truth has been very strictly insisted upon, so much so that it has been enjoined upon to take care about this in even small household matters.
Asma Binte Yazid narrates that she once asked the Messenger of Allah:
"If some one of us women stated that she had no desire to have a certain thing even though she had that desire, then would it be considered a lie ?" He replied: "Falsehood is written as falsehood, and a small falsehood is written as a small falsehood." (Muslim)
Prohibited to tell a Lie even in a Joke
The Establisher of the Shariah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) has warned of all the occasions where falsehood can be used and the adverse consequences of the same, so much so that it is not possible for even an ordinary enforcer to misguide the people about the reality or to lessen its importance. A man tends to make false statements in cutting jokes, thinking that on the occasions of entertaining people there is nothing wrong if baseless information is given or false and imaginary events are related. But Islam, which considers providing relief to hearts as permissible, has fixed only those methods proper and permissible which are within that: limits of truth, because halal is much broader than haram and that truth is independent of falsehood. Allah's Messenger has said:
"Death for the man who indulges in story-telling in order to make some people laugh and for that he relies on falsehood. There is death for him, there is destruction for him." (Tirmizi)
"I give guarantee of a house in the middle of Paradise for the man who has given up falsehood, though he was required to indulge in humour." (Baihaqui)
The Prophet has said:
"A Momin cannot have complete faith unless he gives up falsehood in his jokes and debates though in all other matters he speaks the truth." (Ahmed)
This is our daily observation that people give full rein to their tongues in the matter of humorous talks to make others laugh, and do not hesitate to spread the tales and stories invented by friends or foes only for the purpose of getting some pleasure or for pulling some one's leg, when the world has absolutely prohibited such a wrong policy, and this is a fact that this kind of entertainment and amusements and false acts create enmities and rivalries,
Avoid Exaggeration in Praise
Some peoples when they praise somebody, go to the extent of exaggerating and making false statements, For a Muslim it is necessary that when he praises somebody he should do it to the extent to which he knows about that man, He should avoid exaggeration and falsehood in showering praises of the praised one, although he may be deserving of the praises, for exaggeration is a kind of falsehood which has been forbidden,
To a person who was praising the Prophet, he said: "Do not indulge in exaggeration while praising me, as the Christians did in the case of Ibn Maryam (Christ). I am only a slave. So only say that he is a slave of Allah and His Messenger." (Razin)
A group of such people is always found who lick the boots of the leaders and rulers of the country and praise them to heaven, The main purpose of their lives is to compose very lengthy panegyric poems or to write long-drawn essays in praise of their benefactors, Thus they try to make a mountain of the molehill and place an unknown person in the palace of fame. Sometimes they do not even hesitate to call the tyrant rulers as standard bearers of justice and coward and chicken hearted soldiers as brave and lion-hearted fighters. Their only purpose in this is to earn wealth. This is the worst kind of falsehood. Allah's Messenger has counselled us to totally reject them and expose them till they give up their wrong practices.
Abu Huraira says that the Prophet has commanded us that we should throw dust in the face of those who indulge in exaggeration in their praises. (Tirmizi)
The commentators have pointed out that the persons mentioned here are those who make exaggeration as their habit and through this try to earn gifts and presents from the praised ones but those persons who praise the performers of good acts with a view to encouraging them and to inciting others to follow their example are not meant.
The limits where a Muslim stops and which keep him distinct from the bootlickers and the exaggerators are: that he praises his benefactor or a good person, but he does not let him indulge in vanity and pride. These limits have been clarified by the Prophet.
