(Vol - 1)
Sharah Sahih Bukhari
Dr. Rafiq Ahmad
Kitabul Wahy - Chapter 1, Hadith 1 - 6
|Chapter 1 : How did revelation begin upon Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam)|
|Hadith No. 1|
|Hadith No. 2|
|Hadith No. 3|
|Hadith No. 4|
|Hadith No. 5|
|Hadith No. 6|
Chapter 1. How did revelation (وحي) begin upon Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam), and the statement of Allâh (in the Qur'an): "We have sent thee the inspiration, as We have sent it to Noah and Messengers after him." (4:163)
Imâm Bukhari's unique way of commencing his great Book
The status of Imâm Bukhari as an author is so great that most of the learned scholars have admitted that it is beyond comprehension. He is unique in his style and does not seem to follow anyone's footsteps so far as compilation of Sahih al Bukhari is concerned. Usually the authors of Islâmic books commence their books with praises of Allâh (Hamd) and Durood Sharief on Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam), but Imâm Bukhari commenced his book with Bismillah.
A famous Hadith says;
كل أمر ذي بال لم يبدأ باسم الله فهو أبتر
"Any important work which is not started with Bismillah-ir-Rahman-ir-Rahim remains incomplete."
Why Imâm Bukhari commenced his book with the Chapter on Wahy (Revelation)
The chapter which Imâm Bukhari chose as the first chapter of his book again bespeaks of his greatness and depth of vision. Every author of Hadith books (Muhaddith) has commenced his book with the chapter as per as his liking. Imâm Muslim has chosen the chapter of Sanad (chain of authentication) as the first chapter of Muslim Sharief indicating thereby the significance of Sanad, because the basis of distinction between truthfulness and falsehood in Sunnah depends upon the Sanad.
Similarly, Imâm Tirmidhi and Imâm Abu Dawood commenced their books with the chapter on Tahârah and the Masâ’il of Wudhu thereby impressing the fact that the most important deed is Salâh and for that Wudhu is a must and the first question that will be asked in the grave will be about Wudhu. Ibn Mâjah has commenced his book with the chapter on Ittiba-i-Sunnah (following of Sunnah) indicating thereby the significance of sticking to Sunnah and refraining from Bid’at (innovation). Imâm Mâlik has commenced his book with the chapter on timing of Salâh indicating that, since Salâh is the most important deed it should be offered in time.
Imâm Bukhari's selection
In contrast to all other Muhadditheen, Imâm Bukhari chose the chapter in accordance with his excellence in knowledge. He conveyed a very significant message by saying that the basis of Deen is dependant on Wahy (Revelation) and that the Wahy is the most reliable thing. For understanding Deen and for developing firm faith and belief in it one has to understand the significance of Wahy. The whole building of Deen is erected on the basis of Wahy.
Allâmah Anwar Shah Kashmiri says, “By commencing with the chapter of Wahy, Imâm Bukhari wants to convey that the connection of bondsman with Allâh Ta’âlâ gets established with the help of Wahy only”.
Scholars of Hadith have been discussing for long as to why Imâm Bukari used the title for this chapter in the words of كيف كان بدء الوحي “How did the Wahy begin". Allâmah Kashmiri says that by choosing these words Imâm Bukhari wants to convey how the course of Wahy restarted which had stopped after the period of Hadhrat Eisâ (AS), what is known as the period of 'Fatrah'. As per him, it is for this reason, the wordبدء ‘Bad’a’ is used.
Mawlânâ Syed Fakhr-ud-Din writes: “Imâm Bukhari intends to convey that the whole basis of Deen is based upon the Wahy, because Deen is not the name of imaginations of people, but it constitutes the commandments of Allâh. Without Wahy we cannot know what are the commandments and prohibitions of Allâh Ta’âlâ. Obviously, any common man’s statement or some philosopher's opinion cannot be the criteria, because anybody’s statement or opinion, whether that be of an individual or majority, is after all the creation of human mind, whose scope is limited. To make human mind criteria for understanding the pleasures and displeasures of Allâh is totally wrong. Man wanders in his attainment of knowledge, his eyes can see wrong, he cannot appreciate many fine things, his taste changes and his hearing gets altered." (Eedha-ul-Bukhari—Urdu commentary of Sahih Bukhari)
The intellect of man has its own limitations, it is based on limited knowledge and often gets fogged by the superstitions and bias. Furthermore, it is so varied in different individuals that it is almost impossible to label someone's intellect as—absolute or superior. The Greek philosophers, so called intellectuals, believed that the intellect was enough to understand the Reality, while as the fact is that the climax of their mental journey ended at one another's refutation. One of them said that the universe has a beginning and the other said no, it has no beginning. One said that the sky is present/existing and other said no, it is only the limit of eyesight that makes us feel it is sky. Most of their statements have been proved wrong by the modern science.
Another faculty for acquiring knowledge is spiritual one, also called mystic experience but this is also usually overshadowed by the lust of Nafs and the cunningness of Shaitân.
Therefore, man needs for guidance something which is absolutely reliable and definite and that can only be found nowhere but in Wahy. Allâh Ta’âlâ says:
لَا يَأْتِيهِ الْبَاطِلُ مِنْ بَيْنِ يَدَيْهِ وَلَا مِنْ خَلْفِهِ تَنْزِيلٌ مِنْ حَكِيمٍ حَمِيدٍ
“No falsehood can approach it from before or behind. It is sent down by one full of wisdom, worthy of all praise”. (41:42)
This Wahy comes from all-Powerful and all-Knowing Allâh Ta’âlâ, Who is full of wisdom. It was possible that something would happen to it on its way down from Allâh Ta’âlâ to Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam), but one should know that it is well guarded on all sides. No one can get better of it by attacking from before or behind it, openly or secretly, or in any way whatsoever. Allâh Ta’âlâ further says:
إِنَّهُ لَقَوْلُ رَسُولٍ كَرِيمٍ () ذِي قُوَّةٍ عِنْدَ ذِي الْعَرْشِ مَكِينٍ () مُطَاعٍ ثَمَّ أَمِينٍ()
“Verily, this is the word of a most honourable messenger endued with power, held in honour by the Lord of the Throne, with authority there (and) faithful to his trust.” (81:19-21)
Another possibility would have been that the messenger (i.e., Jibra’eel AS) would have not been trustworthy. In the above verses this doubt has also been cleared by Allâh Ta’âlâ, saying that the bearer of Allâh's Message is not the evil's spirit. Not only was the bearer of the Revelation—Jibra'eel, an honourable messenger, incapable of deceit, but he had in the angelic kingdom, rank and authority before Allâh's Throne, and he had full capability to convey an authoritative Divine Message. He, like the holy Prophet was faithful to his trust, and therefore there could be no question of the Message being delivered in any other way than exactly according to the Divine Will and Purpose.
About the one who received the Wahy
Allâh Ta’âlâ says:
وَمَا كُنْتَ تَتْلُو مِنْ قَبْلِهِ مِنْ كِتَابٍ وَلَا تَخُطُّهُ بِيَمِينِكَ إِذًا لَارْتَابَ الْمُبْطِلُونَ
“And thou wast not (able) to recite a Book before this (book came), nor art thou (Able) to transcribe it with thy right hand; in that case would the talkers of vanities have doubted”. (29:48)
The holy Prophet was not a learned man. Before the Qur'an was revealed to him, he never claimed to announce a message from Allâh. He was not in a habit of preaching eloquent truths from the Book (i.e., Qur’ân), before he received revelation, nor was he able to write or transcribe with his own hand. If he had those worldly gifts, there would have been some plausibility in the charge of the speakers of vanities that he spoke not from inspiration but from other people's books, or that he composed the beautiful verses of the Qur'an himself and committed them to memory in order to recite them to people. The circumstances in which the Qur'an was revealed bears their own testimony to its truthfulness as from Allâh. Allâh Ta’âlâ says:
وَالنَّجْمِ إِذَا هَوَى () مَا ضَلَّ صَاحِبُكُمْ وَمَا غَوَى () وَمَا يَنْطِقُ عَنِ الْهَوَى () إِنْ هُوَ إِلَّا وَحْيٌ يُوحَى () عَلَّمَهُ شَدِيدُ الْقُوَى () ذُو مِرَّةٍ فَاسْتَوَى () وَهُوَ بِالْأُفُقِ الْأَعْلَى () ثُمَّ دَنَا فَتَدَلَّى () فَكَانَ قَابَ قَوْسَيْنِ أَوْ أَدْنَى () فَأَوْحَى إِلَى عَبْدِهِ مَا أَوْحَى () مَا كَذَبَ الْفُؤَادُ مَا رَأَى ()
“By the star when it goes down you companion is neither astray nor being misled nor does he say (aught) of (his own) desire. It is no less than inspiration sent down to him. He was taught by One Mighty in Power, endued with wisdom. For he appeared (in stately form) while he was in the highest part of the horizon, then he approached and came closer and was at a distance of but two bow-lengths or (even) nearer, so did (Allah) convey the inspiration to His servant (conveyed) what He (mean) to convey. The (Prophet’s) (mind and) heart in no way falsified that which he say”. (53:1-11)
In these verses Allâh Ta’âlâ testifies that Prophet Muhammad (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) to whom the revelation was sent, has neither gone astray through defect of intelligence or carelessness, nor is being misled by evil spirits. He does not speak out of whim or impulse or from a selfish desire to impress his own personality. None of these charges are true. On the contrary, he has received direct inspiration from Allâh.
About the revealed thing i.e., Wahy
Allâh Ta’âlâ says:
إِنَّا نَحْنُ نَزَّلْنَا الذِّكْرَ وَإِنَّا لَهُ لَحَافِظُونَ
“We have without doubt sent down the message and We will assuredly guard it (from corruption)” (15:9)
The purity of the text of the Qur'an through fourteen centuries is a foretaste of the eternal care with which Allâh's Truth is guarded through all ages. All corruptions, inventions and accretions passed away, but Allâh's Holy Truth never suffered any eclipse even though the whole world mocked at it and were bent on destroying it. This miraculous nature will Qur’ân will always survive in all ages to come. Allâh Ta’âlâ further says:
تَنْزِيلُ الْكِتَابِ مِنَ اللَّهِ الْعَزِيزِ الْحَكِيمِ () إِنَّا أَنْزَلْنَا إِلَيْكَ الْكِتَابَ بِالْحَقِّ فَاعْبُدِ اللَّهَ مُخْلِصًا لَهُ الدِّينَ ()
“The revelation of this Book is from Allâh, The Exalted in Power, full in Wisdom. Verily, it is We, Who have revealed the Book to thee in truth, so serve Allâh, offering Him sincere devotion. (39:1-2)
In connection with this revelation two attributes of Allâh Ta’âlâ are mentioned: (1) He is all-Powerful and can carry out His Will in spite of all opposition; and (2) He is full of Knowledge and Wisdom. The first attribute answers those who question how Allâh can send revelation to a man; the second explains that the true wisdom consists in carrying out Allâh's Will as revealed to us.
In nutshell, Imâm Bukhari chose to begin his great book with the chapter on Wahy, conveying thereby the message that for seeking the guidance and for knowing the Reality one necessarily has to follow the Wahy and that this Wahy is the greatest source of guidance and that it is very well guarded. It encompasses all the principles and necessities of guidance. (For details refer “Need for Divine Guidance” by Dr. Rafiq Ahmad)
Reason for selecting the following verse in Tarjamatul Bâb
إنا أوحينا إليك كما أوحينا إلى نوح والنبيين من بعده
"We have sent thee the inspiration, as We have sent it to Nuh and Messengers after him". (4:163)
By quoting this verse with the title of this chapter Imâm Bukhari conveys the message that the Wahy has been the source of guidance all through the history of mankind and that Prophet Muhammad (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) was not the first one to come with something strange in the form of Wahy. All the former Prophets like Nuh (AS) and other have guided the people of their times with the help of Wahy.
Second Message in this verse is that the Qur'an is the last revelation. It is mentioned that the Revelation was sent before Prophet Muhammad (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) but it is not mentioned that it will also be sent after him. Thereby, Imâm Bukhari intends to emphasize his selection of the chapter on Wahy as the first chapter of his great book, further impressing his point that it is Wahy and only Wahy which can be the source of assured and dependable guidance.
Comments of Hadhrat Sheikh-ul-Hind
Hadhrat Sheikh-ul-Hind said that the Prophets have been sent to this world as spiritual guides. When someone needing guidance is guided, he is first made habitual with little things which are mostly related to the survival of the body so that it (the body) can become able to bear the brunt to be placed on it. Same is the way of guidance of the world. As per, Hadhrat Sheikh-ul-Hind, world is like an elder person (Shakhs-i-Akbar). The period of the world from the time of Hadhrat Aadam (AS) to that of Hadhrat Nuh (AS) is the period of its childhood. There were Divine instructions during the time of Hadhrat Aadam (AS), Hadhrat Sheeth (AS) and Hadhrat Idrees (AS), but they were quite few and were mostly about Takweeniyât (creation bringing) and the reconstruction of the world. For example seeds were sent to Hadhrat Aadam (AS) from the Jannah and he was taught the principles of agriculture, construction of the houses, tailoring etc., and only two Rak’ats of Salâh was obligatory in that period.
Period of youth
The period of childhood of the world ends with Hadhrat Nuh (AS). After this the second period was that of the youth for, which is called the period of Takleef. During the period of youth the responsibilities increase and to accomplish them the rules, regulations and warning of punishments is required and secondly for the reformation, prolonged time is needed. For this purpose Hadhrat Nuh (AS) was given a very long life so that he could try to change the bestial character of the people with that of angelic one. But the people did not listen to Hadhrat Nuh (AS) and they were finally punished and the punishment was in the form of gigantic flood.
Now here in this verse, the simile has been drawn between Hadhrat Nuh (AS) and Hadhrat Muhammad (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) to relate that there is not much gap between the period of Hadhrat Nuh (AS) and Hadhrat Muhammad (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) and both are men with Shari'ah. So, what the result of refuting Hadhrat Nuh (AS) was, same can be the result of refuting Hadhrat Muhammad (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam). Hadhrat Nuh (AS) preached the principles of honour and dignity, he was insulted, he invited the people towards the oneness and unity of Allâh, he was stoned, he raised the voice of truth, and clothes were forced into his mouth to shut him up. If same things are repeated by you O people of Makkah with Hadhrat Muhammad (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam), then Allâh has the power to do what He did with the people before you.
