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Ra'fatul Bri

(Vol - 1)

Sharah Sahih Bukhari

Dr. Rafiq Ahmad

Kitabul Wahy - Chapter 1, Hadith 1 - 6

Contact:- drrafiqahmad@islaminkashmir.org

  Chapter 1 : How did revelation begin upon Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam)
  Hadith No. 1
  Hadith No. 2
  Hadith No. 3
  Hadith No. 4
  Hadith No. 5
  Hadith No. 6
   

Kitbul Wahy

    ( )

 Chapter 1. How did revelation () begin upon Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam), and the statement of Allh (in the Qur'an): "We have sent thee the inspiration, as We have sent it to Noah and Messengers after him." (4:163)

 

Imm Bukhari's unique way of commencing his great Book

The status of Imm Bukhari as an author is so great that most of the learned scholars have admitted that it is beyond comprehension. He is unique in his style and does not seem to follow anyone's footsteps so far as compilation of Sahih al Bukhari is concerned. Usually the authors of Islmic books commence their books with praises of Allh (Hamd) and Durood Sharief on Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam), but Imm Bukhari commenced his book with Bismillah.

A famous Hadith says;

"Any important work which is not started with Bismillah-ir-Rahman-ir-Rahim remains incomplete."

 

Why Imm Bukhari commenced his book with the Chapter on Wahy (Revelation)

The chapter which Imm Bukhari chose as the first chapter of his book again bespeaks of his greatness and depth of vision. Every author of Hadith books (Muhaddith) has commenced his book with the chapter as per as his liking. Imm Muslim has chosen the chapter of Sanad (chain of authentication) as the first chapter of Muslim Sharief indicating thereby the significance of Sanad, because the basis of distinction between truthfulness and falsehood in Sunnah depends upon the Sanad.

Similarly, Imm Tirmidhi and Imm Abu Dawood commenced their books with the chapter on Tahrah and the Masil of Wudhu thereby impressing the fact that the most important deed is Salh and for that Wudhu is a must and the first question that will be asked in the grave will be about Wudhu. Ibn Mjah has commenced his book with the chapter on Ittiba-i-Sunnah (following of Sunnah) indicating thereby the significance of sticking to Sunnah and refraining from Bidat (innovation). Imm Mlik has commenced his book with the chapter on timing of Salh indicating that, since Salh is the most important deed it should be offered in time.

 

Imm Bukhari's selection

In contrast to all other Muhadditheen, Imm Bukhari chose the chapter in accordance with his excellence in knowledge. He conveyed a very significant message by saying that the basis of Deen is dependant on Wahy (Revelation) and that the Wahy is the most reliable thing. For understanding Deen and for developing firm faith and belief in it one has to understand the significance of Wahy. The whole building of Deen is erected on the basis of Wahy.

Allmah Anwar Shah Kashmiri says, By commencing with the chapter of Wahy, Imm Bukhari wants to convey that the connection of bondsman with Allh Tal gets established with the help of Wahy only.

 Scholars of Hadith have been discussing for long as to why Imm Bukari used the title for this chapter in the words of How did the Wahy begin". Allmah Kashmiri says that by choosing these words Imm Bukhari wants to convey how the course of Wahy restarted which had stopped after the period of Hadhrat Eis (AS), what is known as the period of 'Fatrah'. As per him, it is for this reason, the word  Bada is used.

Mawln Syed Fakhr-ud-Din writes: Imm Bukhari intends to convey that the whole basis of Deen is based upon the Wahy, because Deen is not the name of imaginations of people, but it constitutes the commandments of Allh. Without Wahy we cannot know what are the commandments and prohibitions of Allh Tal. Obviously, any common mans statement or some philosopher's opinion cannot be the criteria, because anybodys statement or opinion, whether that be of an individual or majority, is after all the creation of human mind, whose scope is limited. To make human mind criteria for understanding the pleasures and displeasures of Allh is totally wrong. Man wanders in his attainment of knowledge, his eyes can see wrong, he cannot appreciate many fine things, his taste changes and his hearing gets altered." (Eedha-ul-BukhariUrdu commentary of Sahih Bukhari)

The intellect of man has its own limitations, it is based on limited knowledge and often gets fogged by the superstitions and bias. Furthermore, it is so varied in different individuals that it is almost impossible to label someone's intellect asabsolute or superior. The Greek philosophers, so called intellectuals, believed that the intellect was enough to understand the Reality, while as the fact is that the climax of their mental journey ended at one another's refutation. One of them said that the universe has a beginning and the other said no, it has no beginning. One said that the sky is present/existing and other said no, it is only the limit of eyesight that makes us feel it is sky. Most of their statements have been proved wrong by the modern science.

Another faculty for acquiring knowledge is spiritual one, also called mystic experience but this is also usually overshadowed by the lust of Nafs and the cunningness of Shaitn

Therefore, man needs for guidance something which is absolutely reliable and definite and that can only be found nowhere but in Wahy. Allh Tal says:

No falsehood can approach it from before or behind. It is sent down by one full of wisdom, worthy of all praise. (41:42)

This Wahy comes from all-Powerful and all-Knowing Allh Tal, Who is full of wisdom. It was possible that something would happen to it on its way down from Allh Tal to Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam), but one should know that it is well guarded on all sides. No one can get better of it by attacking from before or behind it, openly or secretly, or in any way whatsoever. Allh Tal further says:

() () ()

Verily, this is the word of a most honourable messenger endued with power, held in honour by the Lord of the Throne, with authority there (and) faithful to his trust. (81:19-21)

 Another possibility would have been that the messenger (i.e., Jibraeel AS) would have not been trustworthy. In the above verses this doubt has also been cleared by Allh Tal, saying that the bearer of Allh's Message is not the evil's spirit. Not only was the bearer of the RevelationJibra'eel, an honourable messenger, incapable of deceit, but he had in the angelic kingdom, rank and authority before Allh's Throne, and he had full capability to convey an authoritative Divine Message. He, like the holy Prophet was faithful to his trust, and therefore there could be no question of the Message being delivered in any other way than exactly according to the Divine Will and Purpose.

About the one who received the Wahy

Allh Tal says:

And thou wast not (able) to recite a Book before this (book came), nor art thou (Able) to transcribe it with thy right hand; in that case would the talkers of vanities have doubted. (29:48)

The holy Prophet was not a learned man. Before the Qur'an was revealed to him, he never claimed to announce a message from Allh. He was not in a habit of preaching eloquent truths from the Book (i.e., Qurn), before he received revelation, nor was he able to write or transcribe with his own hand. If he had those worldly gifts, there would have been some plausibility in the charge of the speakers of vanities that he spoke not from inspiration but from other people's books, or that he composed the beautiful verses of the Qur'an himself and committed them to memory in order to recite them to people. The circumstances in which the Qur'an was revealed bears their own testimony to its truthfulness as from Allh. Allh Tal says:

() () () () () () () () () () ()

By the star when it goes down you companion is neither astray nor being misled nor does he say (aught) of (his own) desire. It is no less than inspiration sent down to him. He was taught by One Mighty in Power, endued with wisdom. For he appeared (in stately form) while he was in the highest part of the horizon, then he approached and came closer and was at a distance of but two bow-lengths or (even) nearer, so did (Allah) convey the inspiration to His servant (conveyed) what He (mean) to convey. The (Prophets) (mind and) heart in no way falsified that which he say. (53:1-11)

In these verses Allh Tal testifies that Prophet Muhammad (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) to whom the revelation was sent, has neither gone astray through defect of intelligence or carelessness, nor is being misled by evil spirits. He does not speak out of whim or impulse or from a selfish desire to impress his own personality. None of these charges are true. On the contrary, he has received direct inspiration from Allh.

 

About the revealed thing i.e., Wahy

Allh Tal says:

We have without doubt sent down the message and We will assuredly guard it (from corruption) (15:9)

The purity of the text of the Qur'an through fourteen centuries is a foretaste of the eternal care with which Allh's Truth is guarded through all ages. All corruptions, inventions and accretions passed away, but Allh's Holy Truth never suffered any eclipse even though the whole world mocked at it and were bent on destroying it. This miraculous nature will Qurn will always survive in all ages to come. Allh Tal further says:

() ()

The revelation of this Book is from Allh, The Exalted in Power, full in Wisdom. Verily, it is We, Who have revealed the Book to thee in truth, so serve Allh, offering Him sincere devotion. (39:1-2)

In connection with this revelation two attributes of Allh Tal are mentioned: (1) He is all-Powerful and can carry out His Will in spite of all opposition; and (2) He is full of Knowledge and Wisdom. The first attribute answers those who question how Allh can send revelation to a man; the second explains that the true wisdom consists in carrying out Allh's Will as revealed to us.

In nutshell, Imm Bukhari chose to begin his great book with the chapter on Wahy, conveying thereby the message that for seeking the guidance and for knowing the Reality one necessarily has to follow the Wahy and that this Wahy is the greatest source of guidance and that it is very well guarded. It encompasses all the principles and necessities of guidance. (For details refer Need for Divine Guidance by Dr. Rafiq Ahmad)

 

Reason for selecting the following verse in Tarjamatul Bb

"We have sent thee the inspiration, as We have sent it to Nuh and Messengers after him". (4:163)

By quoting this verse with the title of this chapter Imm Bukhari conveys the message that the Wahy has been the source of guidance all through the history of mankind and that Prophet Muhammad (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) was not the first one to come with something strange in the form of Wahy. All the former Prophets like Nuh (AS) and other have guided the people of their times with the help of Wahy.

Second Message in this verse is that the Qur'an is the last revelation. It is mentioned that the Revelation was sent before Prophet Muhammad (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) but it is not mentioned that it will also be sent after him. Thereby, Imm Bukhari intends to emphasize his selection of the chapter on Wahy as the first chapter of his great book, further impressing his point that it is Wahy and only Wahy which can be the source of assured and dependable guidance.

 

Comments of Hadhrat Sheikh-ul-Hind

Hadhrat Sheikh-ul-Hind said that the Prophets have been sent to this world as spiritual guides. When someone needing guidance is guided, he is first made habitual with little things which are mostly related to the survival of the body so that it (the body) can become able to bear the brunt to be placed on it. Same is the way of guidance of the world. As per, Hadhrat Sheikh-ul-Hind, world is like an elder person (Shakhs-i-Akbar). The period of the world from the time of Hadhrat Aadam (AS) to that of Hadhrat Nuh (AS) is the period of its childhood. There were Divine instructions during the time of Hadhrat Aadam (AS), Hadhrat Sheeth (AS) and Hadhrat Idrees (AS), but they were quite few and were mostly about Takweeniyt (creation bringing) and the reconstruction of the world. For example seeds were sent to Hadhrat Aadam (AS) from the Jannah and he was taught the principles of agriculture, construction of the houses, tailoring etc., and only two Rakats of Salh was obligatory in that period.

 

Period of youth

The  period  of childhood of the world ends with Hadhrat Nuh (AS). After this the second period was that of the youth for, which is called the period of Takleef. During the period of youth the responsibilities increase and to accomplish them the rules, regulations and warning of punishments is required and secondly for the reformation, prolonged time is needed. For this purpose Hadhrat Nuh (AS) was given a very long life so that he could try to change the bestial character of the people with that of angelic one. But the people did not listen to Hadhrat Nuh (AS) and they were finally punished and the punishment was in the form of gigantic flood.