Hazrat Abu Bakr narrates that a man praised some one in the presence of Allah's Messenger and the Prophet told him:
"Fire on you, you have separated the head of your companion," He repeated these words and then said: "If some one wants to praise his brothers then if he is aware of the facts then he should say that I think he is such and such and Allah is the real Knower, and there is none purer and innocent than Allah; I consider him bearer of these qualities." (Bukhari)
Keep away from Falsehood and Deception In Trade
Traders make false statements while showing their wares and stating their prices. The basis of trade in our midst is unlimited greed. The shopkeeper desires that their should be dearness, while the buyer wants to get the commodities free of charge. It is wealth which controls activities of buying and selling in the markets and in different fields. Islam hates this kind of deceptive affair and the senseless debate and disputation latent in it, The Prophet has said: "The buyers and sellers are free till they do not separate and if they have acted with honesty, and have explained the defects of commodities, then Allah will bless them with prosperity. And if both of them tried to deal dishonestly and tried to
In another tradition it stated: "The prosperity of the dealing of both the persons is terminated. The untrue and false oath will help get the commodity sold, but it reduces the earning ." (Ahmed)
The buyers who go to the shopkeepers are mostly ignorant of the real situation, and whatever the shopkeeper says they believe it, The honest thing is not to take undue advantage of the simplicity of men for the purpose of obtaining double price or for concealing the defects.
The Messenger of Allah has said :
"What would be a greater dishonesty than this that when you are talking with your brother he may be thinking that you are telling the truth whereas you are deceiving him by telling lies." (Bukhari)
He has also said :
"It is not lawful for a Muslim to sell such a commodity that has a defect, except that the defect is shown to the buyer." (Bukhari)
Ibn Abi Adna narrates that a man opened a shop in the market and swore that he would sell such a commodity as no one else would be selling, so that he may deceive some Muslims; so the following verses were revealed:
"Verily, those who sell the covenant with Allah and their oaths for a small price, there is no compensation for them in the Hereafter. On the Day of Judgment Allah will not speak to them, nor will He look at them, and nor will He purify them; but for them is very severe punishment" (Baqarah)
Disregard of truth in giving evidence is the worst type of falsehood. When a Muslim should stand up for giving evidence, he should state the truth unhesitatingly; regardless of the fact whether it is against his close friend or a favourite person. No relationship or prejudice should deviate him from the right path, nor any greed or bribe should be able to make him waver in his stand.
"O You who believe I Stand out firmly for justice, as witnesses to Allah, even as against yourselves, or your parents, or your kin, and whether it be (against) rich or poor; for Allah can best protect both. Follow not the lusts (ofyour heart), lest you swerve, and if you distort (justice) or decline to do justice, verily Allah is well-acquainted-with all that you do." (Nissa: 135)
Hazrat Abu Bakr narrates Allah has stated:
"May I not tell you the major sins ?" Three times he repeated the same thing. We requested: "Why not O Messenger of Allah ?" He replied: "To associate some one else with Allah, to disobey the parents and to murder some one unjustly." He was leaning. Then he got up and said: "And to tell lies and to give false evidence." He went on repeating it till we said to ourselves it would be better if he were silent then." (Bukhari)
Trickery and deception is a falsehood which has layers and layers of darkness. It does not only involve the concealment of truth but it also tries to prove that the falsehood is truth. In some special matters it harms only a few individuals but in public matters it becomes a severe and deadly danger against the whole nation.
For this reason the Prophet has very bluntly and emphatically counselled to keep away from it and bas warned against it.
Do not break your Promises
The traders and the industrialists particularly should take special care to see that they keep their promises, that they are true to their words and that they do not change their stand. It is a very sad state of affairs that among the Muslims the tendency of breaking promises and crossing the limits has become very common, when their religion has termed the false promises as symbols of disruption.