Second aspect of resemblance between the revelation of Hadhrat Nuh (AS) and Hadhrat Muhammad (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) was that it was not like that of Hadhrat Aadam (AS) and Hadhrat Sheeth (AS), as their revelation was mostly related to Takweeniyât and this revelation was mostly Tashree' i.e., containing the explained rules of Shari’ah. Since it was the period of youth of the world, so the sense of responsibilities was stressed more and the warning of punishment was given for any lapses.
This period of youth was from the time of Hadhrat Nuh (AS) to that of Hadhrat Ibrahim (AS) and reached its full maturity at the time of Hadhrat Muhammad (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam). At the age of full maturity the knowledge becomes solid and the experience quite vast, that is why during the time of Hadhrat Ibrahim (AS) the springs of knowledge sprouted and in no other time were so many philosophers born as were during that time. As such the knowledge kept on progressing and the spirituality continued its journey towards perfection, to which it reached finally at the time of prophet Muhammad (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam). He was given the special form of revelation (Wahy) and that too with continuity i.e., for 23 years and it is the ultimate form of knowledge and spirituality which is bestowed upon only to such a person who possesses all the qualities of humanity with perfection. World, ever since then, has witnessed the great impact of this Last Revelation towards the mankind and will continue to see its wonders and blessings until the last day.
حدثنا الحميدي عبد الله بن الزبير قال حدثنا سفيان قال حدثنا يحيى بن سعيد الأنصاري قال أخبرني محمد بن إبراهيم التيمي أنه سمع علقمة بن وقاص الليثي يقول سمعت عمر بن الخطاب رضي الله عنه على المنبر قال سمعت رسول الله يقول إنما الأعمال بالنيات وإنما لكل امرىء ما نوى فمن كانت هجرته إلى دنيا يصيبها أو إلى امرأة ينكحها فهجرته إلى ما هاجر إليه
Narrated by Hadhrat Umar bin Al-Khattab (RA)
Hadhrat Umar Bin Al-Khattab (RA) narrates that I heard Allâh's Apostle (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) saying:
“The reward of deeds depends upon the intentions and every person will get the reward according to what he intended. So whoever emigrated for worldly benefits or to marry a woman, his emigration was what he emigrated for”. (Agreed Upon)
Relation between the title of the chapter (Tarjamtul Bâb) and the Hadith
Imâm Bukhari has named the title of this chapter (Bâb) as "How did the Wahy start?”كيف كان بدء الوحي but the first Hadith he mentions under this heading is about the Niyyat (intention). Ulema have given various explanations for this, some say by doing so Imâm Bukhari (RA) wants to convey the sincerity of his intention, and thus, asks others also to do so. Ibn Hajar rejects this view by saying that if this had been the case, then he would have got this Hadith before this chapter, that is, at the start of the book. Some people try to correlate Wahy with Hijrah, as the second part of the Hadith is about the Hijrah (Migration). First Hijrah of Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) was from his home to cave Hira and this was the start of the Wahy, and second Hijrah was from Makkah to Madinah and this was the time of the manifestation of the Wahy.
Allâmah Kashmiri gives different explanation for this, he says that deeds are related to the Wahy on one side and to the intention on the other side. The Wahy makes a person bound to act upon the commands and prohibitions of Shari'ah and with this intention he performs the deeds.
Allâmah Shabir Usmâni (RA) writes that by getting this Hadith at the start of the book Imâm Bukhari wants to draw the attention towards the utmost sincerity Prophet Muhammad (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) had in his intention with which he stood up in the period of absolute ignorance, idol worshipping and infidelity and changed the face of the history with his firm resolve and purity of intention, thus it was quite proper to get this Hadith at the beginning.
Râvi (Narrator of Hadith)—Umar ibn al-Khattab
Umar ibn Al-Khattab (RA) who belonged to Adwi Qarshi clan, is popularly known by the title ‘Farooq’ which he earned because of very keen and strong skill in differentiating between truth and falsehood (Haq and Bâtil). He was forty first man to embrace Islâm as per one narration and thirty fourth as per another. Prior to his embracing Islâm, Muslims because of fear used to worship secretly and once he embraced Islâm he asked Muslims to worship openly. Allâh Ta’âlâ revealed the following verse of the Holy Qur’ân when he embraced Islâm:
يَا أَيُّهَا النَّبِيُّ حَسْبُكَ اللَّهُ وَمَنِ اتَّبَعَكَ مِنَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ
“O Prophet, Sufficient unto thee is Allâh and unto those who follow thee among the believers”. (8:64)
He became second Khalifah of Muslims after the demise of Hadhrat Abu Bakr Siddiq (RA) in 13th year of Hijrah and was the first to be called as ‘Ameer-ul-Mu’mineen’ أمير المؤمنين . Muslim empire expanded far and wide during his Khilâfat which lasted for ten and a half years. His justice was so famous that ‘Adl-i-Farooqi’ عدل فاروقي, (justice of Umar Farooq) is now used as a proverb. The whole world could not produce an example of that degree of justice till date after his demise. There are five hundred and seventy five Ahâdith in Sahih Bukhari and Sahih Muslim which have been quoted from him. He died at the age of sixty three years. May Allâh be pleased with him and elevate his rank more and more. Other narrators of this Hadith are also authentic.
Status of Hadith
It is Sahih (authentic) Marfu Muttasil Hadith as all the narrators are authentic. Its chain is continuous right upto Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam). It is said that this Hadith has been quoted through as many as seven hundred chains but it is still called Gareeb (غريب) as only one narrator i.e., Hadhrat Umar (RA) narrates it from the first generation of narrators i.e., Sahâbah al-Kirâm.
Sahih Bukhari is regarded as the most authentic book on earth after Qur’ân Al-Karim. Imâm Bukhari started his great book with this Hadith. This Hadith states that the deeds will not be rewarded as per their external appearances but as per the intentions. If a good deed is done with bad intention, it will not fetch any reward. Intention is the act of Qalb where hypocrisy or ‘Riya’ does not find a way, whereas the deeds can get infected with hypocrisy. Imâm Abu Dawood said that he wrote fifty thousand Ahâdith of Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam), from them he selected four Ahâdith which he thought were sufficient for one’s Deen viz.,
إنما أعمال بالنيات
1. “Deeds are as per intentions”
من حسن الإسلام المرء تركه ما لا يعني
2. "It is part of the excellence of a person's Islâm that he should discard that which is of no benefit to him either in this world or in the Hereafter."
لا يحب أحدكم حتى يحب لأخيه ما يحب لنفسه
3. "Nobody (truly) believes till he loves for his brother what he loves for himself”
ألحلال بين والحرام بين
4. "Halâl is evident and Harâm is evident."
According to Abu Dawood’s this selection, the first Hadith “Deeds are as per Intention” forms the one fourth of Islâm because the fact that deeds can only get better reward when these are based on sincerity and are carried out for the pleasure of Allâh and His Messenger (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) alone. Second Hadith i.e., shunning away the useless and wasteful things forms another one fourth of Islâm. Kindness and well wishing for others as is taught in third Hadith forms another part of Islâm. Fourth Hadith of Halâl and Harâm forms another one fourth of Islâm which teaches piety (تقوى). These four principles of Islâm are indeed worth to be written with golden ink.
Niyyat means intention of Qalb. It is not necessary to say it loudly with tongue, if someone says it with tongue and his Qalb is ignorant about it, this type of Niyyat has no value. Having intention in Qalb and saying it with tongue also is better than having intention of Qalb alone. Deeds are dependent upon Niyyat for acceptance by Allâh Ta’âlâ.
Deeds are of two kinds viz.,
1. To act upon the command of Shari’ah.
2. To refrain from something as per the command of Shari’ah.
Both types of these deeds have no value without Niyyat. For example, somebody performs ablution for Salâh without Niyyat, as per Imâm Abu Haniefah his Salâh will be valid (though less in Thawâb) and as per other Imâms his Salâh will not be valid. Similarly, if someone refrains from back-biting (Geebat, غيبت) without Niyyat, it will not fetch him much reward and if he does so due to fear of Allâh Ta’âlâ and punishment in Aakhirah, it will fetch him a lot of reward.
A person gets reward for his deeds proportionate to his Niyyat. For example, somebody gives some money to his relative thinking that he is poor, he will get a reward for it. And if he intends to help him not only because of his poverty but also because of being his relative, he will get double reward for this same deed. Similarly, a person who goes to mosque, can get number of rewards for this one deed only because of different intentions which could be as follows:
Mosque is the house of Allâh Ta’âlâ, so to be there is like being the guest of Allâh Ta’âlâ.
To wait for the congregational Salâh. In a Hadith it is said that one who waits for congregational Salâh is as good as if he is in Salâh.
To sit in mosque so that one can save his eyes, ears and tongue from sins.
To stay in mosque with the intention of Aeti'kaf (اعتكاف) for that particular period.
With the intention of sending Durood on Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam).
To sit in mosque with the intention that angels make Dua the one who is engaged in Zikr or Tilawat, and does not indulge in worldly talks as long as he is there.
To come into contact other Muslim brothers.
To enquire about the health of other Muslim brothers.
To help a needy Muslim, if found in the mosque.
These are few intentions with which a person can go to a mosque. Anyone intending all these, will get number of rewards for this single deed and who makes only one intention, will have only one. On the other hand if someone goes to a mosque with this intention that people will consider him a pious man, such a person will likely not get anything in the Aakhirah.
Why non believers will remain in hell for ever?
Some people wonder as to why non-believers (Kuffâr) will remain in hell for ever when they lived in the world say for sixty or hundred odd years only and did wrong in that little period only. In other words they did wrong deeds only for a little period but are getting everlasting punishment.
The reason for their everlasting punishment is their Niyyat or intention and not their deeds only, that is, if they would have lived in this world for ever their intention was to remain as non-believers for ever. So it is for this Niyyat or intention that they will be given everlasting punishment. On the contrary, Muslims will be given everlasting reward in the form of Jannah, again because of their Niyyat i.e., had they been given a chance to live for ever in this world, they would have lived as believers for ever.
For this reason it is said that intention of a believer is better than his deeds. As quoted by Sheikh Abdul Haq Muhaddith Dehlvi, Ulema have given different reasons for it viz.,
Niyyat without a deed is in itself also a deed. In a Hadith it is stated that when a Mumin makes a Niyyat of some good deed, one Thawâb is written for him for his Niyyat only even if he does not execute that deed later on. In another Hadith it is stated that if someone sleeps with this Niyyat that he will get up for Tahajjud prayers and then if he does not get up because of deep sleep, he will still be given Thawâb of Tahajjud.
Seat of Niyyat is Qalb and Qalb is the seat of Ma’ârifat of Allâh Ta’âlâ. So, the deeds of Qalb will naturally be superior to the deeds of other parts of the body. Sahal bin Abdullah Tastari says that Allâh Ta’âlâ has not created any thing which is more beloved to Him than the Qalb of a Mumin. Therefore, it is very bad of a person who uses this Qalb, which Allâh Ta’âlâ has created for His Ma’ârifat, for other cheap mundane things.
Niyyat is better than deeds because Niyyat is everlasting and deeds are not everlasting. People will remain in Hell or Heaven for ever because of Niyyat only.
There is no chance for Riya (Hypocrisy) in Niyyat whereas deeds usually get spoiled because of Riya. It has been reported in some traditions that when angels take the deeds up into the skies, Allâh Ta’âlâ asks them to throw them away. The angels ask Allâh Ta’âlâ, ‘O Allâh, these are good words and good deeds of your bondsmen’. Allâh Ta’âlâ replies, ‘he had not sought my pleasure with them’. On the contrary, Allâh Ta’âlâ commands the angels to write some good deeds in the deed books of certain bondsman, the angels ask with surprise that he has not done these deeds, Allâh Ta’âlâ replies that he had made a Niyyat for it.
Niyyat can be related to many deeds and deeds cannot be related to many intentions.
It is clear that one will get reward if one makes a Niyyat of a good deed even if he does not perform it. Does this rule apply for a bad deeds also? That is, if a person intends to do a bad deed but will not perform it, will he get punishment for this bad intention, which he has not put into action? The Qur’ân says:
لَا يُكَلِّفُ اللَّهُ نَفْسًا إِلَّا وُسْعَهَا
“On no soul does Allâh place a burden greater than it can bear” (2:286)
Hadith of Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) explaining this issue
A Hadith also says that bad thoughts which arise in the hearts of the people of this Ummah are forgiven by Allâh Ta’âlâ and these are not to be accounted unless put into practical shape. If a bad intention develops in somebody’s heart and then he refrains from putting that into practice because of the fear of Allâh Ta’âlâ, he is likely to get Thawâb for that. As per Ibn Hajar, refraining from bad act contributes to Thawâb only if one refrains from it because of fear of Allâh Ta’âlâ and makes a Niyyat of it, but without Niyyat there will be no Thawâb.
Five kinds of thoughts which come in one’s mind about a sin
Hâjis(هاجس) : That bad thought which comes in one’s mind involuntarily is called Hâjis.
Khatir (خاطر) : That thought of a sin which one gets voluntarily is called Khatir.
Hadith-i-Nafs (حديث نفس) : To have hesitation about a sin whether one should do it or not is called Hads-i-Nafs.
Hum (هم) : After this hesitation if one inclines towards one decision (doing it or not doing it), then it is called Hum.
Azam (عظم) : To make firm resolution of doing a deed, is called Azam.
In Shari’ah first three kinds i.e., Hâjis, Khâtir and Hadith-i-Nafs are forgiven, there will be no punishment for them. It is amongst the special features of Ummah of Prophet Muhammad (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam). About the 4th kind i.e., Hum, if one decides about a virtue then he will get reward and if one decides about a sin, he will get no punishment. For 5th kind i.e., Azam, learned doctors of Shari'ah believe that on this there will be punishment
Second part of the Hadith illustrates first part by three examples, first—the Hijrah performed for the sake of Allâh Ta’âlâ, second—the Hijrah performed for worldly gains, and third—the Hijrah performed for marrying a women.