Now here in this verse, the simile has been drawn between Hadhrat Nuh (AS) and Hadhrat Muhammad (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) to relate that there is not much gap between the period of  Hadhrat Nuh (AS) and Hadhrat Muhammad (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) and both are men with Shari'ah. So, what the result of refuting Hadhrat Nuh (AS) was, same can be the result of refuting Hadhrat Muhammad (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam). Hadhrat Nuh (AS) preached the principles of honour and dignity, he was insulted, he invited the people towards the oneness and unity of Allh, he was stoned, he raised the voice of truth, and clothes were forced into his mouth to shut him up. If same things are repeated by you O people of Makkah with Hadhrat Muhammad (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam), then Allh has the power to do what He did with the people before you.

Second aspect of resemblance between the revelation of Hadhrat Nuh (AS) and Hadhrat Muhammad (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) was that it was not like that of Hadhrat Aadam (AS) and Hadhrat Sheeth (AS), as their revelation was mostly related to Takweeniyt and this revelation was mostly Tashree' i.e., containing the explained rules of Shariah. Since it was the period of youth of the world, so the sense of responsibilities was stressed more and the warning of punishment was given for any lapses.

This period of youth was from the time of Hadhrat Nuh (AS) to that of Hadhrat Ibrahim (AS) and reached its full maturity at the time of Hadhrat Muhammad (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam). At the age of full maturity the knowledge becomes solid and the experience quite vast, that is why during the time of Hadhrat Ibrahim (AS) the springs of knowledge sprouted and in no other time were so many philosophers born as were during that time. As such the knowledge kept on progressing and the spirituality continued its journey towards perfection, to which it reached  finally at the time of prophet Muhammad (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam). He was given the special form of revelation (Wahy) and that too with continuity i.e., for 23 years and it is the ultimate form of knowledge and spirituality which is bestowed upon only to such a person who possesses all the qualities of humanity with perfection. World, ever since then, has witnessed the great impact of this Last Revelation towards the mankind and will continue to see its wonders and blessings until the last day.

  TOP

 

Hadith No. 1

 

 

Narrated by Hadhrat Umar bin Al-Khattab (RA)

Hadhrat Umar Bin Al-Khattab (RA) narrates that I heard Allh's Apostle (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) saying:

The reward of deeds depends upon the intentions and every person will get the reward according to what he intended. So whoever emigrated for worldly benefits or to marry a woman, his emigration was what he emigrated for. (Agreed Upon)

 

Relation between the title of the chapter (Tarjamtul Bb) and the Hadith

      Imm Bukhari has named the title of this chapter (Bb) as "How did the Wahy start?  but the first Hadith he mentions under this heading is about the Niyyat (intention). Ulema have given various explanations for this, some say by doing so Imm Bukhari (RA) wants to convey the sincerity of his intention, and thus, asks others also to do so. Ibn Hajar rejects this view by saying that if this had been the case, then he would have got this Hadith before this chapter, that is, at the start of the book. Some people try to correlate Wahy with Hijrah, as the second part of the Hadith is about the Hijrah (Migration). First Hijrah of Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) was from his home to cave Hira and this was the start of the Wahy, and second Hijrah was from Makkah to Madinah and this was the time of the manifestation of the Wahy.

Allmah Kashmiri gives different explanation for this, he says that deeds are related to the Wahy on one side and to the intention on the other side. The Wahy makes a person bound to act upon the commands and prohibitions of Shari'ah and with this intention he performs the deeds.

Allmah Shabir Usmni (RA) writes that by getting this Hadith at the start of the book Imm Bukhari wants to draw the attention towards the utmost sincerity Prophet Muhammad (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) had in his intention with which he stood up in the period of absolute ignorance, idol worshipping and infidelity and changed the face of the history with his firm resolve and purity of intention, thus it was quite proper to get this Hadith at the beginning.

 

Rvi (Narrator of Hadith)Umar ibn al-Khattab

         Umar ibn Al-Khattab (RA) who belonged to Adwi Qarshi clan, is popularly known by the title Farooq which he earned because of very keen and strong skill in differentiating between truth and falsehood (Haq and Btil). He was forty first man to embrace Islm as per one narration and thirty fourth as per another. Prior to his embracing Islm, Muslims because of fear used to worship secretly and once he embraced Islm he asked Muslims to worship openly. Allh Tal revealed the following verse of the Holy Qurn when he embraced Islm:

O Prophet, Sufficient unto thee is Allh and unto those who follow thee among the believers. (8:64)

He became second Khalifah of Muslims after the demise of Hadhrat Abu Bakr Siddiq (RA) in 13th year of Hijrah and was the first to be called as Ameer-ul-Mumineen . Muslim empire expanded far and wide during his Khilfat which lasted for ten and a half years. His justice was so famous that Adl-i-Farooqi , (justice of Umar Farooq) is now used as a proverb. The whole world could not produce an example of that degree of justice till date after his demise. There are five hundred and seventy five Ahdith in Sahih Bukhari and Sahih Muslim which have been quoted from him. He died at the age of sixty three years. May Allh be pleased with him and elevate his rank more and more. Other narrators of this Hadith  are also authentic.

 

Status of Hadith

It is Sahih (authentic) Marfu Muttasil Hadith as all the narrators are authentic. Its chain is continuous right upto Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam). It is said that this Hadith has been quoted through as many as seven hundred chains but it is still called Gareeb () as only one narrator i.e., Hadhrat Umar (RA) narrates it from the first generation of narrators i.e., Sahbah al-Kirm.

 

Comments

Sahih Bukhari is regarded as the most authentic book on earth after Qurn Al-Karim. Imm Bukhari started his great book with this Hadith. This Hadith states that the deeds will not be rewarded as per their external appearances but as per the intentions. If a good deed is done with bad intention, it will not fetch any reward. Intention is the act of Qalb where hypocrisy or Riya does not find a way, whereas the deeds can get infected with hypocrisy. Imm Abu Dawood said that he wrote fifty thousand Ahdith of Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam), from them he selected four Ahdith which he thought were sufficient for ones Deen viz.,

1. Deeds are as per intentions

 

2. "It is part of the excellence of a person's Islm that he should discard that which is of no benefit to him either in this world or in the Hereafter."

3. "Nobody (truly) believes till he loves for his brother what he loves for himself

4. "Hall is evident and Harm is evident."

According to Abu Dawoods this selection, the first Hadith Deeds are as per Intention forms the one fourth of Islm because the fact that deeds can only get better reward when these are based on sincerity and are carried out for the pleasure of Allh and His Messenger (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) alone. Second Hadith  i.e., shunning away the useless and wasteful things forms another one fourth of Islm. Kindness and well wishing for others as is taught in third Hadith forms another part of Islm. Fourth Hadith of Hall and Harm forms another one fourth of Islm which teaches piety (). These four principles of Islm are indeed worth to be written with golden ink.

Niyyat means intention of Qalb. It is not necessary to say it loudly with tongue, if someone says it with tongue and his Qalb is ignorant about it, this type of Niyyat has no value. Having intention in Qalb and saying it with tongue also is better than having intention of Qalb alone. Deeds are dependent upon Niyyat for acceptance by Allh Tal.

 

Deeds are of two kinds viz.,

    1. To act upon the command of Shariah.

    2. To refrain from something as per the command of Shariah.

Both types of these deeds have no value without Niyyat. For example, somebody performs ablution for Salh without Niyyat, as per Imm Abu Haniefah his Salh will be valid (though less in Thawb) and as per other Imms his Salh will not be valid. Similarly, if someone refrains from back-biting (Geebat, ) without Niyyat, it will not fetch him much reward and if he does so due to fear of Allh Tal and punishment in Aakhirah, it will fetch him a lot of reward.

A person gets reward for his deeds proportionate to his Niyyat. For example, somebody gives some money to his relative thinking that he is poor, he will get a reward for it. And if he intends to help him not only because of his poverty but also because of being his relative, he will get double reward for this same deed. Similarly, a person who goes to mosque, can get number of rewards for this one deed only because of different intentions which could be as follows:

Mosque is the house of Allh Tal, so to be there is like being the guest of Allh Tal.

To wait for the congregational Salh. In a Hadith it is said that one who waits for congregational Salh is as good as if he is in Salh.

To sit in mosque so that one can save his eyes, ears and tongue from sins.

To stay in mosque with the intention of Aeti'kaf () for that particular period.

With the intention of sending Durood on Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam).

To sit in mosque with the intention that angels make Dua the one who is engaged in Zikr or Tilawat, and does not indulge in worldly talks as long as he is there.

To come into contact other Muslim brothers.

To enquire about the health of other Muslim brothers.

To help a needy Muslim, if found in the mosque.

These are few intentions with which a person can go to a mosque. Anyone intending all these, will get number of rewards for this single deed and who makes only one intention, will have only one. On the other hand if someone goes to a mosque with this intention that people will consider him a pious man, such a person will likely not get anything in the Aakhirah.

 

Why non believers will remain in hell for ever?

Some people wonder as to why non-believers (Kuffr) will remain in hell for ever when they lived in the world say for sixty or hundred odd years only and did wrong in that little period only. In other words they did wrong deeds only for a little period but are getting everlasting punishment.

The reason for their everlasting punishment is their Niyyat or intention and not their deeds only, that is, if they would have lived in this world for ever their intention was to remain as non-believers for ever. So it is for this Niyyat or intention that they will be given everlasting punishment. On the contrary, Muslims will be given everlasting reward in the form of Jannah, again because of their Niyyat i.e., had they been given a chance to live for ever in this world, they would have lived as believers for ever.

For this reason it is said that intention of a believer is better than his deeds. As quoted by Sheikh Abdul Haq Muhaddith Dehlvi, Ulema have given different reasons for it viz.,

Niyyat without a deed is in itself also a deed. In a Hadith it is stated that when a Mumin makes a Niyyat of some good deed, one Thawb is written for him for his Niyyat only even if he does not execute that deed later on. In another Hadith it is stated that if someone sleeps with this Niyyat that he will get up for Tahajjud prayers and then if he does not get up because of deep sleep, he will still be given Thawb of Tahajjud.

Seat of Niyyat is Qalb and Qalb is the seat of Marifat of Allh Tal. So, the deeds of Qalb will naturally be superior to the deeds of other parts of the body. Sahal bin Abdullah Tastari says that Allh Tal has not created any thing which is more beloved to Him than the Qalb of a Mumin. Therefore, it is very bad of a person who uses this Qalb, which Allh Tal has created for His Marifat, for other cheap mundane things.

Niyyat is better than deeds because Niyyat is everlasting and deeds are not everlasting. People will remain in Hell or Heaven for ever because of Niyyat only.

There is no chance for Riya (Hypocrisy) in Niyyat whereas deeds usually get spoiled because of Riya. It has been reported in some traditions that when angels take the deeds up into the skies, Allh Tal asks them to throw them away. The angels ask Allh Tal, O Allh, these are good words and good deeds of your bondsmen. Allh Tal replies, he had not sought my pleasure with them. On the contrary, Allh Tal commands the angels to write some good deeds in the deed books of certain bondsman, the angels ask with surprise that he has not done these deeds, Allh Tal replies that he had made a Niyyat for it.

Niyyat can be related to many deeds and deeds cannot be related to many intentions.