The Messenger of Allah considered the words coming out from the mouth as holy and the words that fell on his ears as Abdullah bin Abi Hama says that he entered into a contract for the sale of a commodity with the Prophet before he was blessed with prophet-hood, and some commodities had remained to be sold. He promised to the prophet that he would hand over a certain thing to him at a certain place. Then he forgot all about this. After three days he remembered his promise and went to the appointed place. He saw that the Prophet was present at the spot. He only said this: "O young man! You worried me. I am waiting here for you for the last three days ." (Abu Daud)
It is narrated that the Prophet had promised Jabir bin Abdullah that he would give him some gifts from the stock of articles coming from Bahrain, but before fulfilling this promise he died. When the stock from Bahrain arrived at the place of the First Caliph, he caused an announcement to be made in the public that anyone whom the Prophet might have promised to give something from this stock or anyone who had lent something to the Prophet should come to him and take away his due" (Bukhari)
It is worth noting how the words are appraised and they are enforced, so that they may not become worthless if left uncared for. False promises do untold harm to the interests of the society. They cause inconvenience to the people and waste time, Redeeming your pledges is a commendable quality. Allah considers fulfilling of promises as one of the attributes of prophet-hood:
"Also mention in the Book (the story of) Ismail; he was true to what he promised and he was a Messenger, Prophet. He used to enjoin on his people prayer and charity and he was most acceptable in sight of the Lord " (Maryam.. 54-55)
In these verses the order of the good qualities show what position the quality of fulfilling of promises enjoys; and Ismail showed that he was true to his word when his father told him that he saw a dream in which he was slaughtering his son, Ismail, and asked him what he thought about it. The son, who was true to his word, replied: "God willing, you will find me patient and steadfast."
Sometimes man relies on falsehood when he commits a mistake, and he wants to save himself from the bad consequences of that mistake. This is very unwise and brings a bad name. It amounts to going from one evil to another, which is worse than the first evil. It is necessary that man should own his mistakes. It is likely that his truthfulness and his sense of sorrow over his mistake may save him from the bad consequences and he may be pardoned. When a Muslim senses some danger or is afraid to speak the truth, it is proper that he should show courage and try to avoid getting ensnared in the net of falsehood. Allah's Messenger has said: " Adopt truth, even if you see your destruction in it, for the (final) salvation is in it." (Ibn Abi-duniya) In another hadith it is mentioned: "When a person tells a lie, the bad odour that emanates from it keeps the angels one mile away." (Tirmizi)
Truth of Speech leads to Truth of Action
If a man is truthful and straight in his speech and dealings, then inevitably there will be truthfulness and sincerity in his actions and goodness and reform in his conditions. By adopting truthful and straight methods in dealing with others, this light of truth also illuminates man's heart and mind and their darkness also vanish:
"O you who believe ! Fear Allah and (always) say a word directed to the right;, that He may make your conduct whole and sound and forgive you your sins ;. He that obeys Allah and His Messenger has already attained the highest achievement." (Ahzab.. 70-71)
Right action is the desired actions about which there is no misgiving, because it is the creation of certainty. There is no idea of defect in that, because it is the companion of sincerity. There is no curve in it, because its source is truth. The success of the communities and nations in the matter of conveying their message depends on the fact that the bearers of the message must be performers of right action, If they have an abundant record of right and truthful action, then they can reach the zenith of success and glory, otherwise they swerve from their destination in the way, for mere idleness, senseless activities, slogan shouting and self-praise would not be of any use. Allah's Messenger has said:
"Adopt truth, for truth shows the path of righteousness, and righteousness shows the path to Paradise. A man speaks the truth regularly and adopts truthful ways till he is recorded as a truthful person before Allah; and keep away from falsehood, for falsehood leads to wickedness, and wickedness throws in the Hell, A person tells lies regularly and attaches himself to falsehood till he is recorded as a liar before Allah," (Fathul Bari)
Evil and wickedness towards which the habit of telling lies leads is the last stage of the destruction of self and the lowness of faith.
Imam Malik has reported about the hadith narrated by Ibn Masood: " A person regularly tells lies and adopts falsehood (as his policy), till a black point is imprinted in his heart, and slowly and slowly the whole heart becomes black. At that time his name is entered in the list of liars before Allah."