Hijrah (Migration) (هجرة)
Hijrah in Shari’ah means to leave one’s home and homeland for the sake of Allâh Ta’âlâ and His Messenger (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) i.e., to leave one’s homeland with the intention that one can live as a true Muslim in a Darul-Islâm and can save his Imân (faith) if it is not possible in his native land. Sahâbah-al-Kirâm performed Hijrah on two occasions. On the first occasion they migrated from Makkah to Habsha and on the second to Madinah when Makkans committed all sorts of atrocities against them and made it very difficult for them to live there as Muslims.
Hijrah is regarded as a great worship in Islâm and a great means to gain Allâh’s pleasure. But only those gain Allâh’s pleasure whose intention by Hijrah is only His pleasure. In this Hadith, Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) teaches us that even if Hijrah is a great act of worship, if someone does it for worldly gains, he will get no reward for it in Aakhirah.
What is Dunya (world)?
There are different opinions about it viz.,
چیست دنیا از خدا غافل شدن
Anything that makes one ignorant about Allâh Ta’âlâ is called ‘Dunya’.
The word ‘Dunya’ literally means ‘near’. So the world is called ‘Dunya’ because it is either near to destruction or near to Aakhirah. It is derived from ‘Dana-Yadnu’.
In lexical terms, Dunya is antonym of Aakhirah which means that the two cannot go together.
Some say that whatever is present before Aakhirah is ‘Dunya’.
Others say that in this Hadith, Dunya means lusts of baser self or ‘Nafs’.
Why particularisation of women
After mentioning about ‘Dunya’ in general, Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) highlighted women specifically. There are two reasons for the same. One reason is that this Hadith was stated by him (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) in response to a particular incident, commonly known as incident of ‘Muhâjir Ummi-Qais’. A person from Makkah wrote a letter to a women namely Ummi-Qais who lived in Madinah that he wanted to marry her. She wrote him back that if he performs Hijrah to Madinah, then only she would marry him. That person performed Hijrah for this lady and married her and got popular by the name of ‘Muhâjir Ummi-Qais’. When Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) heard about it, he stated this Hadith.
Second reason for particularisation of women is that out of worldly things there is a very difficult test for a man in the form of woman. A pious woman is said to be a great blessing for a man as per traditions but the impious one really makes life hell. Akbar Ilaha-abâdi says:
اکبر دبے نہ تھے کسی سلطان کی فوج سے
لیکن شہید ہو گئے بیگم کی نوج سے
How Imân of Abu Talha (RA) embraced Islâm
Abu Talha (RA) wanted to marry Ummi Sulaim before accepting of Imân. Umme-Sulaim replied that she would marry him only if he embraces Islâm. Abu Talha (RA) embraced Islâm and married her. Here a doubt may raise about the Islâm of Abu Talha (RA), but the fact is that Abu Talha (RA) had already decided to embrace Islâm and he didn't do it only to marry Ummi Sulaim.
2. Why did not Imâm Bukhari mention second part of this Hadith
It is well known that the following words are also part of this Hadith, viz.,
من کانت هجرته إلی الله ورسوله فهجرته إلی الله ورسوله
"One whose migration is for the sake of Allâh and His Messenger, so his migration is for the sake of Allâh and His Messenger."
Ulema have given different explanations for this viz.,
Imâm Bukhari had not received this Hadith with these words. But this explanation is not valid as he has mentioned these words at another place.
Humaidi, the first narrator (Râvi) of this Hadith has not quoted this Hadith with these words to Imâm Bukhari, this is also not right.
Some people say that by doing so Imâm Bukhari wants to convey that if you do a good deed, do it with good intention and the least you can do is that you should refrain from bad intention as the first part of this Hadith is about migration for the sake of Allâh Ta’âlâ and the second part is for the sake of mundane purposes.
Others say that he has done so due to humility as it would have given an impression that he is claiming of sincerity of his intention.
حدثنا عبد الله بن يوسف قال أخبرنا مالك عن هشام بن عروة عن أبيه عن عائشة أم المؤمنين رضي الله عنها أن الحرث بن هشام رضي الله عنه سأل رسول الله فقال يا رسول الله كيف يأتيك الوحي فقال رسول الله أحيانا يأتيني مثل صلصلة الجرس وهو أشده علي فيفصم عني وقد وعيت عنه ما قال وأحيانا يتمثل لي الملك رجلا فيكلمني فأعي ما يقول قالت عائشة رضي الله عنها ولقد رأيته ينزل عليه الوحي في اليوم الشديد البرد فيفصم عنه وإن جبينه ليتفصد عرقا
Al-Harith bin Hisham asked Allâh's Apostle "O Allâh's Apostle! How is the Divine Inspiration revealed to you?" Allâh's Apostle replied, "Sometimes it is (revealed) like the ringing of a bell, this form of Inspiration is the hardest of all and then this state passes off after I have grasped what is inspired. Sometimes the Angel comes in the form of a man and talks to me and I grasp whatever he says." 'Aisha added: verily I saw the Prophet being inspired Divinely on a very cold day and noticed the sweat dropping from his forehead (as the Inspiration was over).
Narrators of the Hadith
The title Ummul-Muminneen (أم المؤمنين) is used for the wives of Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) out of reverence and also because they are forbidden for the Ummah (from marrying) forever like a mother.
Second 'Râvi', Hârith bin Hisham, is the brother of Abu Jahal and is amongst the distinguished Sahâbah. He asked this question out of curiosity as the Wahy is quite an unusual thing, this question was not out of any doubt.
Relation of the Hadith with the title of the chapter (Bâb)
This Hadith clearly shows what a great thing the Wahy is, as Hadhrat Aisha (RA) states:
"Verily I saw the Prophet being inspired Divinely on a very cold day and noticed the sweat dropping from his forehead (as the Inspiration was over)".
Wahy cannot be self cooked. Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) tolerated this great weight of Wahy for 23 long years, while Hadhrat Aadam (AS) received the Wahy just ten times, Hadhrat Noah (AS) fifty times, Hadhrat Ibrahim (AS) forty eight times and Hadhrat Eisâ (AS) ten times. (Fadhlul Bâri).
Meaning of Wahy
The Arabic word “Wahy” has many literal meanings viz., to write, to send, what is to be sent, to inculcate, to subjugate, to put some good or bad word in heart, order, intuition or inspiration.
Al-Qur’ân itself uses the word “Wahy” in these meanings. Allâh says in the Qur’ân:
فَخَرَجَ عَلَى قَوْمِهِ مِنَ الْمِحْرَابِ فَأَوْحَى إِلَيْهِمْ أَنْ سَبِّحُوا بُكْرَةً وَعَشِيًّا
“So Zakariya came out to his people from his chamber: He told them by signs to celebrate Allâh’s praises in the morning and in the evening” (19:11)
Here the word is used:
وَأَوْحَى رَبُّكَ إِلَى النَّحْلِ أَنِ اتَّخِذِي مِنَ الْجِبَالِ بُيُوتًا
“And thy Lord taught the Bee to build its cells in hills”. (16:68)
وَأَوْحَيْنَا إِلَى أُمِّ مُوسَى أَنْ أَرْضِعِيهِ
"So We sent this inspiration to the mother of Moses: “Suckle (thy child).” (28:7)
These two verses show that Al-Qur’ân has not used the word “Wahy” exclusively for Prophets but also for creatures like bee and non-prophets like mother of Hadhrat Musâ (AS).
Technical meaning of Wahy in Shari’ah
“Words of Allâh revealed to a prophet from among His prophets.” (Uloom ul-Qur’ân, Umdat-ul-Qâri)
Allâh Ta’âlâ first created this universe and then created man with the faculties of senses and the intelligence, yet it was impossible for the man to know the Absolute Infinite Reality with the help of these limited faculties. So Allâh Ta’âlâ came to man’s rescue by sending His Guidance in the form of “Wahy” through prophets.
To understand the exact nature of “Wahy” is just impossible, it was exclusively experienced by prophets of Allâh alone. Nobody else can even imagine the exact nature of “Wahy”.
Kinds of “Wahy”
One classification is on the basis of recitation viz.,
1. Wahy-Matloo (وحي متلو ): That Wahy from Allâh which is recited regularly. This term is used for Al-Qur’ân i.e., Wahy-Matloo is that in which both words and meaning are from Allâh.
2. Wahy Gair-Matloo (وحي غير متلو ): That Wahy from Allâh to Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) which is not in Al-Qur’ân and is not recited like Al-Qur’ân. In this the meaning is from Allâh and words are from Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam).
Other classification is based on the way of receiving ‘Wahy’ by Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam).
1. Direct speech from Allâh
In this type of ‘Wahy’ Allâh Ta’âlâ speaks directly to Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam), there is no intermediary like Angels etc. This speech of Allâh is not like human speech. This is very difficult for us to understand its real nature. This is considered to be the best form of the Wahy. This type of speech of Allâh was heard by Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) during his ascent to the heavens, what is called as Me’raj, as is mentioned in the Qur’ân:
فَأَوْحَى إِلَى عَبْدِهِ مَا أَوْحَى
“So did (Allah) convey the inspiration to His servant (conveyed) what He (meant) to convey.” (53:10)
Allâh Ta’âlâ also talked to Hadhrat Musâ (AS) directly.
وَكَلَّمَ اللَّهُ مُوسَى تَكْلِيمًا
“And to Moses Allâh spoke direct.”(4:164)
2. Wahy’ through Angels
In this type of Wahy the revelation is sent to a Prophet through an angel. Either the Prophet listens only the voice of the angel, or angel comes in the shape of human being as Hadhrat Jibra’eel (AS) used to come in the guise of Hadhrat Dhahya Kalbi (RA), a handsome companion of Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam), or rarely the angel would come in his real form to the prophet.
3. Wahy through inspiration or dreams
In this type of Wahy Allâh Ta’âlâ inspires directly in the heart of prophet something which the prophet realises that it is hundred percent Wahy. This can happen while awake or in dream. The dream of a prophet is also a Wahy as Al-Qur’ân mentions about the dreams of Hadhrat Yousuf (AS) and Hadhrat Ibrahim (AS):
إِذْ قَالَ يُوسُفُ لِأَبِيهِ يَا أَبَتِ إِنِّي رَأَيْتُ أَحَدَ عَشَرَ كَوْكَبًا وَالشَّمْسَ وَالْقَمَرَ رَأَيْتُهُمْ لِي سَاجِدِينَ
“Behold, Joseph said: To his father: “O my father! I did see eleven stars and the sun and the moon: I saw them prostrate themselves to me.” (12:4)
Methods of ‘Wahy’ on Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam)
Hadhrat Aisha (RA) narrates that one day a Sahâbi, Hadhrat Hârith bin Hisham (RA) asked Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam), how Wahy comes to him, Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) replied: “Sometimes it comes like ringing of a bell and this type of Wahy is toughest for me, and when this process ends, I remember whatever has been said. And sometime an angel comes to me in the form of a man”. (Sahih Bukhari)
Salsalat-ul-Jaras (صلصلة الجرس )
It literally means the ringing of a bell. Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) compared this with the ringing of a bell. It was not because of the fact that it exactly resembled the ringing of bell, then, why was this comparison made? Great Ulema have given different explanations viz.,
i) To know the exact nature of ‘Wahy’ is impossible for any body, its actual nature was only experienced by Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam). There were no words to explain its exact nature, that is why Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) explained it with most appropriate words from the sensual world and he (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) found it appropriate to compare it with the ringing of a bell.
ii) Some Ulema believe that it was the sound of the wings of the angels that produced the sound like that of a ringing bell. (Uloom -Ul-Qur’ân)
iii) Imâm-ul-Asr Hadhrat Allâmah Anwar Shah Kashmiri (RA) while quoting Ibn Arabi (RA) says that it was compared to the ringing of a bell, not because its sound resembled with it, but because it resembled the ringing bell in continuity and secondly as it is difficult to localise the direction of the sound of a ringing bell, so was it difficult to localise the direction of ‘Wahy’. Since, it is the word of Allâh, Who has no single direction, so is His word without any particular direction. (Faidhul Bâri)
Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) said that this type of Wahy was toughest for him and it was relatively easy for him when the angel used to come with ‘Wahy’ in the form of a man. Hadhrat Aisha (RA) narrates: “I have witnessed descent of Wahy on Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) during very cold days of winter, after the completion of Wahy I used to see lot of sweating on the blessed forehead of Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam).” (Sahih Bukhari)
In other tradition it is mentioned that Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) used to turn pale, ashen grey in colour during descent of Wahy.
It is reported that once Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam), placed his blessed head on the thigh of Hadhrat Zayd bin Thâbit (RA) and descent of ‘Wahy’ started during that very time, Hadhrat Zayd (RA) felt so much weight on his thigh that he thought it was going to crack.
Hadhrat Umar (RA) says that when ‘Wahy” used to come to Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam), there used to be sounds like those of buzzing of bees around his blessed face. This should not be confused with the earlier Hadith where ‘Wahy’ has been compared with ringing of a bell, later (ringing of a bell) was experienced by Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) and former i.e., buzzing of bees was experienced by the listeners around, hence no confusion.
Descend of angel in human appearance
In the Hadith of Hadhrat Aisha (RA) mentioned above, the second form of ‘Wahy’ that has been mentioned is coming of an Angel in the form of a human being. Hadhrat Jibra'eel (AS) used to come usually in the guise of Hadhrat Dhahya Kalbi (RA), most handsome amongst the companions of Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam). In the famous Hadith of Hadhrat Umar (RA), Hadhrat Jibra'eel (AS) came in the form of a stranger whom no Sahâbi knew. Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) says that it was the easiest form of ‘Wahy’ for him.
Descend of angel in his actual form
It is reported that Hadhrat Jibra’eel (AS) came in his actual form only three times with the Wahy to Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam). He has six hundred wings and his one wing is enough to spread between whole earth and the heavens.
Dreams of prophets are also Wahy. Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) used to receive this form of Wahy even before Prophet-hood. Hadhrat Aisha (RA) says: “Wahy got started to Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) in the form of dreams, whatever he used to see in dream, would come true next day like broad day light.”