It is clear that one will get reward if one makes a Niyyat of a good deed even if he does not perform it. Does this rule apply for a bad deeds also? That is, if a person intends to do a bad deed but will not perform it, will he get punishment for this bad intention, which he has not put into action? The Qurn says:

On no soul does Allh place a burden greater than it can bear (2:286)

 

Hadith of Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) explaining this issue

A Hadith also says that bad thoughts which arise in the hearts of the people of this Ummah are forgiven by Allh Tal and these are not to be accounted unless put into practical shape. If a bad intention develops in somebodys heart and then he refrains from putting that into practice because of the fear of Allh Tal, he is likely to get Thawb for that. As per Ibn Hajar, refraining from bad act contributes to Thawb only if one refrains from it because of fear of Allh Tal and makes a Niyyat of it, but without Niyyat there will be no Thawb.

 

Five kinds of thoughts which come in ones mind about a sin

Hjis()  : That bad thought which comes in ones mind involuntarily is called Hjis.

Khatir () : That thought of a sin which one gets voluntarily is called Khatir.

Hadith-i-Nafs ( ) : To have hesitation about a sin whether one should do it or not is called Hads-i-Nafs.

Hum () : After this hesitation if one inclines towards one decision (doing it or not doing it), then it is called Hum.

Azam () : To make firm resolution of doing a deed, is called Azam.

In Shariah first three kinds i.e., Hjis, Khtir and Hadith-i-Nafs are forgiven, there will be no punishment for them. It is amongst the special features of Ummah of Prophet Muhammad (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam). About the 4th kind i.e., Hum, if one decides about a virtue then he will get reward and if one decides about a sin, he will get no punishment. For 5th kind i.e., Azam, learned doctors of Shari'ah believe that on this there will be punishment

Second part of the Hadith illustrates first part by three examples, firstthe Hijrah performed for the sake of Allh Tal, secondthe Hijrah performed for worldly gains, and thirdthe Hijrah performed for marrying a women.

 

Hijrah (Migration) ()

Hijrah in Shariah means to leave ones home and homeland for the sake of Allh Tal and His Messenger (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam)  i.e., to leave ones homeland with the intention that one can live as a true Muslim in a Darul-Islm and can save his Imn (faith) if it is not possible in his native land. Sahbah-al-Kirm performed Hijrah on two occasions. On the first occasion they migrated from Makkah to Habsha and on the second to Madinah when Makkans committed all sorts of atrocities against them and made it very difficult for them to live there as Muslims.

Hijrah is regarded as a great worship in Islm and a great means to gain Allhs pleasure. But only those gain Allhs pleasure whose intention by Hijrah is only His pleasure. In this Hadith, Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) teaches us that even if Hijrah is a great act of worship, if someone does it for worldly gains, he will get no reward for it in Aakhirah.

 

What is Dunya (world)?

There are different opinions about it viz.,

ی ی

Anything that makes one ignorant about Allh Tal is called Dunya.

The word Dunya literally means near. So the world is called Dunya because it is either near to destruction or near to Aakhirah. It is derived from Dana-Yadnu.

In lexical terms, Dunya is antonym of Aakhirah which means that the two cannot go together.

Some say that whatever is present before Aakhirah is Dunya.

Others say that in this Hadith, Dunya means lusts of baser self or Nafs.

 

Why particularisation of women

After mentioning about Dunya in general, Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) highlighted women specifically. There are two reasons for the same. One reason is that this Hadith was stated by him (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) in response to a particular incident, commonly known as incident of Muhjir Ummi-Qais. A person from Makkah wrote a letter to a women namely Ummi-Qais who lived in Madinah that he wanted to marry her. She wrote him back that if he performs Hijrah to Madinah, then only she would marry him. That person performed Hijrah for this lady and married her and got popular by the name of Muhjir Ummi-Qais. When Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam)  heard about it, he stated this Hadith.

Second reason for particularisation of women is that out of worldly things there is a very difficult test for a man in the form of woman. A pious woman is said to be a great blessing for a man as per traditions but the impious one really makes life hell. Akbar Ilaha-abdi says:

ǘ ʪ ی ی

ی ی ی ی

 

Two queries:

How Imn of Abu Talha (RA) embraced Islm

Abu Talha (RA) wanted to marry Ummi Sulaim before accepting of Imn. Umme-Sulaim replied that she would marry him only if he embraces Islm. Abu Talha (RA) embraced Islm and married her. Here a doubt may raise about the Islm of Abu Talha (RA), but the fact is that Abu Talha (RA) had already decided to embrace Islm and he didn't do it only to marry Ummi Sulaim.

 

2.   Why did not Imm Bukhari mention second part of this Hadith

It is well known that the following words are also part of this Hadith, viz.,

ی ی

"One whose migration is for the sake of Allh and His Messenger, so his  migration is for the sake of Allh and His Messenger."

 

Ulema have given different explanations for this viz.,

Imm Bukhari had not received this Hadith with these words. But this explanation is not valid as he has mentioned these words at another place.

Humaidi, the first narrator (Rvi) of this Hadith has not quoted this Hadith with these words to Imm Bukhari, this is also not right.

Some people say that by doing so Imm Bukhari wants to convey that if you do a good deed, do it with good intention and the least you can do is that you should refrain from bad intention as the first part of this Hadith is about migration for the sake of Allh Tal and the second part is for the sake of mundane purposes.

Others say that he has done so due to humility as it would have given an impression that he is claiming of sincerity of his intention.

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Hadith No. 2

   

Al-Harith bin Hisham asked Allh's Apostle "O Allh's Apostle! How is the Divine Inspiration revealed to you?" Allh's Apostle replied, "Sometimes it is (revealed) like the ringing of a bell, this form of Inspiration is the hardest of all and then this state passes off after I have grasped what is inspired. Sometimes the Angel comes in the form of a man and talks to me and I grasp whatever he says." 'Aisha added: verily I saw the Prophet being inspired Divinely on a very cold day and noticed the sweat dropping from his forehead (as the Inspiration was over).

 

Narrators of the Hadith

The title Ummul-Muminneen ( ) is used for the wives of Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) out of reverence and also because they are forbidden for the Ummah (from marrying) forever like a mother.

Second 'Rvi', Hrith bin Hisham, is the brother of Abu Jahal and is amongst the distinguished Sahbah. He asked this question out of curiosity as the Wahy is quite an unusual thing, this question was not out of any doubt.

 

Relation of the Hadith with the title of the chapter (Bb)

This Hadith clearly shows what a great thing the Wahy is, as Hadhrat Aisha (RA) states:

"Verily I saw the Prophet being inspired Divinely on a very cold day and noticed the sweat dropping from his forehead (as the Inspiration was over)".

          Wahy cannot be self cooked. Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam)  tolerated this great weight of Wahy for 23 long years, while Hadhrat Aadam (AS) received the Wahy just ten times, Hadhrat Noah (AS) fifty times, Hadhrat Ibrahim (AS) forty eight times and Hadhrat Eis (AS) ten times. (Fadhlul Bri).

 

Meaning of Wahy

The Arabic word Wahy has many literal meanings viz., to write, to send, what is to be sent, to inculcate, to subjugate, to put some good or bad word in heart, order, intuition or inspiration.

Al-Qurn itself uses the word Wahy in these meanings. Allh says in the Qurn:

So Zakariya came out to his people from his chamber: He told them by signs to celebrate Allhs praises in the morning and in the evening (19:11)

Here the word is used:

And thy Lord taught the Bee to build its cells in hills. (16:68)

"So We sent this inspiration to the mother of Moses: Suckle (thy child). (28:7)

These two verses show that Al-Qurn has not used the word Wahy exclusively for Prophets but also for creatures like bee and non-prophets like mother of Hadhrat Mus (AS).

 

Technical meaning of Wahy in Shariah

Words of Allh revealed to a prophet from among His prophets. (Uloom ul-Qurn, Umdat-ul-Qri)

Allh Tal first created this universe and then created man with the faculties of senses and the intelligence, yet it was impossible for the man to know the Absolute Infinite Reality with the help of these limited faculties. So Allh Tal came to mans rescue by sending His Guidance in the form of Wahy through prophets.

To understand the exact nature of Wahy is just impossible, it was exclusively experienced by prophets of Allh alone. Nobody else can even imagine the exact nature of Wahy.

 

Kinds of Wahy

            One classification is on the basis of recitation viz.,

1.         Wahy-Matloo ( ): That Wahy from Allh which is recited regularly. This term is used for Al-Qurn i.e., Wahy-Matloo is that in which both words and meaning are from Allh.

2.         Wahy Gair-Matloo ( ): That Wahy from Allh to Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) which is not in Al-Qurn and is not recited like Al-Qurn. In this the meaning is from Allh and words are from Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam).

 

Other classification is based on the way of receiving Wahy by Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam).

 

1. Direct speech from Allh

            In this type of Wahy Allh Tal speaks directly to Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam), there is no intermediary like Angels etc. This speech of Allh is not like human speech. This is very difficult for us to understand its real nature. This is considered to be the best form of the Wahy. This type of speech of Allh was heard by Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) during his ascent to the heavens, what is called as Meraj, as is mentioned in the Qurn:

So did (Allah) convey the inspiration to His servant (conveyed) what He (meant) to convey. (53:10)

Allh Tal also talked to Hadhrat Mus (AS) directly.

And to Moses Allh spoke direct.(4:164)

 

2. Wahy through Angels

            In this type of Wahy the revelation is sent to a Prophet through an angel. Either the Prophet listens only the voice of the angel, or angel comes in the shape of human being as Hadhrat Jibraeel (AS) used to come in the guise of Hadhrat Dhahya  Kalbi (RA), a handsome companion of Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam), or rarely the angel would come in his real form to the prophet.

 

3. Wahy through inspiration or dreams

            In this type of Wahy Allh Tal inspires directly in the heart of prophet something which the prophet realises that it is hundred percent Wahy. This can happen while awake or in dream. The dream of a prophet is also a Wahy as Al-Qurn mentions about the dreams of Hadhrat  Yousuf (AS) and Hadhrat Ibrahim (AS):

Behold, Joseph said: To his father: O my father! I did see eleven stars and the sun and the moon: I saw them prostrate themselves to me. (12:4)

 

Methods of Wahy on Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam)

            Hadhrat Aisha (RA) narrates that one day a Sahbi, Hadhrat Hrith bin Hisham (RA) asked Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam), how Wahy comes to him, Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) replied: Sometimes it comes like ringing of a bell and this type of Wahy is toughest for me, and when this process ends, I remember whatever has been said. And sometime an angel comes to me in the form of a man. (Sahih Bukhari)

 

Salsalat-ul-Jaras ( )

            It literally means the ringing of a bell. Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) compared this with the ringing of a bell. It was not because of the fact that it exactly resembled the ringing of bell, then, why was this comparison made? Great Ulema have given different explanations viz.,

i)          To know the exact nature of Wahy is impossible for any body, its actual nature was only experienced by Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam). There were no words to explain its exact nature, that is why Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) explained it with most appropriate words from the sensual world and he (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) found it appropriate to compare it with the ringing of a bell.

ii)         Some Ulema believe that it was the sound of the wings of the angels that produced the sound like that of a ringing bell. (Uloom -Ul-Qurn)

iii)         Imm-ul-Asr Hadhrat Allmah Anwar Shah Kashmiri (RA) while quoting Ibn Arabi (RA) says that it was compared to the ringing of a bell, not because its sound resembled with it, but because it resembled the ringing bell in continuity and secondly as it is difficult to localise the direction of the sound of a ringing bell, so was it difficult to localise the direction of Wahy. Since, it is the word of Allh, Who has no single direction, so is His word without any particular direction. (Faidhul Bri)

             Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) said that this type of Wahy was toughest for him and it was relatively easy for him when the angel used to come with Wahy in the form of a man. Hadhrat Aisha (RA) narrates: I have witnessed descent of Wahy on Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) during very cold days of winter, after the completion of Wahy I used to see lot of sweating on the blessed forehead of Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam). (Sahih Bukhari)

            In other tradition it is mentioned that Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) used to turn pale, ashen grey in colour during descent of Wahy.