Allah has stated in Quran :
"It is those who believe not in the Signs of Allah that forge falsehood, it is they who lie." (Nahl: 105)
Righteousness whose path is shown by truth is the highest peak of goodness to which only men of high determination can reach. In this connection the following verses of the holy Quran would suffice:
"It is no virtue that you turn your face to the East and the West, but virtue is that one should believe in Allah, and the Last Day and the angels and the prophets; and spend out of love for Him his wealth on relatives and orphans and the needy and the wayfarer and on those who ask and for ransom of the slaves and establish salat and pay zakat. And those who fulfil the pledges they make and steadfast In adversity and affliction and In times of struggle, such are the people as are truthful and Godfearing." (Baqarah: 177)
S. Abul Hasan Ali Nadvi (RA)
Salah ud-Din Ayyoubi (RA)
The Third Crusade:
The fall of Jerusalem and the terrible rout of the Crusaders at the battle of Hittin threw the whole of Christendom into a violent commotion. Reinforcements from Europe poured forth into Palestine. Almost all the principal sovereigns and eminent generals of the then Christendom, such as, Frederick Barbarossa, the Emperor of Germany, Richard Lion, King of England, and Philip Augustus, King of France, Leopold of Austria, the Duke of Burgundy, the Count of Flanders sallied forth with their armies against the lonely Sultan and his few chiefs and relatives who had to defend the honour of Islam.
Negotiations of Peace:
Both the parties which had been arrayed against each other in a sanguinary combat for five years at last got tired of the fruitless, harassing and decimating struggle. They came to an agreement at Ramla in 588 a. h. which recognised Salah ud-din as the sovereign of the whole of Palestine leaving the principality of Acre in the hands of the Christians. Thus ended the Third Crusade and with it the task entrusted to Salah ud-din by God. Lane-Poole describes the inglorious end of the Third Crusade in these words:
"The Holy War was over; the five years' contest ended. Before the great victory at Hittin in July, 1187, not an inch of Palestine west of the Jordan was in the Moslems' hands. After the Peace of Ramla in September, 1192, the whole land was theirs, except a narrow strip of coast from Tyre to Jaffa. Saladin had no cause to be ashamed of the treaty. The Franks indeed retained most of what the Crusaders had won, but the result was contemptible in relation to the cost. At the Pope's appeal, all Christendom had risen in arras. The Emperor, the Kings of England, France, and Sicily, Leopold of Austria, the Duke of Burgundy, the Count of Flanders, hundreds of famous barons and knights of all nations, had joined with the King and Princes of Palestine and the indomitable brothers of the Temple and Hospital, in the effort to deliver the Holy City and restore the vanished kingdom of Jerusalem. The Emperor was dead; the Kings had gone back; many of their noblest followers lay buried in the Holy Land; but Jerusalem was still the city of Saladin, and its titular king reigned over a slender realm at Acre.
"All the strength of Christendom concentrated in the Third Crusade had not shaken Saladin's power. His soldiers may have murmured at their long months of hard and perilous service, year after year, but they never refused to come to his summons and lay down their lives in his cause. His vassals in the distant valleys of the Tigris may have groaned at his constant requirements, but they brought their retainers loyally to his colours; and at the last pitched battle, at Arsuf, it was the division of Mosil that most distinguished itself for valour. Throughout these toilsome campaigns Saladin could always count on the support of the levies from Egypt and Mesopotamia, as well as from northern and central Syria; Kurds, Turkmans, Arabs, and Egyptians, they were all Moslems and his servants when he called. In spite of their differences of race, their national jealousies, and tribal pride, he had kept them together as one host—not without difficulty and twice or thrice a critical waver. But, the shrinking at Jaffa notwithstanding, they were still a united army under his orders in the autumn of 1192, as they had been when he first led them 'on the Path of God' in 1187. Not a province had fallen away, not a chief or vassal had rebelled, though the calls upon their loyalty and endurance were enough to try the firmest faith and tax the strength of giants. The brief defection, quickly pardoned, of a young prince of his own blood in Mesopotamia only emphasises, by its isolation, Saladin's compelling influence over his subjects. When the trials and sufferings of the five years* war were over, he still reigned unchallenged from the mountains of Kurdistan to the Libyan desert, and far beyond these borders the king of Georgia, the Catholicos of Armenia, the Sultan of Konia, the Emperor of Constantinople, were eager to call him friend and ally.