Direct speech from Allâh
This type of direct speech from Allâh was heard by Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) during his ascent (Me’raj) to the heavens. In other tradition, it is mentioned that Allâh Ta’âlâ spoke to Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) once in a dream also.
Angel’s inspiration into the Qalb
In one tradition it is reported that Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) said:
“Jibra’eel (AS) once inspired (something) in my Qalb”.
In this form of Wahy, the angel does not come in front but just puts some word in Qalb without being seen. This is a form of intuition or ‘Ilham’. Intuition or ‘Ilham’ of prophets is 100 percent Wahy as compared to intuition or ‘Ilham’ of other pious people which always has a possibility of falsehood or misinterpretation. It is for this reason that to follow ‘Ilham’ of prophets is obligatory while as to follow ‘Ilham’ of others is not.
حدثنا يحيى بن بكير قال حدثنا الليث عن عقيل عن ابن شهاب عن عروة بن الزبير عن عائشة أم المؤمنين أنها قالت أول ما بدئ به رسول الله من الوحي الرؤيا الصالحة في النوم فكان لا يرى رؤيا إلا جاءت مثل فلق الصبح ثم حبب إليه الخلاء وكان يخلو بغار حراء فيتحنث فيه وهو التعبد الليالي ذوت العدد قبل أن ينزع إلى أهله ويتزود لذلك ثم يرجع إلى خديجة فيتزود لمثلها حتى جاءه الحق وهو في غار حراء فجاءه الملك فقال اقرأ قال ما أنا بقارئ قال فأخذني فغطني حتى بلغ مني الجهد ثم أرسلني فقال اقرأ قلت ما أنا بقارىء فأخذني فغطني الثانية حتى بلغ مني الجهد ثم أرسلني فقال اقرأ فقلت ما أنا بقارئ فأخذني فغطني الثالثة ثم أرسلني فقال اقرأ باسم ربك الذي خلق خلق الإنسان من علق اقرأ وربك الأكرم فرجع بها رسول الله يرجف فؤاده فدخل على خديجة بنت خويلد رضي الله عنها فقال زملوني زملوني فزملوه حتى ذهب عنه الروع فقال لخديجة وأخبرها الخبر لقد خشيت على نفسي فقالت خديجة كلا والله ما يخزيك الله أبدا إنك لتصل الرحم وتحمل الكل وتكسب المعدوم وتقري الضيف وتعين على نوائب الحق فانطلقت به خديجة حتى أتت به ورقة بن نوفل بن أسد بن عبد العزى ابن عم خديجة وكان امرأ تنصر في الجاهلية وكان يكتب الكتاب العبراني فيكتب من الإنجيل بالعبرانية ما شاء الله أن يكتب وكان شيخا كبيرا قد عمي فقالت له خديجة يا ابن عم اسمع من ابن أخيك فقال له ورقة يا ابن أخي ماذا ترى فأخبره رسول الله خبر ما رأى فقال له ورقة هذا الناموس الذي نزل الله على موسى يا ليتني فيها جذعا ليتني أكون حيا إذ يخرجك قومك فقال رسول الله أو مخرجي هم قال نعم لم يأت رجل قط بمثل ما جئت به إلا عودي وإن يدركني يومك أنصرك نصرا مؤزرا ثم لم ينشب ورقة أن توفي وفتر الوحي قال ابن شهاب وأخبرني أبو سلمة ابن عبد الرحمن أن جابر بن عبد الله الأنصاري قال وهو يحدث عن فترة الوحي فقال في حديثه بينا أنا أمشي إذ سمعت صوتا من السماء فرفعت بصري فإذا الملك الذي جاءني بحراء جالس على كرسي بين السماء والأرض فرعبت منه فرجعت فقلت زملوني فأنزل الله تعالى يا أيها المدثر قم فأنذر إلى قوله والرجز فاهجر فحمي الوحي وتتابع تابعه عبد الله بن يوسف وأبو صالح وتابعه هلال بن رداد عن الزهري وقال يونس ومعمر بوادره
Narrated by Hadhrat Aisha (RA)
Narrated Aisha (the mother of the faithful believers). The commencement of the Divine Inspiration to Allâh's Apostle was in the form of good dreams which came true like bright daylight, and then the love of seclusion was bestowed upon him. He used to go in seclusion in the cave of Hira where he used to worship (Allâh alone) continuously for many days before his desire to see his family. He used to take with him the journey food for the stay and then come back to (his wife) Khadijah to take his food likewise again till suddenly the Truth descended upon him while he was in the cave of Hira. The angel came to him and asked him to read. The Prophet replied, "I do not know how to read." The Prophet added, "The angel caught me (forcefully) and pressed me so hard that I could not bear it any more. He then released me and again asked me to read and I replied, 'I do not know how to read.' Thereupon he caught me again and pressed me a second time till I could not bear it any more. He then released me and again asked me to read but again I replied, 'I do not know how to read (or what shall I read)?' Thereupon he caught me for the third time and pressed me, and then released me and said, 'Read in the name of your Lord, who has created (all that exists), has created man from a clot. Read! And your Lord is the Most Generous." (96.1, 96.2, 96.3) Then Allâh's Apostle returned with the Inspiration and with his heart beating severely. Then he went to Khadijah bint Khuwailid and said, "Cover me! Cover me!" She covered him till his fear was over and after that he told her everything that had happened and said, "I fear that something may happen to me." Khadijah replied, "Never! By Allâh, Allâh will never disgrace you. You keep good relations with your kith and kin, help the poor and the destitute, serve your guests generously and assist the deserving calamity-afflicted ones."
Khadijah then accompanied him to her cousin Waraqah bin Naufal bin Asad bin 'Abdul 'Uzza, who, during the Pre-Islâmic Period became a Christian and used to write the writing with Hebrew letters. He would write from the Gospel in Hebrew as much as Allâh wished him to write. He was an old man and had lost his eyesight. Khadijah said to Waraqah, "Listen to the story of your nephew, O my cousin!" Waraqah asked, "O my nephew! What have you seen?" Allâh's Apostle described whatever he had seen. Waraqah said, "This is the same one who keeps the secrets (angel Gabriel) whom Allâh had sent to Moses. I wish I were young and could live up to the time when your people would turn you out." Allâh's Apostle asked, "Will they drive me out?" Waraqah replied in the affirmative and said, "Anyone (man) who came with something similar to what you have brought was treated with hostility; and if I should remain alive till the day when you will be turned out then I would support you strongly." But after a few days Waraqah died and the Divine Inspiration was also paused for a while. Jâbir bin 'Abdullah Al-Ansâri describes the period of pause in revelation reporting the speech of the Prophet "While I was walking, all of a sudden I heard a voice from the sky. I looked up and saw the same angel who had visited me at the cave of Hira sitting on a chair between the sky and the earth. I got afraid of him and came back home and said, 'Wrap me (in blankets).' And then Allâh revealed the following Holy Verses (of Qur'an):
'O you (i.e. Muhammad)! wrapped up in garments! Arise and warn (the people against Allâh's Punishment),...' up to 'and desert the idols.' (74.1-5)
After this the revelation started coming strongly, frequently and regularly."
The comments on this Hadith have been taken from the lesson on Bukhari Sharief by Hadhrat Mawlânâ Masihullah Khan Sahib Jalâlabadi (RA)
Status of the Hadith
The narrator of this Hadith is Hadhrat Aisha (RA) and it is well known that she was not present at the time when Wahy started, but this does not affect the status of this Hadith as it is quite possible that she must have heard it from Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam), so this Hadith would be Marfu-Hukmi.
Dream of a Nabi is also Wahy
For achieving excellence in a certain field, we need to understand few basic points viz.,
Achieving excellence is inherent in man.
For achieving par excellence two things are needed, viz., a) To fulfill the prerequisites. b) To get the hurdles removed.
To provide the congenial atmosphere and related necessities.
To develop the relation with the thing from which benefit is to be obtained.
Gradual and steady progress towards the goal.
Allâh Ta’âlâ had destined to post Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) at the highest possible point of excellence—that is prophethood (نبوة) and that too the seal of prophethood (ختم نبوة). There can be no excellence greater than this. Man is constituted of two parts, one is the body which is materialistic in nature and other is the soul which is non materialistic in nature. So, there are two types of excellences, one is bodily excellence of materialistic nature and the other is spiritual in nature. It is quite clear that the spiritual excellence is far superior than the materialistic excellence and the prophethood is the best spiritual excellence. It is the topmost point where mankind can reach and that was destined for Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam).
The Wahy is all spiritual and non materialistic in nature and to reach this point of spirituality one needs to pass through some intermediary stages. For this one has to come out from the materialistic world and come nearer to the spiritual world and then from this the gradual sequential process of progress is necessary so that one would develop the relation with the spiritual world. It is for this purpose that initially the process of good dreams was started for Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) which came true like bright daylight. The contact with the world ceases while sleeping and it is during this state of sleep that Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) was initially made familiar with the spiritual world and gradually prepared to bear the weight of the Wahy.
Question: Wahy comes after Prophethood, how did it start before Prophethood in the form of good dreams
Answer: The prophethood was existing in the essence of Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) from eternity (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam). It is narrated in one Hadith:
كنت نبيا و آدم بين الماء و الطين
"I was Nabi when Aadam was still in-between water and clay”.
According to this Hadith, the prophethood of Rasulullah was hidden before its formal announcement, so the Wahy was also sent in the hidden form of good dreams. After the announcement of prophethood, Wahy was also sent in a manifested form. It is mentioned in a Hadith that good dreams constitute 46th part of the prophethood.
The Wahy came to Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) for 23 years and the duration of the period of good dreams(رؤياء الصالحة) before prophethood was 6 months. Six months constitute the 46th part of 23 years.
Good dreams came true like dawn
The good dreams were compared with broad day light because these were not like usual dreams which are generally due to erroneous thoughts but these were the true dreams which used to come true next day like the broad day light. Secondly, the reason for using the word ‘dawn’ is to convey the message that as the dawn comes after the night and shatters the darkness, so was the job of the Wahy to shatter the darkness of ignorance from the world. Thirdly, when one watches the light of dawn, one feels solace and happiness, likewise Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) used to find solace after receiving the Wahy.
What is the world of dreams
There are three Aalams (worlds عالم) viz.,
Aalam-i-Amr (عالم أمر)
Aalam-i-Mithâl (عالم مثال)
Aalam-i- Dunya (عالم دنيا)
Aalam-i-Amar is the world of incorporeal beings (مجردات). The things of this world do not possess any kind of shape or quantity, but consist of mere essence (حقيقة محضة), this is also called the Aalam-i-Haqiqat (عالم حقيقة). The other name of this Aalam is Aalam-i-Gaib (عالم غيب), because the things of this Aalam remain hidden from the eyes.
This is the second Aalam after the Aalam-i-Amar. Here also the things are not materialistic in nature but are quantitative in nature i.e., they have length and breadth, like the images in the mirror. This Aalam is midway between the other two Aalams like the world of dreams, it is also called the Aalam-i-Barzakh (عالم برزخ). One can have an idea about this Aalam through the experience of dreams.
This is the world which is materialistic in nature, hence visible, it is also called the Aalam-i-Shahood (عالم شهود). The shapes and meanings of things in the last two mentioned worlds are different, for example, if milk is seen in dream, it means knowledge.
The existence of the things first take place in the Aalam-i-Mithâl and then in this world. It is for this reason that Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) was first shown the things of Aalam-i-Gaib in dreams, which used to come true like broad day light the next day. This created an urge in him to concentrate more and more towards the Aalam-i-Gaib and also to remain away from the impurities of this materialistic world. Thus, he was ascended higher and higher on the spiritual ladder till the day came when he reached the point of par-excellence and the angel Jibra'eel (AS) came with the manifested Wahy.
Seclusion in the cave of Hira (حراء)
We have seen that initially Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) was made inclined towards the spiritual world through dreams as during sleep the attachments with the material world ceases. Secondly, seclusion was made very dear to him for the very same reason that one can concentrate more on spiritual world and the materialistic worldly distraction is minimum in seclusion. So, this concentration towards the spiritual world was firstly introduced through dreams while in sleep and secondly it was further reinforced in seclusion while being awake.
Why cave Hira was selected for seclusion
Ulema have given different reasons for this, viz.,
Grand father of Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) had used cave Hira for seclusion, so there was family background for it.
Previous Prophets had also used this cave for seclusion, so, their was spiritual linkage as well.
Third reason could be that from cave Hira Khânah Ka’bah is directly seen. To mention, it is in itself an act of worship to only seeing Khânah Ka’bah.
Fourth reason was that cave Hira is neither too far away nor too near from Makkah al-Mukarramah, it is just 3 kilometres from Makkah Al-Mukarramah. It was not easy for others to go there from Makkah and disturb Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) there, but at the same time it was not very far off as well. People of Makkah knew the whereabouts of Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) and they also knew that nobody else is coming to cave Hira to see him there, which they could have exploited later on against him by saying that whatever he is saying, he has learnt it from someone or that they could say that since he had gone to some far off place, it is possible that he might have learnt it there, so both these things were taken care of by the Divine guidance.
Significance of seclusion
Seclusion has many spiritual benefits, viz.,
It helps in enlightening and cleaning the Qalb, thus making it possible to function like a mirror and become the place for Divine enlightenment and inspiration. It has been the way of Prophets and is important for attaining the spiritual excellence.
Does seclusion mean shunning away the world (i.e., Rahbâniyat)
The answer is "No"—this means that the Prophetic seclusion is altogether different from Rabâniyat. This issue is clearly evident from this Hadith as Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) did not leave his family or society permanently, nor did he forget his rights and duties towards his family and the society. He (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) first made all the necessary arrangements for his family, informed them about his whereabouts, opted to remain in seclusion at a near place where he could be easily approached by his family in case of any dire need and further he visited his family after short intervals of time. He (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) took necessary food stuffs along with him unlike those ignorant so called Sufis who say that they do not need food etc. as it is against Tawakkul. This Hadith teaches the method, purpose and the etiquettes of seclusion.
Seclusion is for beginner only
Seclusion is important for the beginner only as Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) used to remain in seclusion in the beginning only and not in his later life. The beginner does not have the control over his baser self and gets easily influenced by the worldly distractions. After gaining control over the baser self and consistency and steadfastness in the spirituality one has to remain active in the society fulfilling all the obligations towards mankind.