            It is reported that once Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam), placed his blessed head on the thigh of Hadhrat Zayd bin Thbit (RA) and descent of Wahy started during that very time, Hadhrat Zayd (RA) felt so much weight on his thigh that he thought it was going to crack.

            Hadhrat Umar (RA) says that when Wahy used to come to Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam), there used to be sounds like those of buzzing of bees around his blessed face. This should not be confused with the earlier Hadith where Wahy has been compared with ringing of a bell, later (ringing of a bell) was experienced by Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) and former i.e., buzzing of bees was experienced by the listeners around, hence no confusion.

 

Descend of angel in human appearance

            In the Hadith of Hadhrat Aisha (RA) mentioned above, the second form of Wahy that has been mentioned is coming of an Angel in the form of a human being. Hadhrat Jibra'eel (AS) used to come usually in the guise of Hadhrat Dhahya Kalbi (RA), most handsome amongst the companions of Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam). In the famous Hadith of Hadhrat Umar (RA), Hadhrat Jibra'eel (AS) came in the form of a stranger whom no Sahbi knew. Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) says that it was the easiest form of Wahy for him.

 

Descend of angel in his actual form

            It is reported that Hadhrat Jibraeel (AS) came in his actual form only three times with the Wahy to Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam). He has six hundred wings and his one wing is enough to spread between whole earth and the heavens.

 

True dreams

            Dreams of prophets are also Wahy. Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) used to receive this form of Wahy even before Prophet-hood. Hadhrat Aisha (RA) says: Wahy got started to Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) in the form of dreams, whatever he used to see in dream, would come true next day like broad day light.

  

Direct speech from Allh

            This type of direct speech from Allh was heard by Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) during his ascent (Meraj) to the heavens. In other tradition, it is mentioned that Allh Tal spoke to Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) once in a dream also.

 

Angels inspiration into the Qalb

            In one tradition it is reported that Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) said:

Jibraeel (AS) once inspired (something) in my Qalb.

            In this form of Wahy, the angel does not come in front but just puts some word in Qalb without being seen. This is a form of intuition or Ilham. Intuition or Ilham of prophets is 100 percent Wahy as compared to intuition or Ilham of other pious people which always has a possibility of falsehood or misinterpretation. It is for this reason that to follow Ilham of prophets is obligatory while as to follow Ilham of others is not.

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Hadith No.  3

     

 

Narrated by Hadhrat Aisha (RA)

Narrated Aisha (the mother of the faithful believers). The commencement of the Divine Inspiration to Allh's Apostle was in the form of good dreams which came true like bright daylight, and then the love of seclusion was bestowed upon him. He used to go in seclusion in the cave of Hira where he used to worship (Allh alone) continuously for many days before his desire to see his family. He used to take with him the journey food for the stay and then come back to (his wife) Khadijah to take his food likewise again till suddenly the Truth descended upon him while he was in the cave of Hira. The angel came to him and asked him to read. The Prophet replied, "I do not know how to read." The Prophet added, "The angel caught me (forcefully) and pressed me so hard that I could not bear it any more. He then released me and again asked me to read and I replied, 'I do not know how to read.' Thereupon he caught me again and pressed me a second time till I could not bear it any more. He then released me and again asked me to read but again I replied, 'I do not know how to read (or what shall I read)?' Thereupon he caught me for the third time and pressed me, and then released me and said, 'Read in the name of your Lord, who has created (all that exists), has created man from a clot. Read! And your Lord is the Most Generous." (96.1, 96.2, 96.3) Then Allh's Apostle returned with the Inspiration and with his heart beating severely. Then he went to Khadijah bint Khuwailid and said, "Cover me! Cover me!" She covered him till his fear was over and after that he told her everything that had happened and said, "I fear that something may happen to me." Khadijah replied, "Never! By Allh, Allh will never disgrace you. You keep good relations with your kith and kin, help the poor and the destitute, serve your guests generously and assist the deserving calamity-afflicted ones."

Khadijah then accompanied him to her cousin Waraqah bin Naufal bin Asad bin 'Abdul 'Uzza, who, during the Pre-Islmic Period became a Christian and used to write the writing with Hebrew letters. He would write from the Gospel in Hebrew as much as Allh wished him to write. He was an old man and had lost his eyesight. Khadijah said to Waraqah, "Listen to the story of your nephew, O my cousin!" Waraqah asked, "O my nephew! What have you seen?" Allh's Apostle described whatever he had seen. Waraqah said, "This is the same one who keeps the secrets (angel Gabriel) whom Allh had sent to Moses. I wish I were young and could live up to the time when your people would turn you out." Allh's Apostle asked, "Will they drive me out?" Waraqah replied in the affirmative and said, "Anyone (man) who came with something similar to what you have brought was treated with hostility; and if I should remain alive till the day when you will be turned out then I would support you strongly." But after a few days Waraqah died and the Divine Inspiration was also paused for a while. Jbir bin 'Abdullah Al-Ansri describes the period of pause in revelation reporting the speech of the Prophet "While I was walking, all of a sudden I heard a voice from the sky. I looked up and saw the same angel who had visited me at the cave of Hira sitting on a chair between the sky and the earth. I got afraid of him and came back home and said, 'Wrap me (in blankets).' And then Allh revealed the following Holy Verses (of Qur'an):

'O you (i.e. Muhammad)! wrapped up in garments! Arise and warn (the people against Allh's Punishment),...' up to 'and desert  the idols.' (74.1-5)

After this the revelation started coming  strongly, frequently and regularly."

 

Comments

The comments on this Hadith have been taken from the lesson on Bukhari Sharief by Hadhrat Mawln Masihullah Khan Sahib Jallabadi (RA)

 

Status of the Hadith

The narrator of this Hadith is Hadhrat Aisha (RA) and it is well known that she was not present at the time when Wahy started, but this does not affect the status of this Hadith as it is quite possible that she must have heard it from Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam), so this Hadith would be Marfu-Hukmi.

 

Dream of a Nabi is also Wahy

For achieving excellence in a certain field, we need to understand few basic points viz.,

Achieving excellence is inherent in man.

For achieving par excellence two things are needed, viz., a) To fulfill the prerequisites.  b) To get the hurdles removed.

To provide the congenial atmosphere and related necessities.

To develop the relation with the thing from which benefit is to be obtained.

Gradual and steady progress towards the goal.

Allh Tal had destined to post Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) at the highest possible point of excellencethat is prophethood () and that too the seal of prophethood ( ). There can be no excellence greater than this. Man is constituted of two parts, one is the body which is materialistic in nature and other is the soul which is non materialistic in nature. So, there are two types of excellences, one is bodily excellence of  materialistic nature and the other is spiritual in nature. It is quite clear that the spiritual excellence is far superior than the materialistic excellence and the prophethood is the best spiritual excellence. It is the topmost point where mankind can reach and that was destined for Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam).

The Wahy is all spiritual and non materialistic in nature and to reach this point of spirituality one needs to pass through some intermediary stages. For this one has to come out  from the materialistic world and come nearer to the spiritual world and then from this the gradual sequential process of progress is necessary so that one would develop the relation with the spiritual world. It is for this purpose that initially the process of good dreams was started for Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) which came true like bright daylight. The contact with the world ceases while sleeping and it is during this state of sleep that Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam)  was initially made familiar with the spiritual world and gradually prepared to bear the weight of the Wahy.

 

Question: Wahy comes after Prophethood, how did it start before Prophethood in the form of good dreams

 

Answer: The prophethood was existing in the essence of Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) from eternity (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam). It is narrated in one Hadith:

"I was Nabi when Aadam was still in-between water and clay.

According to this Hadith, the prophethood of Rasulullah was hidden before its formal announcement, so the Wahy was also sent in the hidden form of good dreams. After the announcement of prophethood, Wahy was also sent in a manifested form. It is mentioned in a Hadith that good dreams constitute 46th part of the prophethood.

The Wahy came to Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) for 23 years and the duration of the period of good dreams( )  before prophethood was 6 months. Six months constitute the 46th part of 23 years.

 

Good dreams came true like dawn

The good dreams were compared with broad day light because these were not like usual dreams which are generally due to erroneous thoughts but these were the true dreams which used to come true next day like the broad day light. Secondly, the reason for using the word dawn is to convey the message that as the dawn comes after the night and shatters the darkness, so was the job of the Wahy to shatter the darkness of ignorance from the world. Thirdly, when one watches the light of dawn, one feels solace and happiness, likewise Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) used to find solace after receiving the Wahy.

 

What is the world of dreams

There are three Aalams (worlds ) viz.,

Aalam-i-Amr ( )

Aalam-i-Mithl  ( )

Aalam-i- Dunya  ( )

 

Aalam-i-Amr

Aalam-i-Amar is the world of incorporeal beings (). The things of this world do not possess any kind of shape or quantity, but consist of mere essence ( ), this is also called the Aalam-i-Haqiqat ( ). The other name of this Aalam is Aalam-i-Gaib      ( ), because the things of this Aalam remain hidden from the eyes.

 

Aalam-i-Mithal

This is the second Aalam after the Aalam-i-Amar. Here also the things are not materialistic in nature but are quantitative in nature i.e., they have length and breadth, like the images in the mirror. This Aalam is midway between the other two Aalams like the world of dreams, it is also called the Aalam-i-Barzakh ( ). One can have an idea about this Aalam through the experience of dreams.

 

Aalam-i-Dunya

This is the world which is materialistic in nature, hence visible, it is also called the Aalam-i-Shahood ( ). The shapes and meanings of things in the last two mentioned worlds are different, for example, if milk is seen in dream, it means knowledge.

The existence of the things first take place in the Aalam-i-Mithl and then in this world. It is for this reason that Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam)  was first shown the things of Aalam-i-Gaib in dreams, which used to come true like broad day light the next day. This created an urge in him to concentrate more and more towards the Aalam-i-Gaib and also to remain away from the impurities of this materialistic world. Thus, he was ascended higher and higher on the spiritual ladder till the day came when he reached the point of par-excellence and the angel Jibra'eel (AS) came with the manifested Wahy.

 

Seclusion in the cave of Hira ()

We have seen that initially Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) was made inclined towards the spiritual world through dreams as during sleep the attachments with the material world ceases. Secondly, seclusion was made very dear to him for the very same reason that one can concentrate more on spiritual world and the materialistic worldly distraction is minimum in seclusion. So, this concentration towards the spiritual world was firstly introduced through dreams while in sleep and secondly it was further reinforced in seclusion while being awake.

 

Why cave Hira was selected for seclusion

Ulema have given different reasons for this, viz.,

Grand father of Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) had used cave Hira for seclusion, so there was family background for it.

Previous Prophets had also used this cave for seclusion, so, their was spiritual linkage as well.

Third reason could be that from cave Hira Khnah Kabah is directly seen. To mention, it is in itself an act of worship to only seeing Khnah Kabah.