"To such allies he owed nothing: they came not to aid but to congratulate. The struggle was waged by Saladin alone. Except at the last, when his brother came prominently to the front, one cannot point to a single general or counsellor who can be said to have led, much less dominated, the Sultan. A council of war undoubtedly guided his military decisions, and sometimes overruled his better judgement, as before Tyre and Acre, but in that council it is impossible to single out a special voice that weighed more than another in influencing his mind,. Brother, sons, nephews, old comrades, new vassals, shrewd Kady, cautious secretary, fanatical preacher, —all had their share in the general verdict, all helped their Master loyally according to their ability, but not a man of them ever forgot who was the Master. In all that anxious, laborious, critical time, one mind, one will was supreme, the mind and the will of Saladin."
Death of Salah ud-din :
On Wednesday, the 27th of Safar, 589 a,h. died Salah ud-din, the faithful ally of Islam, after working his way up to the summit of his ambition, in the fifty-seventh year of his age. Thus describes Ibn Shaddad the last days of Sultan Salah ud-dln:
"It was in the night of the 27th of Safar, and the twelfth day since he fell ill, that the Sultan's illness took a serious turn. He had become too weak by then. Sheikh Abu Jafar, a pious and saintly person, was requested to stay within the castle during the night so that if the Sultan were to breathe his last, he might be available for recitation of the Qur'an at the last moment. It appeared as if the time of Sultan's eternal rest was drawing near. Sheikh Abu Jafar was sitting by his bed-side, reciting the Holy Qur'an while the Sultan lay unconscious for the last three days, regaining his consciousness only for brief intervals in-between. When Sheikh Abu Jacfar recited the verse: He is Allah, than Whom there is no other God, the Knower of Invisible and the Visible? the Sultan opened his eyes and smiled; his face lighted up and he said joyfully, 'Verily, this is correct.' No sooner had he uttered these words that his soul departed. It was before dawn on Wednesday, the 27th of Safar, when the Sultan passed away. The day of his death was, for the Musalmans, a misfortune such as they had never suffered since they were deprived of the first four Caliphs, The fort, the city and the entire world appeared to be lamenting over-, his death. Whenever I was told earlier that sometimes people longed for offering their own lives for others, I thought it was just a figurative expression; but, I learnt, on the day the Sultan died, that it could really happen so. I was one of those who would have then gladly parted with their lives if there had been the slightest possibility, of saving the life of the Sultan by our sacrifice."-
Ibn Shaddad writes that the Sultan left nothing except one dinar and forty-seven dirhams when he died; nothing else did he leave by way of houses, or goods, or villages, or gardens, or any personal property. He had not left even as much that could suffice to defray his burial expenses and it had to be met by obtaining a loan in his name, while the shroud was provided by his minister and amanuensis, Cadi Fadhil,
The Saintly Sultan:
In regard to the character and disposition of Salah ud-din, Ibn Shaddad has left the following record:
"In faith and practice the Sultan was a devout Musalman, ever conforming to the tenets of the orthodox school of faith. He was regular in the performance of religious observances. Once he told me: 'I have not performed a single congregational prayer alone for the past several years.' Even during his illness he would send for the Imam and force himself to perform the prayer behind him. Assiduous in offering the prayers founded on the practice of the Prophet, he also performed the voluntary prayers during the night. If he could not somehow offer these supererogatory prayers during the night, he made up for these before the dawn prayers as allowed by the Shafeite school. I have seen him standing behind the Imam during his last illness and except for the three days when he had fallen into a stupor, he never missed his prayers The poor-due could never become incumbent upon him since he never possessed, throughout his life, property of such estate and effects as was necessary to make him liable to pay that tax. Boundless in generosity, he gave away whatever he possessed to the poor and needy; and, at the time of his death, no more than forty-seven dirhams of silver and one of gold were found in his possession. He left no other property or goods.
"He always kept the fast during the month of Ramadhan. He had had to omit the fast once which he got noted down by Cadi Fadhil. Before his last illness he scrupulously made up for this involuntary omission against the advice of his physician. 'I do not know when death will overtake me, said he ; and, true to his words, he gave up the ghost soon after the payment of that omission The Sultan ardently desired to accomplish the pilgrimage to Mecca but he could never get time to fulfil his desire. During the year he died he had an intense desire to set-out for the pilgrimage but he could not somehow leave for it.