Type of worship in cave Hira before prophethood
Here the question arises as to what type of worship Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) used to do in cave Hira before Prophethood? The learned scholars of Islâm have given various answers to this question, viz.,
Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) used to recite the names of Allâh.
Though the Wahy had not started but Allâh had inspired the way of worship in the heart of Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam).
He (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) was worshipping as per the Shari’ah of Ibrahim (AS) (Tyseerul Qâri)
The truth descended upon him
It means that Angel Jibra'eel (AS) came to Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) with the Wahy. It happened on the seventeenth day of the month of Ramadhan.
The angel asked him to read
The Angel came and asked him to read. The Prophet replied, "I do not know how to read". Did the Angel present some document to the Prophet which he asked him to read? It is mentioned in some narration that the Angel presented a written thing which was written on a piece of Dheeba (tissue brocade, silk).
The second explanation given by the Ulema is that by saying "read" the Angel asked Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) to repeat the same words which he (the Angel) would say and it did not mean to read from any document.
Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) said: ما أنا بقارئ "I do not know how to read."
Hadhrat Shaikh-ul-Hind (RA) says that Jibra'eel (AS) had come to inform Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) the purpose of his life, but at that very moment he (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) was greatly under the influence of the sense of bondsmanship (شان عبودية), it is well known that more stronger the sense of bondsmanship, more and more one feels the sense of humility. At this very moment Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) was feeling extreme humility because of the bondsmanship, so out of that humility he said that he does not know how to read. He was not aware of his qualities and status at that time. At this stage to get one out of the state of humility and to make him concentrate on a higher point, it is needed to get the attention diverted from all other things and make him to concentrate on one particular point. This can be achieved initially by putting mental pressure, as was done by Jibra'eel (AS) by coming suddenly and straightway asking Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) to read, but this was not enough to get the attention of Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) diverted from his position of bondsmanship, he continued with his statement that he did not know how to read.
The angel holds and presses Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) forcefully
Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) said "The angel caught me (forcefully) and pressed me so hard that I could not bear it any more. He then released me and again asked me to read, I replied, 'I do not know how to read"
Jibra'eel (AS), by the Divine command, wanted to inspire the spiritual power into the heart of Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam). There are various ways to do so, viz.,
1. In’akâsi ((انعكاسي—Reflective
In this method the Sheikh, (man with the spiritual power) sits in the company of his students and this way they feel the effects of his spirituality in their hearts. These effects last as long as the students are in the company of their Sheikh and vanish as soon as the students leave his Majlis. It is like one sitting with a person who has used scent, would feel the fragrance as long as one sits with that person.
2. Ilqâ’ee (إلقائي)—Inspirational
In this method the Sheikh enlightens the heart of his student by his own hearts enlightenment,. Afterwards it is the job of the student to preserve that enlightenment. It is like a person who lights his candle with the candle of other person and to keep that candle glowing is the job of that person.
3. Islâhi (إصلاحي)—Reformative
In this method the Sheikh reserves good amount of the enlightenment of his heart (Qalb) for his student but releases it for him gradually stepwise. First of all his morals would be corrected and then he will be taken ahead in stepwise fashion. The effects of this method are more lasting than the first two methods. It is like a big reservoir from where the water flows through small canals. The small bits of grass etc. will not obstruct the flow of water through these small canals but if some big object comes in the way, it would definitely stop the water flow. Similarly, small sins will not effect this type of benefit to the student from his Sheikh but the bigger sins would definitely do that.
4. Itihâdi (إتحادي)—To superimpose
In this method the Sheikh brings his soul near to the soul of the student and adds his spiritual excellences to the soul of his student. This is the strongest method of imparting spirituality to other person. It was this method which was used by Jibra'eel (AS) here. The idea was to make the spiritual status of Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam), which he already possessed, manifest. Here Jibra'eel (AS) was just like a mirror for Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam). He (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) saw his image and power in the mirror of Jibra'eel (AS). First Jibra'eel (AS) approached him and diverted his attention towards the higher spiritual stage by asking him to read. Then Jibra'eel (AS) physically embraced him and pressed very forcefully in order to strengthen his spiritual power. After doing this once Jibra'eel (AS) asked him to read, Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) again repeated the earlier answer that he did not know how to read. Then Jibra'eel (AS) again caught him and pressed very forcefully and then again asked him to read and Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) again repeated the earlier answer that he did not know how to read. Thereupon Jibra’eel (AS) caught Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) for the third time and pressed him again, and then released him and said:
اقْرَأْ بِاسْمِ رَبِّكَ الَّذِي خَلَقَ () خَلَقَ الْإِنْسَانَ مِنْ عَلَقٍ ()
"Read in the name of your Lord, who has created (all that exists) has created man from a clot. Read! And your Lord is the Most Generous”. (96:1-2)
At this point Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) realised that he had the requisite strength needed to bear the weight of the Wahy, which the heavens and the earth had refused to accept. After pressing three times Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) realised his potential and Jibra'eel (AS) told him to read in the name of the Rabb (Lord) who brought up Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam), provided him all nourishment and other providence. “When Allâh has done these things for you, O Muhammad (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam), why can't He make you read and provide all that you need for this great job. Allâh is One Who created man from a worthless thing—a clot. He is the One Who gave tongue to a non living thing like pen, see how He made this piece of matter (pen) a great means of spreading knowledge. When He can do this why can't He bestow you with the best of knowledge. So, read with His name". Hearing these verses Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) started reciting these verses.
Importance of knowledge in Islâm
We have seen that the Wahy started with the word(إقراء) "Read". Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) was worshipping and meditating in the Cave Hira for quite some time, but Allâh Ta’âlâ sent Jibra'eel (AS) with the Wahy and asked Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) to read. From this one can easily understand the importance of learning in Islâm that it has been started with the word Iqra.
Two things needed for acceptance of worship
Knowledge of Shari'ah
For any worship to be accepted by Allâh, two things are necessary, one is extreme sincerity but we have to know that only sincerity is not enough, one has to have the knowledge of Shari'ah. We need to understand that none of us can be more sincere than Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam), but he also is being told by Allâh Ta’âlâ to learn Shari'ah. Only the worship which is as per Shari’ah is acceptable to Allâh. The ignorant and the self-styled Sufis should learn from this a lesson that worship without proper knowledge is not reliable. So acquiring the proper knowledge of Shari'ah is mandatory on every Muslim.
First five verses of the Qur’ân
اقْرَأْ بِاسْمِ رَبِّكَ الَّذِي خَلَقَ
'Read in the name of your Lord, who has created (all that exists).
Wahy has been started with the word (إقراء) "Read”, we have seen the importance of learning in Islâm. When Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) was asked by the angel to read, he, out of humility, said that he did not know how to read. Afterwards the angel told him to read in the name of that Being Who was his Creator and Nourisher. Here first the word (إسم) “Ism—name” is mentioned and then two attributes of Allâh i.e., Rabb (رب) and Khâliq (خالق).
Reason for using the word (إسم) “Ism—name”
There is a tremendous gap between the Creator (خالق) and the creation (مخلوق). It is impossible for the created one to comprehend the Creator directly. The Creator is eternal (Qadeem (قديم and the creation is occurring (Hâdith (حادث. The creation could get the Ma’ârifat (Knowledge) of the Creator through either His attributes (صفات) or through His names (أسماء). Since His attributes are also eternal (Qadeem), so again it was not possible to comprehend them directly. So names of the attributes (أسماء) were made the link between the Creator and the creation. These names possess the effects of the attributes and thus are of great importance in the path of attaining the spiritual knowledge.
Why the attributes Rabb and Khâliq have been mentioned here first
By mentioning the attribute Rabb (Cherisher and Sustainer) Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) was told that as Allâh has provided him all his nourishment and other providence, "O Muhammad (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam), why can't He make you read and provide all that you need for this great job". Secondly by mentioning the attribute of Khâliq (Creator), the attention of Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) was drawn towards the fact that Allâh, by way of being Khâliq, can create things from the state of nothingness, so, why can't He make him (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) read despite of him being illiterate.
Has created man from a clot (خَلَقَ الْإِنْسَانَ مِنْ عَلَقٍ)
After mentioning the attributes of Rabb and Khâliq, the attention of Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) is being drawn towards the origin of man. See, how We have created the best creation i.e., man from a dirty drop of water and through what stages he has to go before attaining the final shape and status.
Read! And your Lord is most Generous (اقْرَأْ وَرَبُّكَ الْأَكْرَمُ)
Before the revelation of these verses we have seen that Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) was overwhelmingly under the influence of sense of bondsmanship (شان عبودية) i.e., humility. By means of these verses, his attention is diverted from this humility towards the Exaltedness of Allâh (شان قدرة). When Allâh can create a perfect human being from a clot, why can't He provide him (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) all things needed for this great job of Prophethood. After this, Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) is being told to start recitation while keeping in view the Generosity of Allâh Ta’âlâ, Who is not only his Rabb and Khâliq but Who is also very very Generous.
In this narration, Imâm Bukhari has mentioned only three verses of Surah Iqra, when it is well known with authenticity that five verses were revealed first time by Jibra'eel (AS) in Cave Hira. Imâm Bukhari himself has mentioned these five verses at other place in Sahih Bukhari and Imâm Muslim has also mentioned these in Sahih Muslim.
Then Allâh’s apostle returned with the inspiration and severe heart beating (فرجع بها رسول الله يرجف فؤاده)
Receiving the Wahy first time was greatly unusual and strange event for Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam), he returned home with this inspiration while his heart was palpating fast. He went to Khadijah bint Khuwailid (RA) and said:
"Cover me! Cover me!"
Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) went to his wife Hadhrat Khadijah (RA) and narrated the whole incident to her and asked her to cover him and she covered him with a blanket.
لقد خشيت على نفسي
"I fear that something may happen to me."
These are the words he (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) told Hadhrat Khadijah (AS).
Now the question here is as to why did he (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) fear something like that to his life after this experience? Learned scholars have given different explanations to this question, viz.,
Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) experienced great pressure, both physical as well as spiritual, when Jibra'eel (AS) pressed him hard. There was super-imposition of angelic spirituality over the human nature, this really is a matter of great stress and strain for a human being.
Past tense has been used in this sentence, so, it would mean that Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) got this apprehension about his life when Jibra'eel (AS) pressed him very hard. At such an occasion one feels as if his body is giving way.
The effect of this Divine word was such that Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) got this feeling.
Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) understood the seriousness and greatness of this job and also foresaw the difficulties that were essential for such a great job.
The sense of responsibility also begets some fear and it is directly proportional to the greatness of the responsibility, greater the responsibility, greater is the feeling of fear.
To be struck with fear at such an occasion is human, it is only the Essence of Allâh Ta’âlâ which does not get influenced by anything. Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) was very much a human, Musâ (AS) was also struck with this fear out of human nature when he was told to grab his stick that had changed into a snake.
Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) wanted to get the sympathy of his wife Khadijah (AS).
Khadijah (RA) replied:
كلا والله ما يخزيك الله أبدا إنك لتصل الرحم وتحمل الكل وتكسب المعدوم وتقري الضيف وتعين على نوائب الحق
"Never! By Allâh, Allâh will never disgrace you. You keep good relations with your kith and kin, help the poor and the destitute, serve your guests generously and assist the deserving calamity-afflicted ones."
Such a great answer bespeaks volumes about the greatness of the wisdom, maturity and the vision, this great lady i.e., Hadhrat Khadijah al-Kubra (RA) possessed. See, how she consoles Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam). In Islâm ladies are very much respected and they have always played a great role in all spheres of life. The great conviction of Hadhrat Khadijah (RA) is depicted in these words which she uttered about the righteousness of Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) and also the firm faith she had in Allâh Ta’âlâ and as such she became the first lady to accept the truthfulness of Wahy and Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam), thus was the first to become a Muslim.
كلا والله ما يخزيك الله أبدا إنك لتصل الرحم
"Never! By Allâh, Allâh will never disgrace you. You keep good relations with your kith and kin".
With great conviction and authenticity Hadhrat Khadijah (RA) told Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) that Allâh will never disgrace him as she fully knew the piety, truthfulness and extreme sincerity of Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam). She was convinced that one who does good to those on earth, receives the same treatment from the One Who is in the heavens, i,e., Allâh Ta’âlâ. She told Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) that as he was showing kindness to his relatives, Allâh will also show His kindness to him. It is said that near-ones are like scorpions (الأقارب كالعقارب). One often faces problems from near-ones, even on trivial things they often get angry and start using bad remarks. Sometimes there are financial matters, sometimes marital, sometimes about inheritance and sometimes family pride is the cause for animosity. So, to show persistent patience along with goodwill and kindness in response to all the harms one receives from one's relatives is really a great piece of morality. It is certain that anyone possessing such great morals will not be left alone and unrewarded by the All-knowing and All-powerful—Allâh Ta’âlâ.
Help the poor and destitute (وتحمل الكل وتكسب المعدوم )
Hadhrat Khadijah (RA) then mentioned another great moral character of Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam). Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) used to help needy and destitute. He (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) would lift the load of weak people who were unable to lift it. He (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) would take care of those who had no care-takers. He (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) would feed the starving ones. By mentioning such qualities of Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam), Hadhrat Khadijah (RA) wanted to convey that when Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) was taking so much pains about the people, who are like the family of Allâh (الخلق عيال الله) how was it possible that Allâh would leave him alone.
Serve your guests generously (وتقري الضيف)
This is another great moral character one can have, that is to honour the guests and serve them generously. Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) not only used to help the poor and needy but also would take great pains to make his guests comfortable. It has always been the habit of noble people and this character of man is very much liked by Allâh.
Lessons from this speech of Hadhrat Khadijah (RA) as per Mullah Ali Qâri (R)
Good characters beget peace and safety.
Praising some one at some occasions is permissible.
Praiseworthy words can be used for consolation.
This speaks of Hadhrat Khadijah's (RA) great thinking and deep insight.
Poverty of Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) was voluntary.
These great moral characters were inherent in Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) even before prophethood as he was sent for the purpose to take these good morals to the highest standard.