Fourth reason was that cave Hira is neither too far away nor too near from Makkah al-Mukarramah, it is just 3 kilometres from Makkah Al-Mukarramah. It was not easy for others to go there from Makkah and disturb Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) there, but at the same time it was not very far off as well. People of Makkah knew the whereabouts of Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) and they also knew that nobody else is coming to cave Hira to see him there, which they could have exploited later on against him by saying that whatever he is saying, he has learnt it from someone or that they could say that since he had gone to some far off place, it is possible that he might have learnt it there, so both these things were taken care of by the Divine guidance.

 

Significance of seclusion

Seclusion has many spiritual benefits, viz.,

It helps in enlightening and cleaning the Qalb, thus making it possible to function like a mirror and become the place for Divine enlightenment and inspiration. It has been the way of Prophets and is important for attaining the spiritual excellence.

 

Does seclusion mean shunning away the world (i.e., Rahbniyat)

The answer is "No"this means that the Prophetic seclusion is altogether different from Rabniyat. This issue is clearly evident from this Hadith as Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) did not leave his family or society permanently, nor did he forget his rights and duties towards his family and the society. He (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) first made all the necessary arrangements for his family, informed them about his whereabouts, opted to remain in seclusion at a near place where he could be easily approached by his family in case of any dire need and further he visited his family after short intervals of time. He (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) took necessary food stuffs along with him unlike those ignorant so called Sufis who say that they do not need food etc. as it is against Tawakkul. This Hadith teaches the method, purpose and the etiquettes of seclusion.

 

Seclusion is for beginner only

Seclusion is important for the beginner only as Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) used to remain in seclusion in the beginning only and not in his later life. The beginner does not have the control over his baser self and gets easily influenced by the worldly distractions. After gaining control over the baser self and consistency and steadfastness in the spirituality one has to remain active in the society fulfilling all the obligations towards mankind.

 

Type of worship in cave Hira before prophethood

Here the question arises as to what type of worship Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam)  used to do in cave Hira before Prophethood? The learned scholars of Islm have given various answers to this question, viz.,

Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) used to recite the names of  Allh.

Though the Wahy had not started but Allh had inspired the way of worship in the heart of Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam).

He (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) was worshipping as per the Shariah of  Ibrahim (AS)  (Tyseerul Qri)

 

The truth descended upon him

It means that Angel Jibra'eel (AS) came to Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) with the Wahy. It happened on the seventeenth day of the month of Ramadhan.

 

The angel asked him to read

 The Angel came and asked him to read. The Prophet replied, "I do not know how to read". Did the Angel present some document to the Prophet which he asked him to read? It is mentioned in some narration that the Angel  presented  a written thing which was written on a piece of  Dheeba (tissue  brocade, silk).

The second explanation given by the Ulema is that by saying "read" the Angel asked Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) to repeat the same words which he (the Angel) would say and it did not mean to read from any document.

Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) said:  "I do not know how to read."

Hadhrat Shaikh-ul-Hind (RA) says that Jibra'eel (AS) had come to inform Rasulullah  (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) the purpose of his life, but at that very moment he (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) was greatly under the influence of  the sense of bondsmanship ( ), it is well known that more stronger the sense of bondsmanship, more and more one feels the sense of humility. At this very moment Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) was feeling extreme humility because of the bondsmanship, so out of that humility he said that he does not know how to read. He was not aware of his qualities and status at that time. At this stage to get one out of the state of humility and to make him concentrate on a higher point, it is needed to get the attention diverted from all other things and make him to concentrate on one particular point. This can be achieved initially by putting mental pressure, as  was  done by Jibra'eel (AS) by coming suddenly and straightway asking Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) to read, but this was not enough to get the attention of Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) diverted from his position of bondsmanship, he continued with his statement that he did not know how to read.

 

The angel holds and presses Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) forcefully

Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) said "The angel caught me (forcefully) and pressed me so hard that I could not bear it any more. He then released me and again asked me to read, I replied, 'I do not know how to read"

Jibra'eel (AS), by the Divine command, wanted to inspire the spiritual power into the heart of Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam). There are various ways to do so, viz.,

 

1. Inaksi ((Reflective

 In this method the Sheikh, (man with the spiritual power) sits in the company of his students and this way they feel the effects of his spirituality in their hearts. These effects last as long as the students are in the company of their Sheikh and vanish as soon as the students leave his Majlis. It is like one sitting with a person who has used scent, would feel the fragrance as long as one sits with that person.

 

2. Ilqee ()Inspirational

In this method the Sheikh enlightens the heart of his student by his own hearts enlightenment,. Afterwards it is the job of the student to preserve that enlightenment. It is like a person who lights his candle with the candle of other person and to keep that candle glowing is the job of that person.

 

3. Islhi ()Reformative

In this method the Sheikh reserves good amount of the enlightenment of his heart (Qalb) for his student but releases it for him gradually stepwise. First of all his morals would be corrected and then he will be taken ahead in stepwise fashion. The effects of this method are more lasting than the first two methods. It is like a big reservoir from where the water flows through small canals. The small bits of grass etc. will not obstruct the flow of water through these small canals but if some big object comes in the way, it would definitely stop the water flow. Similarly, small sins will not effect this type of benefit to the student from his Sheikh but the bigger sins would definitely do that.

 

4. Itihdi ()To superimpose

In this method the Sheikh brings his soul near to the soul of the student and adds his spiritual excellences to the soul of his student. This is the strongest method of imparting spirituality to other person. It was this method which was used by Jibra'eel (AS) here. The idea was to make the spiritual status of Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam), which he already possessed, manifest. Here Jibra'eel (AS) was just like a mirror for Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam). He (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam)  saw his image and power in the mirror of Jibra'eel (AS). First Jibra'eel (AS) approached him and diverted his attention towards the higher spiritual stage by asking him to read. Then Jibra'eel (AS) physically embraced him and pressed very forcefully in order to strengthen his spiritual power. After doing this once Jibra'eel (AS) asked him to read, Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) again repeated the earlier answer that he did not know how to read. Then Jibra'eel (AS) again caught him and pressed very forcefully and then again asked him to read and Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) again repeated the earlier answer that he did not know how to read. Thereupon Jibraeel (AS) caught Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam)  for the third time and pressed him again, and then released him and said:

() ()

"Read in the name of your Lord, who has created (all that exists) has created man from a clot. Read! And your Lord is the Most Generous. (96:1-2)

At this point Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) realised that he had the requisite strength needed to bear the weight of the Wahy, which the heavens and the earth had refused to accept. After pressing three times Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam)  realised his potential and Jibra'eel (AS) told him to read in the name of the Rabb (Lord) who brought up Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam), provided him all nourishment and other providence. When Allh has done these things for you, O Muhammad (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam), why can't He make you read and provide all that you need for this great job. Allh is One Who created man from a worthless thinga clot. He is the One Who gave tongue to a non living thing like pen, see how He made this piece of matter (pen) a great means of spreading knowledge. When He can do this why can't He bestow you with the best of knowledge. So, read with His name". Hearing these verses Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) started reciting these verses.

 

Importance of knowledge in Islm

We have seen that the Wahy started with the word()  "Read". Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) was worshipping and meditating in the Cave Hira for quite some time, but Allh Tal sent Jibra'eel (AS) with the Wahy and asked Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) to read. From this one can easily understand the importance of learning in Islm that it has been started with the word Iqra.

 

Two things needed for acceptance of worship

Ikhls ()

Knowledge of Shari'ah

For any worship to be accepted by Allh, two things are necessary, one is extreme sincerity but we have to know that only sincerity is not enough, one has to have the knowledge of Shari'ah. We need to understand that none of us can be more sincere than Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam), but he also is being told by Allh Tal to learn Shari'ah. Only the worship which is as per Shariah is acceptable to Allh. The ignorant and the self-styled Sufis should learn from this a lesson that worship without proper knowledge is not reliable. So acquiring the proper knowledge of Shari'ah is mandatory on every Muslim.

 

First five verses of the Qurn

'Read in the name of your Lord, who has created (all that exists).

Wahy has been started with the word  () "Read, we  have seen the importance of learning in Islm. When Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) was asked by the angel to read, he, out of humility, said that he did not know how to read. Afterwards the angel told him to read in the name of that Being Who was his  Creator and Nourisher. Here first the word () Ismname is mentioned and then two attributes of Allh i.e., Rabb () and  Khliq ().

 

Reason for using the word () Ismname

There is a tremendous gap between the Creator () and the creation (). It is impossible for the created one to comprehend the Creator directly. The Creator is eternal (Qadeem (  and  the creation is occurring (Hdith (. The creation could get the Marifat (Knowledge) of the Creator through either His attributes () or through His names (). Since His attributes are also eternal (Qadeem), so again it was not possible to comprehend them directly. So names of  the attributes () were made the link between the Creator and the creation. These names possess the effects of the attributes and thus are of great importance in the path of attaining the spiritual knowledge.

 

Why the attributes Rabb and Khliq have been mentioned here first

By mentioning the attribute Rabb (Cherisher and Sustainer) Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) was told that as Allh has provided him all his nourishment and other providence, "O Muhammad  (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam), why can't He make you read and provide all that you need for this great job". Secondly by mentioning the attribute of Khliq (Creator), the attention of Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) was drawn towards the fact that Allh, by way of being Khliq, can create things from the state of nothingness, so, why can't He make him (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) read despite of him being illiterate.

 

Has created man from a clot ( )

After mentioning the attributes of Rabb and Khliq, the attention of Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) is being drawn towards the origin of man. See, how We have created the best creation i.e., man from a dirty drop of water and through what stages he has to go before attaining the final shape and status.

 

Read! And your Lord is most Generous ( )

Before the revelation of these verses we have seen that Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) was overwhelmingly under the influence of sense of bondsmanship ( ) i.e., humility. By means of these verses, his attention is diverted from this humility towards the Exaltedness of Allh ( ). When Allh can create a perfect human being from a clot, why can't He provide him (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) all things needed for this great job of Prophethood. After this, Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) is being told to start recitation while keeping in view the Generosity of Allh Tal, Who is not only his Rabb and Khliq but Who is also very very Generous.

  In this narration, Imm Bukhari has mentioned only three verses of Surah Iqra, when it is well known with authenticity that five verses were revealed first time by Jibra'eel (AS) in Cave Hira. Imm Bukhari himself has mentioned these five verses at other place in Sahih Bukhari and Imm Muslim has also mentioned these in Sahih Muslim.

 

Then Allhs apostle returned with the inspiration and severe heart beating (   )

Receiving the Wahy first time was greatly unusual and strange event for Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam), he returned home with this inspiration while his heart was palpating fast. He went to Khadijah bint Khuwailid (RA) and said:

"Cover me! Cover me!"

Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) went to his wife Hadhrat Khadijah (RA) and narrated the whole incident to her and asked her to cover him and she covered him with a blanket.

"I fear that something may happen to me."

These are the words he (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) told Hadhrat  Khadijah (AS).

Now the question here is as to why did he (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) fear something like that to his life after this experience? Learned scholars have given different explanations to this question, viz.,

Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) experienced great pressure, both physical as well as spiritual, when Jibra'eel (AS) pressed  him hard. There was super-imposition of angelic spirituality over the human nature, this really is a matter of great stress and strain for a human being.

Past tense has been used in this sentence, so, it would mean that Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) got this apprehension about his life when Jibra'eel (AS) pressed him very hard. At such an occasion one feels as if his body is giving way.

The effect of this Divine word was such that Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) got this feeling.

Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) understood the seriousness and greatness of this job and also foresaw the difficulties that were essential for such a great  job.