"He delighted in hearing the Qur'an recited to him and it was not unoften that he listened three or four chapters of the Holy Scripture from the battlement guards whom he sometimes visited during the night. He listened the Qur'an with all his heart and soul till tears trickled down his cheeks. He had also a fancy for listening to the sacred Traditions. He would ask everybody present to sit down and listen calmly while the Traditions were read out to him. If any reputed Traditionist visited the town, he would himself go to attend his lecture; sometimes he would himself relate a Tradition, his eyes brimming with tears. He would sometimes pause on the field of battle, between approaching armies, to listen the Traditions read out to him. He held the tenets of faith so reverently that it was on his command that a heretical mystic, es-Suhrawardy, was got executed by his son, al-Malik al-Zahir.
"The Sultan had an unflinching trust and confidence in the beneficence of Allah. He used to turn with his heart and soul towards God in the moments of difficulty. Once Sultan was present within Jerusalem which then lay almost helpless before the besieging Crusaders. The Sultan had, however, refused our request to leave the city. It was a cold wintry night before Friday when I was alone with the Sultan; we spent the whole night in prayers and supplication. I requested the Sultan, late after mid-night to take a little rest but he replied, 'I think you want to sleep. Go and take a nap.' After a short while when I went to him for dawn prayers, which we more often performed together, I found him washing his hands. 'I didn't sleep at all,' said he. After the prayer was over, I said, 'I have had an idea which may be of benefit to us. You should address yourself to God Almighty and beseech Him for help.' He asked, 'What should I do for that?' 'Today it is Friday,' said I, 'You should take bath before leaving for the Aqsa Mosque and also make some offerings secretly by way of charity. When you reach the mosque, offer a special prayer of two rak’ats between the Call and congregational prayers, at the place where the Prophet had offered prayers during the Ascension. I have read in a Tradition that the supplications made at that time are favoured with acceptance. You should thereafter beseech God 'thus: O my Lord, having lost all resources, I turn to Thee for help. I now submit to Thee; for, Thou alone can help Thy faith to attain success at this critical juncture. I hope that God shall accept your supplications.' The Sultan did likewise. I was by his side when I saw his head touching the ground in prostration and tears trickling down his beard on the prayer carpet. I did not hear what was he beseeching unto the Lord but I witnessed the signs of his prayer being answered before the day was over. Dissensions overtook the enemy camp from where we got heartening news for the next few days, till they broke their camp for Ramla by Monday morning."'
Character of Salah ud-din:
A devout Muslim as he was, the dominant notes of his character were an acute sense of justice, charitableness, tender-heartedness, patience and courageousness.
Ibn Shaddad writes that he held courts twice a week on each Monday and Tuesday, which were attended by the chiefs of state, scholars, jurists and Cadis. Great and small, everyone found the door open. He used to read all the petitions and himself sign the orders dictated by him. He never allowed anyone to leave him without meeting his requirement. At the same time he also kept himself busy in the recollection of God. If anybody had any complaint to make, he would listen to him patiently and give his judgment. Once a man lodged a complaint against Taqi ud-din, the Sultan's nephew, who was immediately summoned to the court for answering the charges. On another occasion a man brought a suit against the Sultan himself who immediately made necessary investigations. Although the claim of the person presenting the suit was not established, the Sultan granted him a robe of honour and a handsome grant before allowing him to leave the court.
Kind and noble of heart, Salah ud-din was full of gentleness, patience and tenderness, and could never tolerate any injustice. He always overlooked the mistakes of his associates and servants; if anything unpleasant was heard by him, he never allowed his annoyance to be betrayed to the person concerned. Salah ud-din once asked for water which was somehow not procured for him. He reminded five times for it and then said: "I am dying of thirst." He drank the water which was brought thereafter without saying anything more. Another time when he wanted to take bath after a prolonged illness, he found the water too hot. He asked for some cold water to be brought in. The servant twice splashed the Sultan with cold water which caused him unpleasantness owing to his weakness but he simply said to the servant, "Tell me, if you want to get rid of me." The servant apologised and the Sultan instantly forgave him. Ibn Shaddad has narrated a number of other incidents exhibiting Salah ud-dim's charity and goodness of heart.