Waraqah bin Naufal bin Asad bin Abdul Aziz
He was an old man who had turned blind and was the cousin of Hadhrat Khadijah (RA). His genealogy and that of Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) was also meeting at some higher point in higher hierarchy. He had accepted Christianity and was a great scholar of Injeel. He was also a great scholar of Ibrani and Arabic languages. He was able to write Injeel in Ibrani. It is not known with certainty as to what was the original language of Injeel, some say it was written in Suryani (Syrian language) and others say it was in Ibrani language. These days only translations of injeel are available. These translations are not of real injeel but of some sayings written by companions of Hadhrat Eisâ (AS), yet others say that these were written after the period of companions (Hawariyeen) of Eisâ (AS). The Church continued to do additions and alterations to it ever since then. Mawlânâ Rahmatullah Kairanwi proved this thing, with the help of a copy of Bible (which was printed in England) in a historical debate with priest Funderheld at Agra, India. Mawlânâ Rahmatullah Kairanwi has written about it in detail in his book Id’hâr-ul Haq.
In earlier times, to write Divine books was a routine but learning a Divine book by heart is the distinction with Al-Qur'an only.
When your people will turn you out
Waraqah wished to be alive until the time when Makkans will drive Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) out of Makkah. By, saying so, Waraqah became the first man to testify the truthfulness of the prophethood of Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) but he is not counted amongst the Sahâbah (companions of Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam). The first believe (Mumin) from amongst the men is believed to be Abu Baker (RA) and first lady to embrace Islâm is Hadhrat Khadijah (RA). Sheikh-i-Akbar (R) gives the explanation as to why Waraqah is not counted amongst Sahâbah. He says that there is difference between Nubuwat and Risâlat. Waraqah only testified the Nubuwhat of Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam), as by that time Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) had not got Risâlat which he got after the period of Fatrat when the Surah Muddathir was revealed. Waraqah died during the period of Fatrat and could not see Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) when he started inviting peopled to Islâm.
Hadhrat Khadijah (RA) took Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) to him after he narrated the incident of Cave Hira to her. Waraqah asked Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) about the incident and he narrated it to him. Waraqah told him that it was same the Namoos which had come to Musâ .
هذا الناموس الذي نزل الله على موسى
Namoos means the one who knows the secrets like the word. Jasoos (spy) is used for one who knows the secrets but the difference is that Namoos is used for one who knows the righteous secrets and Jasoos for one who knows the evil secrets. Here Namoos means Jibra'eel (AS) as he came with the Wahy to the prophets as we know that Wahy is the secret of Allâh which He sends to His prophets.
Why Waraqah being a Nasrani mentioned Musâ (AS) instead of Eisâ (AS)
Waraqah told Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) that this was same Namoos who used to come to Musâ. Here Ulema have discussed as to why did Waraqah mentioned Musâ (AS) and not Eisâ (AS). Various reasons stated are:
Musâ (AS) faced lot of difficulties from his people, so by mentioning Musâ, Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) was given a hint that he also might face such difficulties.
The prophethood of Musâ (AS) was more famous than that of Eisâ (AS) as Musâ (AS) was accepted by both Christians as well as Jews unlike Eisâ (AS) who was accepted by Christians alone.
The Shari'ah of Musâ (AS) was more similar to that of Shari'ah of Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam).
Will they drive me out
Why did Rasulullah feel surprised when Waraqah told him that his people would force him to leave his home-place? For Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) it was difficult to imagine that his own people could do such a thing with him at any point of time, because he was so far loved and respected by his people. They considered him as the most trustworthy and he belonged to a respectable family in the whole Arab. He used to help all needy, weak and poor people.
Waraqah told Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) that every prophet whosoever came with the message of Allâh, was opposed and teased by his people.
Divine inspiration paused for a while
After this incident of first arrival of Wahy, the Divine Inspiration was also paused for a while. This period is known as the period of Fatrah. As per the authentic reports this period is said to have lasted three years. (Musnand Ahmad)
Learned scholars say that this pause was:
To develop the capability for tolerating this heavy burden of Wahy in Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam).
To give Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) time to think over the revealed verses.
To increase curiosity for the inspiration, as one forgets the discomforts which are associated with a thing which one craves for. Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) was craving for the Wahy during this period of pause. His thirst for this was so intense that at times he would go on mountain top thought to fall down from there, but a voice from the skies, saying," O Muhammad! you are definitely the prophet of Allâh, stopped him. This voice that was from Jibra'eel (AS) would give him solace. Angel Jibra'eel (AS) didn’t come to him during this period with the Wahy, but it is narrated that angel Israfeel (AS) was posted by Allâh Ta’âlâ with him during this period.
Finally the period of Fatrah ended
Finally the restlessness caused by this prolonged pause came to an end.
Jâbir bin 'Abdullah Al-Ansâri (RA) narrated about the period of pause in revelation reporting the speech of the Prophet "While I was walking, all of a sudden I heard a voice from the sky. I looked up and saw the same angel who had visited me at the cave of Hira sitting on a chair between the sky and the earth. I got afraid of him and came back home and said, 'Wrap me (in blankets).' And then Allâh revealed the following Holy Verses (of Qur’ân):
يَا أَيُّهَا الْمُدَّثِّرُ () قُمْ فَأَنْذِرْ () وَرَبَّكَ فَكَبِّرْ () وَثِيَابَكَ فَطَهِّرْ () وَالرُّجْزَ فَاهْجُرْ ()
'O you (i.e. Muhammad)! wrapped up in garments! Arise and warn (the people against Allâh's Punishment),...' up to 'and desert the idols.' (74.1-5)
After this the revelation started coming strongly, frequently and regularly. The same is mentioned in the Qur'an in Surah Tawkeer. It was the second time when Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) saw angel Jibra'eel (AS) in his real form. The third time when Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) saw angel Jibra'eel (AS) in his real form was during the famous incident of Me'raj (Ascent).
When Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) was under the cover of the garments, the inspiration came to him, now it was Surah Muddathir of the Qur'an which was revealed, calling him 'O you (i.e. Muhammad)! wrapped up in garments. With this Surah, Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) got the Risâlat, as now he was asked to invite people to Islâm. When first verses of Surah Iqra were revealed, that time he got the Nubuwat and when Surah Muddathir was revealed, he got the Risâlat.
Now Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) is being told to leave the blanket and come out and guide the people to the right path. Now is the time to preach and warn the people about the chastisement they are likely to get if they don't shun away infidelity and shirk. Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) is being told to educate the people about the Oneness of their Lord and His Greatness. He is so Great that there is no chance for Him to have any partner, He alone is worthy of worship. At the beginning of the Nubuwat of Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam), the world was full of kufr and shirk, so here only the attribute of Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) of being the ‘Warner’ is mentioned and not the attribute of being ‘Bashir’. Avoiding sins is more important than performance of good deeds, as the former begets the wrath of Allâh and latter begets Thawâb. To save oneself from the wrath of Allâh is more important than getting Thawâb.
For understanding the Greatness of Allâh and the importance of Unity of Allâh, one needs to have clean body and soul. If the mind is filled with the filth of kufr and shirk, and body and clothes are stained with the external filth, such a person cannot think of understanding the purity of Islâm.
It was during the darkness of infidelity that light of inspiration dawned on Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) in dreams and finally one day the sun of the prophethood rose and the darkness started fading away. As the sun goes on rising, its heat goes on increasing. Similarly, the heat of the light of inspiration went on increasing without any pause.
حدثنا موسى بن إسماعيل قال حدثنا أبو عوانة قال حدثنا موسى بن أبي عائشة قال حدثنا سعيد بن جبير عن ابن عباس في قوله تعالى ( لا تحرك به لسانك لتعجل به ) قال كان رسول الله يعالج من التنزيل شدة وكان مما يحرك شفتيه فقال ابن عباس فأنا أحركهما لكم كما كان رسول الله يحركهما وقال سعيد أنا أحركهما كما رأيت ابن عباس يحركهما فحرك شفتيه فأنزل الله تعالى ( لا تحرك به لسانك لتعجل به إن علينا جمعه وقرآنه ) قال جمعه له في صدرك وتقرأه ( فإذا قرأناه فاتبع قرآنه ) قال فاستمع له وأنصت ( ثم إن علينا بيانه ) ثم إن علينا أن تقراه فكان رسول الله بعد ذلك إذا أتاه جبريل استمع فإذا انطلق جبريل قرأه النبي كما قراه
Narrated by Hadhrat Syed bin Jubair (RA)
Ibn 'Abbas in the explanation of the statement of Allâh. "Move not your tongue concerning (the Quran) to make haste therewith." (75.16) said "Allâh’s Apostle used to bear the revelation with great trouble and used to move his lips (quickly) with the Inspiration." Ibn 'Abbas moved his lips saying, "I am moving my lips in front of you as Allâh's Apostle used to move his." Sayd moved his lips saying: "I am moving my lips, as I saw Ibn 'Abbas moving his." Ibn 'Abbas added, "So Allâh revealed 'Move not your tongue concerning (the Qur'an) to make haste therewith. It is for us to collect it and to give you (O Muhammad) the ability to recite it (the Qur'an)' (75.16-17) which means that Allâh will make him (the Prophet) remember the portion of the Qur'an which was revealed at that time by heart and recite it. The Statement of Allâh: 'And 'when we have recited it to you (O Muhammad through Jibra’eel) then you follow its (Qur'an) recital' (75.18) means 'listen to it and be silent. Then it is for Us (Allah) to make it clear to you' (75.19) means 'Then it is (for Allâh) to make you recite it (and its meaning will be clear by itself through your tongue). Afterwards, Allâh's Apostle used to listen to Gabriel whenever he came and after his departure he used to recite it as Gabriel had recited it."
Hadhrat Syed bin Jubair (RA) asked Hadhrat Abdullah bin Abbas (RA) about the verse (75.16-19) of the Qur'an. Abdullah bin Abbas (RA) is known as the chief of commentators of the Qur'an. Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) had offered Dua for him, "O Allâh, give him (Abdullah bin Abbas) the knowledge of the Book i.e., Al-Quran. So, his comments on any verse of the Qur'an are taken as the most authentic. He says that when Jibra'eel (AS) used to come with the Wahy, Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) would feel lot of stress and strain, one was due to weight of the Wahy and second was the curiosity to learn and recite it with Jibra'eel (AS) and thus memorising it with the apprehension that he might forget it after Jibra'eel (AS) will leave or he might not be able to memorise it fully. This feeling of apprehension was producing lot of discomfort for him. On this Allâh Ta’âlâ, directed Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) not to be in hurry to memorise it and not to worry about forgetting it. Allâh Ta’âlâ promises him directly and in clear words that it was His word and that He has taken it upon Himself to save it in his (i.e., Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam)) memory and to teach him the meaning of the revealed verses..
Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) used to exert much to retain Wahy
Yu'âliju means to take lot of pains to obtain something. Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) had to exert too much whenever Wahy used to come to him (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam). To keep pace with the angelic power of Jibra'eel (AS) in recitation was itself quite heavy on Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam).
Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) used to move his lips quickly while reciting the verses of the Qur'an with Jibra'eel (AS) in order to quickly memorise them. Ibn Abbas (RA) told Syed bin Jubair (RA) that he would show him the way Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) used to move his lips and Ibn Abbas moved his lips. when Syed bin Jubair (RA) narrated this Hadith, he also showed his students the way he saw Ibn Abbas (AS) moving his lips.
Correlation between preceding and succeeding verses of Surah al-Qiyâmah (75:1-19)
لَا أُقْسِمُ بِيَوْمِ الْقِيَامَةِ () وَلَا أُقْسِمُ بِالنَّفْسِ اللَّوَّامَةِ () أَيَحْسَبُ الْإِنْسَانُ أَنْ لَنْ نَجْمَعَ عِظَامَهُ () بَلَى قَادِرِينَ عَلَى أَنْ نُسَوِّيَ بَنَانَهُ () بَلْ يُرِيدُ الْإِنْسَانُ لِيَفْجُرَ أَمَامَهُ () يَسْأَلُ أَيَّانَ يَوْمُ الْقِيَامَةِ () فَإِذَا بَرِقَ الْبَصَرُ () وَخَسَفَ الْقَمَرُ () وَجُمِعَ الشَّمْسُ وَالْقَمَرُ () يَقُولُ الْإِنْسَانُ يَوْمَئِذٍ أَيْنَ الْمَفَرُّ () كَلَّا لَا وَزَرَ () إِلَى رَبِّكَ يَوْمَئِذٍ الْمُسْتَقَرُّ () يُنَبَّأُ الْإِنْسَانُ يَوْمَئِذٍ بِمَا قَدَّمَ وَأَخَّرَ () بَلِ الْإِنْسَانُ عَلَى نَفْسِهِ بَصِيرَةٌ () وَلَوْ أَلْقَى مَعَاذِيرَهُ () لَا تُحَرِّكْ بِهِ لِسَانَكَ لِتَعْجَلَ بِهِ () إِنَّ عَلَيْنَا جَمْعَهُ وَقُرْآنَهُ () فَإِذَا قَرَأْنَاهُ فَاتَّبِعْ قُرْآنَهُ () ثُمَّ إِنَّ عَلَيْنَا بَيَانَهُ ()
"I do call to witness the Resurrection Day; And I do call to witness the self-reproaching spirit; (eschew Evil). Does man think that We cannot assemble his bones? Nay We are able to put together in perfect order the very tips of his fingers. But man wishes to do wrong (even) in the time in front of him.He questions: "When is the Day of Resurrection?" At length when the Sight is dazed. And the moon is buried in darkness. And the sun and moon are joined together That Day will Man say "Where is the refuge?" By no means! No place of safety! Before thy Lord (alone) that Day will be the place of rest.That Day will man be told (all) that he put forward and all that he put back. Nay man will be evidence against himself Even though he were to put up his excuses. Move not thy tongue concerning the (Qur'an) to make haste therewith. It is for Us to collect it and to promulgate it: But when We have promulgated it follow thou its recital (as promulgated): Nay more it is for Us to explain it (and make it clear)” (75:1-19)
Before and after these verses, the things about the day of judgement are mentioned but here in these verses Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) is being told not to move his tongue in haste that apparently seems to be out of place. Ulema have given various explanations about this viz.,
The Qur'an is the word of Almighty Allâh. Its pattern is unique and it is not like the way worldly authors write their books. Allâh is the most Merciful and Benevolent for the mankind. It was out of this Merciful and Benevolent nature that Allâh Ta’âlâ directed Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) not to be in haste so as to memorise the Wahy. It is like a kind teacher who admonishes a student during the course of his lesson if he sees that the student is not doing the needful.