The sense of responsibility also begets some fear and it is directly proportional to the greatness of the responsibility, greater the responsibility, greater is the feeling of fear.

To be struck with fear at such an occasion is human, it is only the Essence of Allh Tal which does not get influenced by anything. Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) was very much a human, Mus (AS) was also struck with this fear out of human nature when he was told to grab his stick that had changed into a snake.

Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) wanted to get the sympathy of his wife Khadijah (AS).

Khadijah (RA) replied:

"Never! By Allh, Allh will never disgrace you. You keep good relations with your kith and kin, help the poor and the destitute, serve your guests generously and assist the deserving calamity-afflicted ones."

Such a great answer bespeaks volumes about the greatness of the wisdom, maturity and the vision, this great lady i.e., Hadhrat Khadijah al-Kubra (RA) possessed. See, how she consoles Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam). In Islm ladies are very much  respected and they have always played a great  role in all spheres of life. The great conviction of Hadhrat Khadijah (RA) is depicted in these words which she uttered about the righteousness of Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) and also the firm faith she had in Allh Tal and as such she became the first lady to accept the truthfulness of Wahy and Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam), thus was the first to become a Muslim.

"Never! By Allh, Allh will never disgrace you. You keep good relations with your kith and kin".

With great conviction and authenticity Hadhrat Khadijah (RA) told Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) that Allh will never disgrace him as she fully knew the piety, truthfulness and extreme sincerity of Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam). She was convinced that one who does good to those on earth, receives the same treatment from the One Who is in the heavens, i,e., Allh Tal. She told Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam)  that as he was showing kindness to his relatives, Allh will also show His kindness to him. It is said that near-ones are like scorpions    ( ). One often faces problems from near-ones, even on trivial things they often get angry and start using bad remarks. Sometimes there are financial matters, sometimes marital, sometimes about inheritance and sometimes family pride is the cause for animosity. So, to show persistent patience along with goodwill and kindness in response to all the harms one receives from one's relatives is really a great piece of morality. It is certain that anyone possessing such great morals will not be left alone and unrewarded by the All-knowing and All-powerfulAllh Tal.

 

Help the poor and destitute ( )

Hadhrat Khadijah (RA) then mentioned another great moral character of Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam). Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) used to help needy and destitute. He (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) would lift the load of weak people who were unable to lift it. He (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam)  would take care of those who had no care-takers. He (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) would feed the starving ones. By mentioning such qualities of Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam), Hadhrat Khadijah (RA) wanted to convey that when Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) was taking so much pains about the people, who are like the family of Allh ( ) how was it possible that Allh would leave him alone.

 

Serve your guests generously ( )

This is another great moral character one can have, that is to honour the guests and serve them generously. Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) not only used to help the poor and needy but also would take great pains to make his guests comfortable. It has always been the habit of noble people and this character of man is very much liked by Allh.

 

Lessons from this speech of Hadhrat Khadijah (RA) as per Mullah Ali Qri (R)

Good characters beget peace and safety.

Praising some one at some occasions is permissible.

Praiseworthy  words can be used for consolation.

This speaks of Hadhrat Khadijah's (RA) great thinking and deep insight.

Poverty of Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) was voluntary.

These great moral characters were inherent in Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) even before prophethood as he  was sent for the purpose to take these good morals to the highest standard.

 

Waraqah bin Naufal bin Asad bin Abdul Aziz

He was an old man who had turned blind and was the cousin of Hadhrat Khadijah (RA). His genealogy and that of Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) was also meeting at some higher point in higher hierarchy. He had accepted Christianity and was a great scholar of Injeel. He was also a great scholar of Ibrani and Arabic languages. He was able to write Injeel in Ibrani. It is not known with certainty as to what was the original language of Injeel, some say it was written in Suryani (Syrian language) and others say it was in Ibrani language. These days only translations of injeel are available. These translations are not of real injeel but of some sayings written by companions of Hadhrat Eis (AS), yet others say that these were written after the period of companions (Hawariyeen) of Eis (AS). The Church continued to do additions and alterations to it ever since then. Mawln Rahmatullah Kairanwi proved this thing, with the help of a copy of Bible (which was printed in England) in a historical debate with priest Funderheld at Agra, India. Mawln Rahmatullah Kairanwi has written about it in detail in his book Idhr-ul Haq.

In earlier times, to write Divine books was a routine but learning a Divine book by heart is the distinction with Al-Qur'an only.

 

When your people will turn you out

Waraqah wished to be alive until the time when Makkans will drive Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) out of Makkah. By, saying so, Waraqah became the first man to testify the truthfulness of the prophethood of Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) but he is not counted amongst the Sahbah (companions of Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam). The first believe (Mumin) from amongst the men is believed to be Abu Baker (RA) and first lady to embrace Islm is Hadhrat Khadijah (RA). Sheikh-i-Akbar (R) gives the explanation as to why Waraqah is not counted amongst Sahbah. He says that there is difference between Nubuwat and Rislat. Waraqah only testified the Nubuwhat of Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam), as by that time Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) had not got Rislat which he got after the period of Fatrat when the Surah Muddathir was revealed. Waraqah died during the period of Fatrat and could not see Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) when he started inviting peopled to Islm.

Hadhrat Khadijah (RA) took Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) to him after he narrated the incident of Cave Hira to her. Waraqah asked Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam)  about the incident and he narrated it to him. Waraqah told him that it was same  the Namoos which  had  come  to  Mus .

 

Namoos ()

Namoos means the one who knows the secrets like the word. Jasoos (spy) is used for one who knows the secrets but the difference is that Namoos is used for one who knows the righteous secrets and Jasoos for one who knows the evil secrets. Here Namoos means Jibra'eel (AS) as he came with the Wahy to the prophets as we know that Wahy is the secret of Allh which He  sends to His prophets.

 

Why Waraqah being a Nasrani mentioned Mus (AS) instead of Eis (AS)

Waraqah told Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam)  that this was same Namoos who used to come to Mus. Here Ulema have discussed as to why did Waraqah mentioned Mus (AS) and not Eis (AS). Various reasons stated are:

Mus (AS) faced lot of difficulties from his people, so by mentioning Mus, Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) was given a hint that he also might face such difficulties.

The prophethood of Mus (AS) was more famous than that of Eis (AS) as Mus (AS) was accepted by both Christians as well as Jews unlike Eis (AS) who was accepted by Christians alone.

The Shari'ah of Mus (AS) was more similar to that of Shari'ah of Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam).

 

Will they drive me out

Why did Rasulullah feel surprised when Waraqah told him that his people would force him to leave his home-place? For Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) it was difficult to imagine that his own people could do such a thing with him at any point of time, because he was so far loved and respected by his people. They considered him as the most trustworthy and he belonged to a respectable family in the whole Arab. He used to help all needy, weak and poor people.

Waraqah told Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam)  that every prophet whosoever came with the message of Allh, was opposed and teased by his people.

 

Divine inspiration paused for a while

After this incident of first arrival of Wahy, the Divine Inspiration was also paused for a while. This period is known as the period of Fatrah. As per the authentic reports this period is said to have lasted three years. (Musnand Ahmad)

Learned scholars say that this pause was:

To develop the capability for tolerating this heavy burden of Wahy in Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam).

To give Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) time to think over the revealed verses.

To increase curiosity for the inspiration, as one forgets the discomforts which are  associated with a thing which one craves for. Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) was craving for the Wahy during this period of pause. His thirst for this was so intense that at times he would go on mountain top thought to  fall down from there, but a voice from the skies, saying," O Muhammad! you are definitely the prophet of Allh, stopped him. This voice that was from Jibra'eel (AS) would give him solace. Angel Jibra'eel (AS) didnt come to him during this  period with the Wahy, but it is narrated that angel Israfeel (AS) was posted by Allh Tal with him during this period.

 

Finally the period of Fatrah ended

Finally the restlessness caused by this prolonged pause came to an end.

Jbir bin 'Abdullah Al-Ansri (RA) narrated about the period of pause in revelation reporting the speech of the Prophet "While I was walking, all of a sudden I heard a voice from the sky. I looked up and saw the same angel who had visited me at the cave of Hira sitting on a chair between the sky and the earth. I got afraid of him and came back home and said, 'Wrap me (in blankets).' And then Allh revealed the following Holy Verses (of Qurn):

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'O you (i.e. Muhammad)! wrapped up in garments! Arise and warn (the people against Allh's Punishment),...' up to 'and desert  the idols.' (74.1-5)

After this the revelation started coming strongly, frequently and regularly. The same is mentioned in the Qur'an in Surah Tawkeer. It was the second time when Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam)  saw angel Jibra'eel (AS) in his real form. The third time when Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) saw angel Jibra'eel (AS) in his real form was during the famous incident of Me'raj (Ascent).

When Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) was under the cover of the garments, the inspiration came to him, now it was Surah Muddathir of the Qur'an which was revealed, calling  him 'O you (i.e. Muhammad)! wrapped up in garments. With this Surah, Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) got the Rislat, as now he was asked to invite people to Islm. When first verses of Surah Iqra were revealed, that time he got the Nubuwat and when Surah  Muddathir was revealed, he got the Rislat.

Now Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) is being told to leave the blanket and come out and guide the people to the right path. Now is the time to preach and warn the people about the chastisement they are likely to get if they don't shun away infidelity and shirk. Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) is being told to educate the people about the Oneness of their Lord and His Greatness. He is so Great that there is no chance for Him to have any partner, He alone is worthy of  worship. At the beginning of the Nubuwat of Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam), the world was full of kufr and shirk, so here only the attribute of  Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) of being the Warner is mentioned and not the attribute of being Bashir. Avoiding sins is more important than performance of good deeds, as the former begets the wrath of  Allh and latter begets Thawb. To save oneself from the wrath of Allh is more important than getting Thawb.

For understanding the Greatness of Allh and the importance of Unity of Allh, one needs to have clean body and soul. If the mind is filled with the filth of kufr and shirk, and body and clothes are stained with the external filth, such a person cannot think of understanding the purity of Islm.

It was during the darkness of infidelity that light of inspiration dawned on Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) in dreams and finally one day the sun of the prophethood rose and the darkness started fading away. As the sun goes on rising, its heat goes on increasing. Similarly, the heat of the light of inspiration went on  increasing without any pause.

 

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Hadith No.  4

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Narrated by Hadhrat Syed bin Jubair (RA)

Ibn 'Abbas in the explanation of the statement of Allh. "Move not your tongue concerning (the Quran) to make haste therewith." (75.16) said "Allhs Apostle used to bear the revelation with great trouble and used to move his lips (quickly) with the Inspiration." Ibn 'Abbas moved his lips saying, "I am moving my lips in front of you as Allh's Apostle used to move his." Sayd moved his lips saying: "I am moving my lips, as I saw Ibn 'Abbas moving his." Ibn 'Abbas added, "So Allh revealed 'Move not your tongue concerning (the Qur'an) to make haste therewith. It is for us to collect it and to give you (O Muhammad) the ability to recite it (the Qur'an)' (75.16-17) which means that Allh will make him (the Prophet) remember the portion of the Qur'an which was revealed at that time by heart and recite it. The Statement of Allh: 'And 'when we have recited it to you (O Muhammad through Jibraeel) then you follow its (Qur'an) recital' (75.18) means 'listen to it and be silent. Then it is for Us (Allah) to make it clear to you' (75.19) means 'Then it is (for Allh) to make you recite it (and its meaning will be clear by itself through your tongue). Afterwards, Allh's Apostle used to listen to Gabriel whenever he came and after his departure he used to recite it as Gabriel had recited it."