So generous and open-handed was he that sometimes he gave away the provinces conquered by him. After he had conquered Amad, one of his generals Qurrali Arslan expressed a desire for the city and the Sultan granted it to him. Sometimes he sold even his personal estates and effects for presenting a gift to his visitor. The treasurers of the Sultan always used to keep a secret balance for the emergencies, for, left to himself, the Sultan would have given away the last shell. The Sultan once cynically remarked that there were certain people for whom money and dust were alike. "I know," says Ibn Shaddad, "that he was indirectly referring to his own views in this regard."-
The Sultan never allowed his visitor, even if he was a pagan, to leave him without a gift or some mark of recognition. The ruler of Saida once paid a visit to the Sultan whom he welcomed with open arms. The Sultan not only entertained him but also explained the tenets of Islam to him. He regularly sent ice and fruits to Richard, his greatest foe, during the illness of the latter.
He was of so noble disposition and kind of heart that he could not see anyone in distress without being moved. Once an old Christian woman came to him seeking her baby. The old woman, screaming and in flood of tears, told the Sultan that her baby had been taken away from her tent by the dacoits. She had been told the woman said, that only he could help her to get her child back. Touched by her lamentation, the Sultan broke into tears and asked his men to find out from the slave market where her baby was. After a short while her baby was brought back and the woman departed praying for the welfare of the Sultan.
Ibn Shaddad relates that the Sultan was very kind to the orphans. Whenever he found such a child he entrusted him to someone or himself made arrangements for his up-bringing. Similarly he was always grief-stricken to see the aged and infirm whom he considered to be his special charge.
In our day, some circles hold the view that Charles Darwin's theory of evolution does not contradict with religion, and that those who renounce the theory of evolution unnecessarily promote it. This view, however, includes many misconceptions. It is the result of a failure to grasp the main tenet of Darwinism and the extremely dangerous outlook it mandates. That is why, for those who have faith in the existence of God, the mere Creator of all living-beings, yet carry the conviction that "God created living beings through evolution", it would be quite useful to primarily review the fundamental tenets of the theory. In this essay, in an endeavor to warn believers who have this misconception, some essential scientific and logical explanations regarding why the theory of evolution is not compatible with Islam and the fact of Creation it introduces to mankind, are provided.
The basic tenet of Darwinism holds that living beings came into being spontaneously, as a result of coincidences. This view is completely contrary to the faith of Creation.
The most important misconception of those who think that the theory of evolution does not contradict with creation is their assumption that the basic assertion of the theory of evolution is that living beings came into existence through evolving from one another. Accordingly, they comment: "There is no reason why God did not create all living beings by making them evolve from one another; so what is the rationale to raise objection to it?" However, there is a very important point here which is ignored: the essential difference between the advocates of evolution and creation is not based on the question of whether "living beings appeared individually or through evolving from each other." The main question is "whether living beings came into existence by chance and as a result of natural events, or were they consciously created?"
The theory of evolution, as known, claims that inorganic chemical compounds came together by chance and as a result of randomly occurring natural phenomena, they formed first the building blocks of life and ultimately life. Consequently, in its core, this claim accepts time, inorganic matter and chance to be creative powers. Even the layman, who is somewhat acquainted with the literature of evolution, is aware that this is the basis of the claims of evolutionists. Not surprisingly, despite being an evolutionist scientist, Pierre Paul Grassé, acknowledges the implausibility of the theory and summarizes what the concept of "coincidence" means for evolutionists:
"…Chance becomes a sort of providence, which, under the cover of atheism, is not named but which is secretly worshipped." (Pierre Paul Grassé, Evolution of Living Organisms, New York, Academic Press, 1977, p.107)
That life is an arbitrary by-product of the compound formed by time, matter and coincidence, on the other hand, is a nonsense unacceptable by those who have faith in the existence of God as the sole Creator of all living beings. Believers should assume the responsibility to save societies from such perverted and unreal beliefs and warn them.