Allâh Ta’âlâ sees the requirements of the Bondsman and acts accordingly, He is not bound by things like sequence of sentences etc. It is like a father who while talking to his child, admonishes him in between if he sees him doing something say while eating.
These things explain the view that there is no correlation of these verses with the preceding and succeeding verses, but Ulema have given various explanations to show the correlation of these verses with preceding and succeeding verses.
In the preceding verses Allâh Ta’âlâ says that the man will be asked on the day of judgement what he postponed and what he preponed. It is in itself a sin for a man to postpone a thing to which he was supposed to give priority or prepone a thing which he was supposed to do later.
In the same way Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) is being told here that when Wahy is being revealed to him, he should quietly to it and to memorise and understand it is to be done afterwards and for that also he is not supposed to worry as Allâh Himself will ensure that these things get secured in the blessed Qalb of Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam).
Secondly, Allâh Ta’âlâ in the preceding verses says that He (i.e., Allâh Ta’âlâ) is All-powerful and capable of reassembling the remains of a man after death, when Allâh is capable of doing that then “O' Muhammad (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) why can't He store this Wahy in your chest in such a way that it will not only be in your memory but you will also be able to understand its meaning”.
Thirdly, in this Surah Allâh Ta’âlâ says that in the Aakhirah, man will know everything about himself, what ever he has done in the world. So, when Allâh wishes, He can make man capable of acquiring knowledge, therefore, "O, Muhammad (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam), you should not think it to be impossible for Allâh to keep things stored safe in your memory".
Miracle of Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam)
This is another miracle of Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) that he was not reciting the revealed verses with Jibra'eel (AS) but used to listen quietly and still every bit of it was safely getting stored in his memory.
Jibra’eel (AS) was only a link
فَإِذَا قَرَأْنَاهُ فَاتَّبِعْ قُرْآنَهُ () ثُمَّ إِنَّ عَلَيْنَا بَيَانَهُ ()
But when We have promulgated it follow thou its recital (as promulgated): Nay more it is for Us to explain it (and make it clear):(75:18-19)
In this verse Allâh Ta’âlâ says "when We have promulgated or recited it, follow it”. Allâh Ta’âlâ did not say that when Jibra'eel (AS) has recited, for the reason that the Qur'an is from Allâh Ta’âlâ and Jibra'eel (AS) is simply a link between.
Why Imâm Bukhari chose this Hadith for this chapter
Ulema have given various reasons—firstly, they say that Imâm Bukhari wants to show how Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) used to receive the Wahy initially. Secondly, he wants to convey the message about the authenticity, purity and safety of the Wahy, as in these verses Allâh Ta’âlâ says:
إِنَّ عَلَيْنَا جَمْعَهُ وَقُرْآنَهُ
"It is for Us to collect it and to promulgate it" (75:18)
Lessons from these verses
A teacher should keep the requirements of the students always in view.
A teacher should admonish the student at once whenever he sees him doing something unwanted.
A teacher should be kind to his students.
One should always carry out necessary job at its proper time. Neither postpone any job which needs priority and not prepone any which needs to be done later.
A student should listen to his teacher quietly and with great attention.
حدثنا عبدان قال أخبرنا عبد الله قال أخبرنا يونس عن الزهري ح وحدثنا بشر بن محمد قال أخبرنا عبد الله قال أخبرنا يونس ومعمر عن الزهري نحوه قال أخبرني عبيد الله بن عبد الله عن ابن عباس قال كان رسول الله أجود الناس وكان أجود ما يكون في رمضان حين يلقاه جبريل وكان يلقاه في كل ليلة من رمضان فيدارسه القرآن فلرسول الله أجود بالخير من الريح المرسلة
Narrated by Hadhrat ibn Abbas (RA)
Allâh’s Apostle (AS) was the most generous of all the people, and he used to reach the peak of generosity in the month of Ramadhan when Jibra'eel met him. Jibra'eel used to meet him and teach al-Qur’ân every night of Ramadhan. Allâh's Apostle was the most generous person, even more generous than the strong and uncontrollable wind (in readiness and haste to do charitable deeds).
In this Hadith a name Abdullah has appeared. It has been said that this name refers to Abdullah bin Mubarak, a great Muhaddith.
The letter Hâ (ح) when used in the Sanad
In chain of narrators (Sanad) sometimes the latter Hâ (ح) is mentioned instead of usual word Hadhasna (حدثنا). It means that, here the Muhaddith is shifting from one sanad to another i.e., up to a particular point one narrator is narrating through one chain and the other through the other chain, and after that point, the chains of both narrators are same. This is done to avoid repetition and lengthening of the chain.
Allâh’s Apostle (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) was the most generous of all people
Generosity is an attribute of heart, it is not the name of being rich. Qaroon was very rich but at the same time he is known for his miserliness. Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) was very much generous from his heart.
Difference between Sakhâwat (سخاوت) and the word Jood (جود) used in this Hadith
Sakhâwat (سخاوت) means the distribution of wealth. As per Imâm Ragib (RA), the word Jood (جود) used in this Hadith means:
أعطاء ما ينبغي لمن ينبغي
To give proper thing to the proper person
Jood also includes the generosity as regards knowledge and guidance. Allâh's Apostle (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) was most generous of all the people; it is so evident that it needs no explanation. Sakhâwat is one aspect of Jood. Once one million Dirhams came to Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) from Behrain; Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) placed that in one corner of the Mosque and did not leave till whole of it was distributed amongst the needy. Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) always fulfilled the appropriate need of appropriate people suitably and this is what is termed as Jood. Once a woman presented a beautiful blanket to Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) which he liked very much. Once a Sahâbi saw Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) dressing it. He touched it and said that it is very nice and requested Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) to give it to him. Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) immediately took that off from his body and gave it to that Sahâbi. It is well said by an Arabic poet:
ما قال لاقط إلا في تشهده
لو لا الشتهد كانت لائوه نعم
Generosity of Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) is the reflection of generosity of Allâh
We Know that the Generosity of Allâh Ta’âlâ is unparallel and it was the influence of this attribute of Allâh Ta’âlâ on Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) in particular, which made him most generous amongst the mankind. Allâh is Generous and likes generosity. Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) himself said:
تخلقوا بأخلاق الله
"Moralise yourself with the morals of Allâh (i.e., develop in yourselves those morals that reflect the morals of Allâh)”.
Generosity of Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) increased in Ramadhan
We have seen that Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) was most generous throughout his life but his generosity used to reach its peak in the month of Ramadhan. This again is the influence of the Sunnat of Allâh Ta’âlâ on Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) as we know that the Generosity of Allâh Ta’âlâ also is very high in the month of Ramadhan. One good deed is rewarded seventy times in Ramadhan as compared to other months. The breezes of Rahmat and Hidâyat blow in full bloom in Ramadhan.
Generosity of Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) compared with strong wind
We all know the significance of wind as to how much important it is for mankind. Not only does man need this for breading but he depends on it in the form of rains which is necessary for the crops, vegetation and other plantation. Winds can cause devastation for mankind as well. Here the generosity of Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) is compared with that wind which is beneficial. Here ‘strong uncontrollable wind’ is mentioned and not the mere word wind. The reason is that the benefits of strong wind are quite widespread and its benefits reach far and wide in a short span of time like the effects of generosity of Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) which were quick and far reaching. The strong winds get the rains which give life to the dead and dry lands like the generosity of Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) which gives life to the spiritually dead human hearts.
Hadhrat Jibra’eel (AS) used to meet Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) every night of Ramadhan to teach him the Qur’ân
Hadhrat Jibra'eel (AS) used to come to Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) in every Ramadhan during the nights and would recite the Qur'an. Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) would listen it from him and then Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) would recite the Qur'an and Jibra'eel (AS) would listen. It is this Sunnat of Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) which the Huffâz of the Qur'an follow in Ramadhan while offering Tarâweeh. They listen from one another the Qur'an in the month of Ramadhan.
The relation of the Hadith with the title of this chapter
First thing that Imâm Bukhari wants to convey is that the Qur'an like earlier Divine books was also revealed in the month of Ramadhan. Ibrahim (AS) got the Suhuf on first day of Ramadhan; Musâ (AS) got Tourat on 6th day of Ramadhan; Eisâ (AS) got the Injeel on 13th day of Ramadhan. Most people believe that the Qur’ân it was revealed on the 27th day of Ramadhan. Secondly, by showing the revelation of the Qur'an was started in the month of Ramadhan, he further wants to prove the sanctity and the safety of the Qur'an. Thirdly, by showing that Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) used to revise the Qur'an every Ramadhan with Jibra'eel (AS), he wants to prove that there is no chance that Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) would forget any part of it whatsoever.
حدثنا أبو اليمان الحكم بن نافع قال أخبرنا شعيب عن الزهري قال أخبرني عبيد الله بن عبد الله بن عتبة بن مسعود أن عبد الله بن عباس أخبره أن أبا سفيان بن حرب أخبره أن هرقل أرسل إليه في ركب من قريش وكانوا تجارا بالشأم في المدة التي كان رسول الله ماد فيها أبا سفيان وكفار قريش فأتوه وهم بإيلياء فدعاهم في مجلسه وحوله عظماء الروم ثم دعاهم ودعا بترجمانه فقال أيكم أقرب نسبا بهذا الرجل الذي يزعم أنه نبي فقال أبو سفيان فقلت أنا أقربهم نسبا فقال أدنوه مني وقربوا أصحابه فاجعلوهم عند ظهره ثم قال لترجمانه قل لهم إني سائل هذا عن هذا الرجل فإن كذبني فكذبوه فوالله لولا الحياء من أن يأثروا علي كذبا لكذبت عنه ثم كان أول ما سألني عنه أن قال كيف نسبه فيكم قلت هو فينا ذو نسب قال فهل قال هذا القول منكم أحد قط قبله قلت لا قال فهل كان من آبائه من ملك قلت لا قال فأشراف الناس يتبعونه أم ضعفاؤهم فقلت بل ضعفاؤهم قال أيزيدون أم ينقصون قلت بل يزيدون قال فهل يرتد أحد منهم سخطة لدينه بعد أن يدخل فيه قلت لا قال فهل كنتم تتهمونه بالكذب قبل أن يقول ما قال قلت لا قال فهل يغدر قلت لا ونحن منه في مدة لا ندري ما هو فاعل فيها قال ولم تمكني كلمة أدخل فيها شيئا غير هذه الكلمة قال فهل قاتلتموه قلت نعم قال فكيف كان قتالكم إياه قلت الحرب بيننا وبينه سجال ينال منا وننال منه قال ماذا يأمركم قلت يقول اعبدوا الله وحده ولا تشركوا به شيئا واتركوا ما يقول آباؤكم ويأمرنا بالصلاة والصدق والعفاف والصلة فقال للترجمان قل له سألتك عن نسبه فذكرت أنه فيكم ذو نسب فكذلك الرسل تبعث في نسب قومها وسألتك هل قال أحد منكم هذا القول فذكرت أن لا فقلت لو كان أحد قال هذا القول قبله لقلت رجل يأتسي بقول قيل قبله وسألتك هل كان من آبائه من ملك فذكرت أن لا قلت فلو كان من آبائه من ملك قلت رجل يطلب ملك أبيه وسألتك هل كنتم تتهمونه بالكذب قبل أن يقول ما قال فذكرت أن لا فقد أعرف أنه لم يكن ليذر الكذب على الناس ويكذب على الله وسألتك أشراف الناس اتبعوه أم ضعفاؤهم فذكرت أن ضعفاءهم اتبعوه وهم أتباع الرسل وسألتك أيزيدون أم ينقصون فذكرت أنهم يزيدون وكذلك أمر الإيمان حتى يتم وسألتك أيرتد أحد سخطة لدينه بعد أن يدخل فيه فذكرت أن لا وكذلك الإيمان حين تخالط بشاشته القلوب وسألتك هل يغدر فذكرت أن لا وكذلك الرسل لا تغدر وسألتك بما يأمركم فذكرت أنه يأمركم أن تعبدوا الله ولا تشركوا به شيئا وينهاكم عن عبادة الأوثان ويأمركم بالصلاة والصدق والعفاف فإن كان ما تقول حقا فسيملك موضع قدمي هاتين وقد كنت أعلم أنه خارج لم أكن أظن أنه منكم فلو أني أعلم أني أخلص إليه لتجشمت لقاءه ولو كنت عنده لغسلت عن قدميه ثم دعا بكتاب رسول الله الذي بعث به دحية إلى عظيم بصرى فدفعه إلى هرقل فقرأه فإذا فيه بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم من محمد عبد الله ورسوله إلى هرقل عظيم الروم سلام على من اتبع الهدى أما بعد فإني أدعوك بدعاية الإسلام أسلم تسلم يؤتك الله أجرك مرتين فإن توليت فإن عليك إثم الأريسيين ( ويا أهل الكتاب تعالوا إلى كلمة سواء بيننا وبينكم أن لا نعبد إلا الله ولا نشرك به شيئا ولا يتخذ بعضنا بعضا أربابا من دون الله فإن تولوا فقولو اشهدوا بأنا مسلمون ) قال أبو سفيان فلما قال ما قال وفرغ من قراءة الكتاب كثر عنده الصخب وارتفعت الأصوات وأخرجنا فقلت لأصحابي حين اخرجنا لقد أمر أمر ابن أبي كبشة إنه يخافه ملك بني الأصفر فما زلت موقنا أنه سيظهر حتى أدخل الله علي الإسلام وكان ابن الناظور صاحب إيلياء وهرقل سقفا على نصارى الشأم يحدث أن هرقل حين قدم إيلياء أصبح يوما خبيث النفس فقال بعض بطارقته قد استنكرنا هيئتك قال ابن الناظور وكان هرقل حزاء ينظر في النجوم فقال لهم حين سألوه إني رأيت الليلة حين نظرت في النجوم ملك الختان قد ظهر فمن يختتن من هذه الأمة قالوا ليس يختتن إلا اليهود فلا يهمنك شأنهم واكتب إلى مدائن ملكك فيقتلوا من فيهم من اليهود فبينما هم على أمرهم أتي هرقل برجل أرسل به ملك غسان يخبر عن خبر رسول الله فلما استخبره هرقل قال اذهبوا فانظروا أمختتن هو أم لا فنظروا إليه فحدثوه أنه مختتن وسأله عن العرب فقال هم يختتنون فقال هرقل هذا ملك هذه الأمة قد ظهر ثم كتب هرقل إلى صاحب له برومية وكان نظيره في العلم وسار هرقل إلى حمص فلم يرم حمص حتى أتاه كتاب من صاحبه يوافق رأي هرقل على خروج النبي وأنه نبي فأذن هرقل لعظماء الروم في دسكرة له بحمص ثم أمر بأبوابها فغلقت ثم اطلع فقال يا معشر الروم هل لكم في الفلاح والرشد وأن يثبت ملككم فتبايعوا هذا النبي فحاصوا حيصة حمر الوحش إلى الأبواب فوجدوها قد غلقت فلما رأى هرقل نفرتهم وأيس من الإيمان قال ردوهم علي وقال إني قلت مقالتي آنفا أختبر بها شدتكم على دينكم فقد رأيت فسجدوا له ورضوا عنه فكان ذلك آخر شأن هرقل
Narrated by Hadhrat Abdullah bin Abbas (RA)
Abu Sufyân bin Harb informed me that Heraclius had sent a messenger to him while he had been accompanying a caravan from Quraish. They were merchants doing business in Sham (Syria, Palestine, Lebanon, and Jordan), at the time when Allâh's Apostle had truce with Abu Sufyân and Quraish infidels. So Abu Sufyân and his companions went to Heraclius at Ilya (Jerusalem). Heraclius called them in the court and he had all the senior Roman dignitaries around him. He called for his translator who, translating Heraclius's question said to them, "Who amongst you is closely related to that man who claims to be a Prophet?" Abu Sufyân replied, "I am the nearest relative to him (amongst the group)."