 

Comments

Hadhrat Syed bin Jubair (RA) asked Hadhrat Abdullah bin Abbas (RA) about the verse (75.16-19) of the Qur'an. Abdullah bin Abbas (RA) is known as the chief of commentators of the Qur'an. Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) had offered Dua for him, "O Allh, give him (Abdullah bin Abbas) the knowledge of the Book i.e., Al-Quran.  So,  his comments on any verse of the Qur'an are taken as the most authentic. He says that when Jibra'eel (AS) used to come with the Wahy, Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) would feel lot of stress and strain, one was due to weight of the Wahy and second was the curiosity to learn and recite it with Jibra'eel (AS) and thus memorising it with the apprehension that he  might forget it after Jibra'eel (AS) will leave or he might not be able to memorise it fully. This feeling of apprehension was producing lot of discomfort for him. On this Allh Tal, directed Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) not to be in hurry to memorise it and not to worry about forgetting it. Allh Tal promises him directly and in clear words that it was His word and that He has taken it upon Himself to save it in his (i.e., Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam)) memory and to teach him the meaning of the revealed verses..

 

Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) used to exert much to retain Wahy

  Yu'liju means to take lot of pains to obtain something.  Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) had to exert too much whenever Wahy used to come to him (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam). To keep pace with the angelic power of Jibra'eel (AS) in recitation was itself quite heavy on Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam).

 Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) used to move his lips quickly while reciting the verses of the Qur'an with Jibra'eel (AS) in order to quickly memorise them. Ibn Abbas (RA) told Syed bin Jubair (RA) that he would show him the way Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) used to move his lips and Ibn Abbas  moved his lips. when Syed bin Jubair (RA) narrated this Hadith, he also showed his students the way he saw Ibn Abbas (AS) moving his lips.

 

Correlation between preceding and succeeding verses of Surah al-Qiymah (75:1-19)

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"I do call to witness the Resurrection Day; And I do call to witness the self-reproaching spirit; (eschew Evil). Does man think that We cannot assemble his bones? Nay We are able to put together in perfect order the very tips of his fingers. But man wishes to do wrong (even) in the time in front of him.He questions: "When is the Day of Resurrection?" At length when the Sight is dazed. And the moon is buried in darkness. And the sun and moon are joined together That Day will Man say "Where is the refuge?" By no means! No place of safety! Before thy Lord (alone) that Day will be the place of rest.That Day will man be told (all) that he put forward and all that he put back. Nay man will be evidence against himself Even though he were to put up his excuses. Move not thy tongue concerning the (Qur'an) to make haste therewith. It is for Us to collect it and to promulgate it: But when We have promulgated it follow thou its recital (as promulgated): Nay more it is for Us to explain it (and make it clear) (75:1-19)

Before and after these verses, the things about the day of judgement are mentioned but here in these verses Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) is being  told not to move his tongue in haste that apparently seems to be out of place. Ulema have given various explanations about this viz.,

   The Qur'an is the word of Almighty Allh. Its pattern is unique and it is not like the way worldly authors write their books. Allh is the most Merciful and Benevolent for the mankind. It was out of this Merciful and Benevolent nature that Allh Tal directed Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) not to be in haste so as to memorise the Wahy. It is like a kind teacher who admonishes a student during the course of his lesson if he sees that the student is not doing the needful.

Allh Tal sees the requirements of the  Bondsman and acts accordingly, He is not bound by things like sequence of sentences etc. It is like a father who while talking to his child, admonishes him in between if he sees him doing something say while eating.

These things explain the view that there is no correlation of these verses with the preceding and succeeding verses, but Ulema have given various explanations to show the correlation of these verses with preceding and succeeding verses.

  In the preceding verses Allh Tal says that the man will be asked on the day of judgement what he postponed and what he preponed. It is in itself a sin for a man to postpone a thing to which he was supposed to give priority or prepone a thing which he was supposed to do later.

In the same way Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam)  is being told here that when Wahy is being revealed to him, he should quietly to it and to memorise and understand it is to be done afterwards and for that also he is not supposed to worry as Allh Himself will ensure that these things get secured in the blessed Qalb of Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam).

Secondly, Allh Tal in the preceding verses says that He (i.e., Allh Tal) is All-powerful and capable of reassembling the remains of a man after death, when Allh is capable of doing that then O' Muhammad (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) why can't He store this Wahy in your chest in such a way that it will not only be in your memory but you will also be able to understand its meaning.

Thirdly, in this Surah Allh Tal says that in the Aakhirah, man will know everything about himself, what ever he has done in the world. So, when Allh wishes, He can make man capable of acquiring knowledge, therefore, "O, Muhammad (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam), you should not think it to be impossible for Allh to keep things stored safe in your memory".

 

Miracle of Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam)

This  is another miracle of Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) that he was not reciting the revealed verses with Jibra'eel (AS) but used to listen quietly and still every bit of it was safely getting stored in his memory.

 

Jibraeel (AS) was only a link

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But when We have promulgated it follow thou its recital (as promulgated): Nay more it is for Us to explain it (and make it clear):(75:18-19)

  In this verse Allh Tal says "when We have promulgated or recited it, follow it. Allh Tal did not say that when Jibra'eel (AS) has recited, for the reason that the Qur'an is from  Allh Tal and Jibra'eel (AS) is simply a link between.

 

Why Imm Bukhari chose this Hadith for this chapter

Ulema have given various reasonsfirstly, they say that Imm Bukhari wants to show how Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) used to receive the Wahy initially. Secondly, he wants to  convey  the  message  about  the  authenticity, purity and  safety  of  the Wahy, as in these verses Allh Tal says:

"It is for Us to collect it and to promulgate it" (75:18)

 

Lessons from these verses

A teacher should keep the requirements of the students always in view.

A teacher should admonish the student at once whenever he sees him doing something unwanted.

A teacher should be kind to his students.

One should always carry out necessary job at its proper time. Neither postpone any job which needs priority and not prepone any which needs to be done later.

A student should listen to his teacher quietly and with great attention.

 

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Hadith No. 5

   

 

Narrated by Hadhrat ibn Abbas (RA)

Allhs Apostle (AS) was the most generous of all the people, and he used to reach the peak of generosity in the month of Ramadhan when Jibra'eel met him. Jibra'eel used to meet him and teach al-Qurn every night of Ramadhan. Allh's Apostle was the most generous person, even more generous than the strong and uncontrollable wind (in readiness and haste to do charitable deeds).

 

Narrators

In this Hadith a name Abdullah has appeared. It has been said that this name refers to Abdullah bin Mubarak, a great Muhaddith.

 

The letter H () when used in the Sanad

   In chain of narrators (Sanad) sometimes the latter H () is mentioned instead of usual word Hadhasna (). It means that, here the Muhaddith is shifting from one sanad to another i.e., up to a particular point one narrator is narrating through one chain and the other through the other chain, and after that point, the chains of both narrators are same. This is done to avoid repetition and lengthening of  the chain.

 

Allhs Apostle (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) was the most generous of all people

Generosity is an attribute of heart, it is not the name of  being rich. Qaroon was very rich but at the same time he is known for his miserliness. Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) was very much generous from his heart.

 

Difference between Sakhwat () and the word Jood () used in this Hadith

Sakhwat () means the distribution of wealth. As per Imm Ragib (RA), the word Jood () used in this Hadith means:

To give proper thing to the proper person

Jood also includes the generosity as regards knowledge and guidance. Allh's Apostle (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) was most generous of all the people; it is so evident that it needs no  explanation. Sakhwat is one aspect of Jood. Once one million Dirhams came to Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) from  Behrain; Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) placed that in  one corner of the Mosque and did not leave till whole of it was distributed amongst the needy. Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) always fulfilled the appropriate need of appropriate people  suitably and this is what is termed as Jood. Once a woman presented a beautiful blanket to Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) which he liked very much. Once a Sahbi saw Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) dressing it. He touched it and said that it is very nice and requested Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) to give it to him. Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) immediately took that off from his body and gave it to that  Sahbi. It is well said by an Arabic poet:

 

Generosity of Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) is the reflection of generosity of Allh

We  Know that the Generosity of Allh Tal is unparallel and it was the influence of this attribute of Allh Tal on Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) in particular, which made him  most generous amongst the mankind. Allh is Generous and likes  generosity. Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) himself said:

"Moralise yourself with the morals of Allh (i.e., develop  in  yourselves those morals that reflect the morals of Allh).

 

Generosity of Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) increased in Ramadhan

We have seen that Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) was most generous throughout his life but his generosity used to reach its peak in the month of Ramadhan. This again is the influence of the Sunnat of Allh Tal on Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) as we know that  the Generosity of  Allh Tal  also is very high in the month of Ramadhan. One good deed is rewarded seventy times in Ramadhan as compared to other months. The breezes of  Rahmat and Hidyat blow in full bloom in Ramadhan.

 

Generosity of Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) compared with strong wind

  We all know the significance of wind as to how much important it is for mankind. Not only does man need this for breading but he depends on it in the form of rains which is necessary for the crops, vegetation and other plantation. Winds can cause devastation for mankind as well. Here the generosity of Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) is compared with that wind  which is beneficial. Here strong uncontrollable wind is mentioned and not the mere word wind. The reason is that the benefits of strong wind are quite widespread and its benefits reach far and wide in a short span of time like the effects of generosity of Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) which were quick and far reaching. The strong winds get the rains which give life to the dead and dry lands like the generosity of Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) which gives life to the spiritually dead human hearts.

Hadhrat Jibraeel (AS) used to meet Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) every night of Ramadhan to teach him the Qurn

Hadhrat Jibra'eel (AS) used to come to Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) in every Ramadhan during the nights and would recite the Qur'an. Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) would listen it from him and then Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) would recite the Qur'an and Jibra'eel (AS) would listen. It is this Sunnat of Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) which the Huffz of the Qur'an follow in Ramadhan while offering Tarweeh. They listen from one another the Qur'an in the month of  Ramadhan.

 

The relation of the Hadith with the title of this chapter

First thing that Imm Bukhari wants to convey is that the Qur'an like earlier Divine books was also revealed in the month of Ramadhan. Ibrahim (AS) got the Suhuf on first day of Ramadhan; Mus (AS) got Tourat on 6th day of Ramadhan; Eis (AS) got the Injeel on 13th day of Ramadhan. Most people believe that the Qurn it was revealed on the 27th day of Ramadhan. Secondly, by  showing the revelation of the Qur'an was started in the month of Ramadhan, he further wants to prove the sanctity and the safety of the Qur'an. Thirdly, by showing that Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) used to revise the Qur'an every Ramadhan with Jibra'eel (AS), he wants to prove that there is no chance that Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) would forget any part of it whatsoever.

 

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Hadith No. 6

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Narrated by Hadhrat Abdullah bin Abbas (RA)

Abu Sufyn bin Harb informed me that Heraclius had sent a messenger to him while he had been accompanying a caravan from Quraish. They were merchants doing business in Sham (Syria, Palestine, Lebanon, and Jordan), at the time when Allh's Apostle had truce with Abu Sufyn and Quraish infidels. So Abu Sufyn and his companions went to Heraclius at Ilya (Jerusalem). Heraclius called them in the court and he had all the senior Roman dignitaries around him. He called for his translator who, translating Heraclius's question said to them, "Who amongst you is closely related to that man who claims to be a Prophet?" Abu Sufyn replied, "I am the nearest relative to him (amongst the group)."