The claim of "coincidence" put forward by the theory of evolution is denied by science.
Another significant fact that deserves a special consideration about this subject is that scientific discoveries also definitely refute the evolutionist claims that "life emerged as a result of pure coincidences and natural phenomena." This is because there are extraordinarily complex examples of design in life. Even the cell of a living being is a great wonder of design that totally annuls the concept of "coincidence".
This superior design and plan in life are certainly indications of God's unique and matchless creation, of His eternal knowledge and might.
The efforts of evolutionists to explain the origins of life with chance are rejected by science in the 20th century and today, in the 21st century, they met a total defeat. (See Harun Yahya, Blunders of Evolutionists, Vural Publishing) Indeed, the reason why they deny Creation although they see this fact is their blind adherence to irreligiousness.
God did not create living beings through an evolutionary process.
Since the existence of creation, in other words, a conscious design, is obvious, the only question that remains is "through what kind of a process the living beings were created." The misconception of some faithful people emerges right at this point: The wrong reasoning that "Living being could have been created by evolving from one another" is actually related to how the process of creation occurred.
Indeed, had God willed, He could have created living beings through an evolutionary process from nothingness, as the abovementioned individuals propose. And had science proved that living beings evolved from each other, we could say, "God created life through evolution." For instance, if there were any evidence available that reptiles evolved to form birds, then we would say, "God transformed reptiles into birds with His command 'Be'!". Ultimately, both these living beings individually possess bodies overflowing with examples of perfect design, which cannot be explained away by chance. Transformation of these designs into one another -had such a thing really happened- would surely be another evidence for creation.
However, the situation is not so. Scientific evidence (especially the fossil record and comparative anatomy) point to the contrary; there is not a single evidence on earth that an evolutionary process took place on it. The fossil record clearly indicate that different living species did not appear on earth through evolving from one another by fine gradations, but that on the contrary, distinct living species appeared on earth suddenly fully formed and without any preceding ancestors similar to them. Neither birds sprung from reptiles, nor fish transformed into land-dwelling animals. Each living phylum is created individually with its traits particular to its kind. Even the most renowned evolutionists had to accept this fact and confess that this provides an evidence for Creation. For instance, evolutionist palaeontologist Mark Czarnecki confesses as follows:
"A major problem in proving the theory (evolution theory) has been the fossil record; the imprints of vanished species preserved in the Earth's geological formations. This record has never revealed traces of Darwin's hypothetical intermediate variants - instead species appear and disappear abruptly, and this anomaly has fueled the creationist argument that each species was created by God. (Mark Czarnecki, "The Revival of the Creationist Crusade", MacLean's, 19 January 1981, p. 56)
Especially during the last fifty years, developments in various scientific fields such as palaeontology, microbiology, genetics and comparative anatomy, and new discoveries show that the theory of evolution is untrue and living beings appeared on earth all of a sudden in their distinct and perfect forms. Therefore, there is no reason to suggest that God employed the process of evolution in Creation. God created every species individually and at one moment, with His command of "Be!" This is a certain and explicit fact.
It is of vital importance for people of faith to be alert and cautious against the ideological systems committed to struggle against God and religion. For 150 years, Darwinism provided a so-called scientific ground for all anti-religionist ideologies that caused misery to mankind, such as fascism, communism, and imperialism and legitimized the merciless practices of those who adopted these philosophies. Hence, it would not be right to ignore the inner truth and the real purpose of such a theory. For every Muslim of conscience, it is a major responsibility to disprove every anti-religious ideology rejecting the existence of God with a thought struggle and to demolish falsehood with truth.
DARUL ULOOM ILAHIYAH
INSTITUTE OF ISLAMIC RESEARCH
ILAHI BAGH, BUCHPORA, SRINAGAR, 190011, KASHMIR, INDIA