Heraclius said, "Bring him (Abu Sufyân) close to me and make his companions stand behind him." Abu Sufyân added, Heraclius told his translator to tell my companions that he wanted to put some questions to me regarding that man (The Prophet) and that if I told a lie they (my companions) should contradict me." Abu Sufyân added, "By Allâh! Had I not been afraid of my companions labelling me a liar, I would not have spoken the truth about the Prophet. The first question he asked me about him was:
'What is his family status amongst you?' I replied, 'He belongs to a good (noble) family amongst us.' Heraclius further asked, 'Has anybody amongst you ever claimed the same (i.e. to be a Prophet) before him?' I replied, 'No.' He said, 'Was anybody amongst his ancestors a king?' I replied, 'No.' Heraclius asked, 'Do the nobles or the poor follow him?' I replied, 'It is the poor who follow him.' He said, 'Are his followers increasing decreasing (day by day)?' I replied, 'They are increasing.' He then asked, 'Does anybody amongst those who embrace his religion become displeased and renounce the religion afterwards?' I replied, 'No.' Heraclius said, 'Have you ever accused him of telling lies before his claim (to be a Prophet)?' I replied, 'No.' Heraclius said, 'Does he break his promises?' I replied, 'No. We are at truce with him but we do not know what he will do in it.' I could not find opportunity to say anything against him except that. Heraclius asked, 'Have you ever had a war with him?' I replied, 'Yes.' Then he said, 'What was the outcome of the battles?'I replied, 'Sometimes he was victorious and sometimes we.' Heraclius said, 'What does he order you to do?' I said, 'He tells us to worship Allâh and Allâh alone and not to worship anything along with Him, and to renounce all that our ancestors had said. He orders us to pray, to speak the truth, to be chaste and to keep good relations with our kith and kin.' Heraclius asked the translator to convey to me the following, I asked you about his family and your reply was that he belonged to a very noble family. In fact all the Apostles come from noble families amongst their respective peoples. I questioned you whether anybody else amongst you claimed such a thing, your reply was in the negative. If the answer had been in the affirmative, I would have thought that this man was following the previous man's statement. Then I asked you whether anyone of his ancestors was a king. Your reply was in the negative, and if it had been in the affirmative, I would have thought that this man wanted to take back his ancestral kingdom.I further asked whether he was ever accused of telling lies before he said what he said, and your reply was in the negative. So I wondered how a person who does not tell a lie about others could ever tell a lie about Allâh. I, then asked you whether the rich people followed him or the poor. You replied that it was the poor who followed him. And in fact all the Apostle have been followed by this very class of people. Then I asked you whether his followers were increasing or decreasing. You replied that they were increasing, and in fact this is the way of true faith, till it is complete in all respects. I further asked you whether there was anybody, who, after embracing his religion, became displeased and discarded his religion. Your reply was in the negative, and in fact this is (the sign of) true faith, when its delight enters the hearts and mixes with them completely. I asked you whether he had ever betrayed. You replied in the negative and likewise the Apostles never betray. Then I asked you what he ordered you to do. You replied that he ordered you to worship Allâh and Allâh alone and not to worship any thing along with Him and forbade you to worship idols and ordered you to pray, to speak the truth and to be chaste. If what you have said is true, he will very soon occupy this place underneath my feet and I knew it (from the scriptures) that he was going to appear but I did not know that he would be from you, and if I could reach him definitely, I would go immediately to meet him and if I were with him, I would certainly wash his feet.' Heraclius then asked for the letter addressed by Allâh's Apostle which was delivered by Dihya to the Governor of Busra, who forwarded it to Heraclius to read. The contents of the letter were as follows: "In the name of Allâh the Beneficent, the Merciful (This letter is) from Muhammad the slave of Allâh and His Apostle to Heraclius the ruler of Byzantine. Peace be upon him, who follows the right path. Furthermore I invite you to Islâm, and if you become a Muslim you will be safe, and Allâh will double your reward, and if you reject this invitation of Islâm you will be committing a sin by misguiding your Arisiyin (peasants). (And I recite to you Allâh's Statement:) O people of the scripture! Come to a word common to you and us that we worship none but Allâh and that we associate nothing in worship with Him, and that none of us shall take others as Lords beside Allâh. Then, if they turn away, say: Bear witness that we are Muslims (those who have surrendered to Allâh)”. (3.64).
Abu Sufyân then added, "When Heraclius had finished his speech and had read the letter, there was a great hue and cry in the Royal Court. So we were turned out of the court. I told my companions that the question of Ibn-Abi-Kabsha (the Prophet Muhammad) has become so prominent that even the King of Bani Al-Asfar (Byzantine) is afraid of him. Then I started to become sure that he (the Prophet) would be the conqueror in the near future till I embraced Islâm”.
The sub narrator adds, "Ibn An-Natur was the Governor of Ilya' (Jerusalem) and Heraclius was the head of the Christians of Sham. Ibn An-Natur narrates that once while Heraclius was visiting Ilya' (Jerusalem), he got up in the morning with a sad mood. Some of his priests asked him why he was in that mood? Heraclius was a foreteller and an astrologer. He replied, 'At night when I looked at the stars, I saw that the leader of those who practice circumcision had appeared (become the conqueror). Who are they who practice circumcision?' The people replied, 'Except the Jews nobody practices circumcision, so you should not be afraid of them (Jews). 'Just Issue orders to kill every Jew present in the country.' While they were discussing it, a messenger sent by the king of Ghassan to convey the news of Allâh's Apostle to Heraclius was brought in. Having heard the news, he (Heraclius) ordered the people to go and see whether the messenger of Ghassan was circumcised. The people, after seeing him, told Heraclius that he was circumcised. Heraclius then asked him about the Arabs. The messenger replied, 'Arabs also practice circumcision.' (After hearing that) Heraclius remarked that sovereignty of the Arabs had appeared. Heraclius then wrote a letter to his friend in Rome who was as good as Heraclius in knowledge. Heraclius then left for Homs (a town in Syria) and stayed there till he received the reply of his letter from his friend who agreed with him in his opinion about the emergence of the Prophet and the fact that he was a Prophet. On that Heraclius invited all the heads of the Byzantines to assemble in his palace at Homs. When they assembled, he ordered that all the doors of his palace be closed. Then he came out and said, 'O Byzantines! If success is your desire and if you seek right guidance and want your empire to remain then give a pledge of allegiance to this Prophet (i.e. embrace Islâm).' (On hearing the views of Heraclius) the people ran towards the gates of the palace like on agers but found the doors closed. Heraclius realized their hatred towards Islâm and when he lost the hope of their embracing Islâm, he ordered that they should be brought back in audience. (When they returned) he said, 'What already said was just to test the strength of your conviction and I have seen it.' The people prostrated before him and became pleased with him, and this was the end of Heraclius's story (in connection with his faith).
At the time of commencement of the prophethood of Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam), there were two big powers in the world, namely the Roman empire and the Persian empire. The kings of Roman empire were called 'Qaiser' and they were Christians by religion and that of Persian empire were called 'Kisra'. Persians were fire worshippers. There used to be constant wars between these two super powers of that time. Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) was born in 570 AD and he announced his prophethood after 40 years. At this time Persians were more powerful than the Romans. The Makkan infidels were supporters of the Persians as latter were fire worshippers and Muslims were the supporters of Romans as latter were followers of Divine Books and believers of one God and hence more close to the Muslims. In 614 AD the Persian king, Parviaz Khusro son of Harmuz son of Nowsherwan Aadil defeated the Roman king Heraclius and the latter lost territory to Persia. This news of the defeat of Romans reached Makkah and the infidels celebrated this news while Muslims became sad. Now the infidels of Makkah started teasing Muslims and were telling them that they would also defeat them as their brothers i.e., Persians defeated the brothers of Muslims i.e., the Romans. At this time Allâh Ta’âlâ revealed the first verses of Surah Rum:
الـم () غُلِبَتِ الرُّومُ () فِي أَدْنَى الْأَرْضِ وَهُمْ مِنْ بَعْدِ غَلَبِهِمْ سَيَغْلِبُونَ () فِي بِضْعِ سِنِينَ لِلَّهِ الْأَمْرُ مِنْ قَبْلُ وَمِنْ بَعْدُ وَيَوْمَئِذٍ يَفْرَحُ الْمُؤْمِنُونَ () بِنَصْرِ اللَّهِ يَنْصُرُ مَنْ يَشَاءُ وَهُوَ الْعَزِيزُ الرَّحِيمُ ()
"Alif Lâm Mim. The Roman Empire has been defeated In a land close by; but they (even) after (this) defeat of theirs will soon be victorious within a few years With Allâh is the decision in the past and in the future: on that Day shall the believers rejoice with the help of Allâh. He helps whom He will and He is Exalted in Might Most Merciful”. (30: 1-5)
The miracle of Al-Qur’ân
This prophecy about the victory of Romans at a time when no one could imagine that the weak Romans could defeat the mighty Persians in a short span of time, is one of the great miracles of the Qur'an. The Qur'an in categorical terms announced that the Romans would defeat Persians in nine years. The infidels laughed at this prophecy of the Qur'an as apparently it seemed impossible. Abu Bakr Siddique (RA), having firm faith in the Qur'an, challenged the infidels to have a bet of 100 camels with him i.e., if Romans would defeat Persians in nine years as per Qur'ânic prophecy, the infidels would give 100 camels to him and if it did not happen that way, then Abu Bakr (RA) would give them 100 camels. The infidels agreed to it readily. After exactly nine years the news of the victory of Romans over the Persians reached Makkah, it was 2nd year of Hijrah when Muslims were celebrating their historical victory over the infidels in the historical battleground of Badr. The Muslims got the double joy, Abu Bakr (RA) won the bet and got 100 camels from the infidels and many people embraced Islâm on seeing the truthfulness of the Qur'an.
Heraclius in Ailya (Jerusalem)
After getting the defeat at the hands of Persians, Heraclius went to Hamas, there he took the pledge that if God would give him victory over Persians, he would make a pilgrimage to Ailya (Jerusalem) which is sacred place for Christians as well. After getting the victory he went to Jerusalem. There he came to know through the astrologers that he would loose his empire to the people who perform circumcision. He enquired from his people as to who were the people who performed the circumcision, he was told that Arabs were the people who performed it. He made announcement throughout his country that if any body from Arabia is found anywhere in his country, he should be produced before him. It was at that very time that Abu-Sufiyan, the then Pagan leader, was in Ailya (Jerusalem) on a business trip, thus he was called to see the king, Hiraclius.
Peace treaty of Hudaibia
In 6th Hijra Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam), who had settled by this time in Madina, signed a peace treaty with the Pagans of Makkah at the historical place of Hudaibia. This treaty played a historical role in the spread of Islâm. Muslims first time got some breathing time to consolidate their position, till then they were always engaged in wars with the Pagans. Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) now sent his ambassadors to various heads of the states with his letters inviting them to the fold of Islâm. Hadhrat Dahya Qalbi (RA), with a similar letter was sent to Hiraclius, who at that time was in Ailya (Jerusalem). When Dahya reached Ailya, Abu Sufiyan was also their that time. Obviously, there was a Divine Hand in assembling all the three i.e., Hiraclius, Dahya Qalbi (RA) and Abu Sufiyan in Ailya at the same time.
Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) sent letters to Heraclius twice.
Relation of Hadith with the title of the chapter
In earlier Ahâdith of this chapter Imâm Bukhari proved the greatness, purity, authenticity and the significance of the Wahy. In this Hadith he wants to show the greatness, truthfulness and the character of the receiver of the Wahy i.e., Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam). In earlier Ahâdith these attributes were stated by Muslims and here in this Hadith these things are confirmed by non Muslims and that too not by the ordinary ones but people like the king of that times biggest empire i.e, Byzantine and that times biggest enemy of Islâm like Abu Sufiyan. Second relation with the Aayat quoted in the title is that Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) was not the first messenger to receive Divine Inspiration but earlier prophets had also invited people towards the unity of Allâh (Tawheed).
DARUL ULOOM ILAHIYAH
INSTITUTE OF ISLAMIC RESEARCH
ILAHI BAGH, BUCHPORA, SRINAGAR, 190011, KASHMIR, INDIA