Heraclius said, "Bring him (Abu Sufyn) close to me and make his companions stand behind him." Abu Sufyn added, Heraclius told his translator to tell my companions that he wanted to put some questions to me regarding that man (The Prophet) and that if I told a lie they (my companions) should contradict me." Abu Sufyn added, "By Allh! Had I not been afraid of my companions labelling me a liar, I would not have spoken the truth about the Prophet. The first question he asked me about him was:

'What is his family status amongst you?' I replied, 'He belongs to a good (noble) family amongst us.' Heraclius further asked, 'Has anybody amongst you ever claimed the same (i.e. to be a Prophet) before him?' I replied, 'No.' He said, 'Was anybody amongst his ancestors a king?' I replied, 'No.' Heraclius asked, 'Do the nobles or the poor follow him?' I replied, 'It is the poor who follow him.' He said, 'Are his followers increasing decreasing (day by day)?' I replied, 'They are increasing.' He then asked, 'Does anybody amongst those who embrace his religion become displeased and renounce the religion afterwards?' I replied, 'No.' Heraclius said, 'Have you ever accused him of telling lies before his claim (to be a Prophet)?' I replied, 'No.' Heraclius said, 'Does he break his promises?' I replied, 'No. We are at truce with him but we do not know what he will do in it.' I could not find opportunity to say anything against him except that. Heraclius asked, 'Have you ever had a war with him?' I replied, 'Yes.' Then he said, 'What was the outcome of the battles?'I replied, 'Sometimes he was victorious and sometimes we.' Heraclius said, 'What does he order you to do?' I said, 'He tells us to worship Allh and Allh alone and not to worship anything along with Him, and to renounce all that our ancestors had said. He orders us to pray, to speak the truth, to be chaste and to keep good relations with our kith and kin.' Heraclius asked the translator to convey to me the following, I asked you about his family and your reply was that he belonged to a very noble family. In fact all the Apostles come from noble families amongst their respective peoples. I questioned you whether anybody else amongst you claimed such a thing, your reply was in the negative. If the answer had been in the affirmative, I would have thought that this man was following the previous man's statement. Then I asked you whether anyone of his ancestors was a king. Your reply was in the negative, and if it had been in the affirmative, I would have thought that this man wanted to take back his ancestral kingdom.I further asked whether he was ever accused of telling lies before he said what he said, and your reply was in the negative. So I wondered how a person who does not tell a lie about others could ever tell a lie about Allh. I, then asked you whether the rich people followed him or the poor. You replied that it was the poor who followed him. And in fact all the Apostle have been followed by this very class of people. Then I asked you whether his followers were increasing or decreasing. You replied that they were increasing, and in fact this is the way of true faith, till it is complete in all respects. I further asked you whether there was anybody, who, after embracing his religion, became displeased and discarded his religion. Your reply was in the negative, and in fact this is (the sign of) true faith, when its delight enters the hearts and mixes with them completely. I asked you whether he had ever betrayed. You replied in the negative and likewise the  Apostles never betray. Then I asked you what he ordered you to do. You replied that he ordered you to worship Allh and Allh alone and not to worship any thing along with Him and forbade you to worship idols and ordered you to pray, to speak the truth and to be chaste. If what you have said is true, he will very soon occupy this place underneath my feet and I knew it (from the scriptures) that he was going to appear but I did not know that he would be from you, and if I could reach him definitely, I would go immediately to meet him and if I were with him, I would certainly wash his feet.' Heraclius then asked for the letter addressed by Allh's Apostle which was delivered by Dihya to the Governor of Busra, who forwarded it to Heraclius to read. The contents of the letter were as follows: "In the name of Allh the Beneficent, the Merciful (This letter is) from Muhammad the slave of Allh and His Apostle to Heraclius the ruler of Byzantine. Peace be upon him, who follows the right path. Furthermore I invite you to Islm, and if you become a Muslim you will be safe, and Allh will double your reward, and if you reject this invitation of Islm you will be committing a sin by misguiding your Arisiyin (peasants). (And I recite to you Allh's Statement:) O people of the scripture! Come to a word common to you and us that we worship none but Allh and that we associate nothing in worship with Him, and that none of us shall take others as Lords beside Allh. Then, if they turn away, say: Bear witness that we are Muslims (those who have surrendered to Allh). (3.64).

Abu Sufyn then added, "When Heraclius had finished his speech and had read the letter, there was a great hue and cry in the Royal Court. So we were turned out of the court. I told my companions that the question of Ibn-Abi-Kabsha (the Prophet Muhammad) has become so prominent that even the King of Bani Al-Asfar (Byzantine) is afraid of him. Then I started to become sure that he (the Prophet) would be the conqueror in the near future till I embraced Islm.

The sub narrator adds, "Ibn An-Natur was the Governor of Ilya' (Jerusalem) and Heraclius was the head of the Christians of Sham. Ibn An-Natur narrates that once while Heraclius was visiting Ilya' (Jerusalem), he got up in the morning with a sad mood. Some of his priests asked him why he was in that mood? Heraclius was a foreteller and an astrologer. He replied, 'At night when I looked at the stars, I saw that the leader of those who practice circumcision had appeared (become the conqueror). Who are they who practice circumcision?' The people replied, 'Except the Jews nobody practices circumcision, so you should not be afraid of them (Jews). 'Just Issue orders to kill every Jew present in the country.' While they were discussing it, a messenger sent by the king of Ghassan to convey the news of Allh's Apostle to Heraclius was brought in. Having heard the news, he (Heraclius) ordered the people to go and see whether the messenger of Ghassan was circumcised. The people, after seeing him, told Heraclius that he was circumcised. Heraclius then asked him about the Arabs. The messenger replied, 'Arabs also practice circumcision.' (After hearing that) Heraclius remarked that sovereignty of the Arabs had appeared. Heraclius then wrote a letter to his friend in Rome who was as good as Heraclius in knowledge. Heraclius then left for Homs (a town in Syria) and stayed there till he received the reply of his letter from his friend who agreed with him in his opinion about the emergence of the Prophet and the fact that he was a Prophet. On that Heraclius invited all the heads of the Byzantines to assemble in his palace at Homs. When they assembled, he ordered that all the doors of his palace be closed. Then he came out and said, 'O Byzantines! If success is your desire and if you seek right guidance and want your empire to remain then give a pledge of allegiance to this Prophet (i.e. embrace Islm).' (On hearing the views of Heraclius) the people ran towards the gates of the palace like on agers but found the doors closed. Heraclius realized their hatred towards Islm and when he lost the hope of their embracing Islm, he ordered that they should be brought back in audience. (When they returned) he said, 'What already said was just to  test the strength of your conviction and I have seen it.' The people prostrated before him and became pleased with him, and this was the end of Heraclius's story (in connection with his  faith).

 

Historical review

At the time of commencement of the prophethood  of  Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam), there were two big powers in the world, namely the Roman empire and the Persian empire. The kings of Roman empire were called 'Qaiser' and they were Christians by religion and that of Persian empire were called 'Kisra'. Persians were fire worshippers. There used to be constant wars between these two super powers of that time. Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) was born in 570 AD and he announced his prophethood after 40 years. At this time Persians  were more powerful than the Romans. The Makkan infidels were supporters of the Persians as latter were fire worshippers and Muslims were the supporters of Romans as latter were followers of Divine Books and believers of one God and hence more close to the Muslims. In 614 AD the Persian king, Parviaz Khusro son of Harmuz son of  Nowsherwan Aadil defeated the Roman king Heraclius and the latter lost territory to Persia. This  news of the defeat of Romans reached Makkah and the infidels celebrated this news while Muslims became sad. Now the infidels of Makkah started teasing Muslims and were telling them that they would also defeat them as their brothers i.e., Persians defeated the brothers of Muslims i.e., the Romans. At this time Allh Tal revealed the  first verses of  Surah Rum:

() () () () ()

"Alif Lm Mim. The Roman Empire has been defeated In a land close by; but they (even) after (this) defeat of theirs will soon be victorious within a few years With Allh is the decision in the past and in the future: on that Day shall the believers rejoice with the help of Allh. He helps whom He will and He is Exalted in Might Most Merciful. (30: 1-5)

 

The miracle of Al-Qurn

This prophecy about the victory of Romans at a time when no one could imagine that the weak Romans could defeat the mighty Persians in a short span of time, is one of the great miracles of the Qur'an. The Qur'an in categorical terms announced that the Romans would defeat Persians in nine years. The infidels laughed at this prophecy of the Qur'an as apparently it seemed impossible. Abu Bakr Siddique (RA), having firm faith in the Qur'an, challenged the infidels to have a bet of 100 camels with him i.e., if  Romans would defeat Persians in nine years as per Qur'nic prophecy, the infidels would give 100 camels to him and if it did not happen that way, then Abu Bakr (RA) would give them 100 camels. The infidels agreed to it readily. After exactly nine years the news of the victory of Romans over the Persians reached Makkah, it was 2nd year of Hijrah when Muslims were celebrating their historical victory over the infidels in the historical battleground of Badr. The Muslims got the double joy, Abu Bakr (RA) won  the  bet and got 100 camels from the infidels and many people embraced Islm on seeing the truthfulness of the Qur'an.

 

Heraclius in Ailya (Jerusalem)

After getting the defeat at the hands of Persians, Heraclius went to Hamas, there he took the pledge that if God would give him victory over Persians, he would make a pilgrimage to Ailya (Jerusalem) which is sacred place for Christians as well. After getting the victory he went to Jerusalem. There he came to know through the astrologers that he would loose his empire to the people who perform circumcision. He enquired from his people as to who were the people who performed the circumcision, he was told that Arabs were the people who performed it. He made announcement throughout his country that if any body from Arabia is found anywhere in his country, he should be produced before him. It was at that very time that Abu-Sufiyan, the then Pagan leader, was in Ailya (Jerusalem) on a business trip, thus he was called to see the king, Hiraclius.

 

Peace treaty of Hudaibia

In 6th Hijra Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam), who had settled by this time in Madina, signed a peace treaty with the Pagans of Makkah at the historical place of Hudaibia. This treaty played a historical role in the spread of Islm. Muslims first time got some breathing time to consolidate their position, till then they were always engaged in wars with the Pagans. Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) now sent his ambassadors to various heads of the states with his letters inviting them to the fold of Islm. Hadhrat Dahya Qalbi (RA), with a similar letter was sent to Hiraclius, who at that time was in Ailya (Jerusalem). When Dahya reached Ailya, Abu Sufiyan was also their that time. Obviously, there was a Divine Hand in assembling all the three i.e., Hiraclius, Dahya Qalbi (RA) and Abu Sufiyan in Ailya at the same  time.

Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) sent letters to Heraclius twice.

 

Relation of Hadith with the title of the chapter

In earlier Ahdith of this chapter Imm Bukhari proved the greatness, purity, authenticity and the significance of the Wahy. In this Hadith he wants to show the greatness, truthfulness and the character of the receiver of the Wahy i.e., Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam). In earlier Ahdith these attributes were stated by Muslims and here in this Hadith these things are confirmed by non Muslims and that too not by the ordinary ones but people like the king of that times biggest empire i.e, Byzantine and that times biggest enemy of Islm like Abu Sufiyan. Second relation with the Aayat quoted  in the title is that Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) was not the first messenger to receive Divine Inspiration but earlier prophets had also invited people towards the unity of Allh (Tawheed).

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DARUL ULOOM ILAHIYAH
INSTITUTE OF ISLAMIC RESEARCH
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