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Ra'fatul Bri

(Vol - 1)

Sharah Sahih Bukhari

Dr. Rafiq Ahmad

Kitabul Imaan - Chapter 35 - 43, Hadith 45 - 57

Contact:- drrafiqahmad@islaminkashmir.org

Chapter 35  
  Hadith No. 45
Chapter 36  
  Hadith No. 46
Chapter 37  
  Hadith No. 47
  Hadith No. 48
Chapter 38  
  Hadith No. 49
Chapter 39  
  Hadith No. 50
Chapter 40  
  Hadith No. 51
Chapter 41  
  Hadith No. 52
Chapter 42  
  Hadith No. 53
  Hadith No. 54
  Hadith No. 55
Chapter 43  
  Hadith No. 56
  Hadith No. 57
   

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Kitabul Iman

 

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Chapter (Bb) 35 : To pay Zakh is part of Islm, and the saying of Allh, "And they have been commanded no more than this: to worship Allh offering Him sincere devotion being True (in faith); to establish regular Prayer; and to practice regular Charity; and that is the Religion Right and Straight". (98:5)

Purpose of Tarjamatul Bb

Earlier on Imm Bukhari mentioned about things like Salh and Jihd and now he mentions about Zakh.

 

Hadith No. 45

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Narrated by Talha bin Ubaidullah

A man from Najd with unkempt hair came to Allh's Apostle and we heard his loud voice but could not understand what he was saying, till he came near and then we came to know that he was asking about Islm. Allh's Apostle said, "You have to offer prayers exactly five times in a day and night (i.e., 24 hours)." The man asked, "Is there any more (praying)?" Allh's Apostle replied, "No, but if you want to offer the Nawfil prayers (you can)." Allh's Apostle further said to him: "You have to observe fasts during the month of Ramadan." The man asked, "Is there any more fasting?" Allh's Apostle replied, "No, but if you want to observe the Nawfil fasts (you can.)" Then Allh's Apostle further said to him, "You have to pay the Zakh (obligatory charity)." The man asked, "Is there any thing other than the Zakh for me to pay?" Allh's Apostle replied, "No, unless you want to give alms of your own." And then that man retreated saying, "By Allh! I will neither do less nor more than this." Allh's Apostle said, "If what he said is true, then he will be successful (i.e. he will be granted Paradise)."

 

Comments

Since other things mentioned in this Hadith like Salh etc. have already been mentioned, Imm Bukhari has highlighted only Zakh in this Hadith.

 

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Chapter (Bb) 36: To accompany the funeral procession (up to the place of burial) is a part of faith

 

Purpose of Tarjamatul Bb

Ibn Hajar says that Imm Bukhari has ended the list of titles of his chapters related to the parts of faith like Salh, Zakh etc. with this chapter of funeral procession as funeral comes last in man's life, so has he got it last.

 

Hadith No. 46

( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (  )  

 

Narrated by Hadhrat Abu Hurairah (RA)

Allhs Apostle (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) said, "(A believer) who accompanies the funeral procession of a Muslim out of sincere faith and hoping to attain Allh's reward and remains with it till the funeral prayer is offered and the burial ceremonies are over, he will return with a reward of two Qirats. Each Qirat is like the size of the (Mount) Uhud. He who offers the funeral prayer only and returns before the burial, will return with the reward of one Qirat only."

 

Comments

Allhs Apostle said, "(A believer) who accompanies the funeral procession of a Muslim out of sincere faith and hoping to attain Allh's reward and remains with it till the funeral prayer is offered and the burial ceremonies are over, he will return with a reward of two Qirats.  Here the word Ahtesb () is used with Imn, it is said that one should follow the funeral with Ahtesb i.e., while following the funeral one should think over the reality of life and its end and try to derive lessons for oneself. It is this type of following the funeral which is promised this reward of two Qirats. By following the funeral one should get reminded of death and its consequences and should try to prepare one's self for the same.

 

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Chapter (Bb) 37: Fear of the believer that his good deeds may be destroyed without his knowledge. And Ibrahim Taymi said, Whenever I compare my words with my deeds, I always fear that I many be liar. And Ibn Mulaika said, I met thirty companions of Prophet (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) and every one of them feared having hypocrisy in themselves, and none of them said that they had faith of same degree as that of angel Jibraeel or Meekaeel. It was mentioned that al-Hasan (al-Bisri) said, only believers fear hypocrisy and only hypocrites feel safe from it. And in this chapter those things are also mentioned from which one is being warned like infighting and persistence on sins without repentance (Toabah), as Allh says, And are never obstinate in persisting knowingly in (the wrong) they have done. (3:135)

 

Purpose of Tarjamatul Bb

After finishing the things related to faith or Imn, Imm Bukhari got this chapter in which he wants to tell the believers that they should not feel safe after having faith but they should always keep in mind that only that faith is valid and useful which one can carry along after one's death. Sometimes a believer says something unknowingly which begets the wrath of Allh and his faith is snatched from him and he even does not come to know that. So a believer should always avoid those things which are harmful for Imn and should try to do as many good deeds as possible in order to strengthen his Imn.

Ibrahim Taymi was a pious man who used to say that whenever he says something he fears that people may refute him as they may not find his deeds matching his words. Ibn Mulaika says that he met thirty Sahbah who feared that they were hypocrites and that he has not seen anyone saying that his Imn is like that of Jibra'eel (AS) or Meeka'eel (AS). This last part of the sentence i.e., "That he has not seen anyone saying that his Imn is like that of Jibra'eel (AS) or Meeka'eel (AS) seems to be for contradiction of Imm Abu Haniefah who is reported to have said so. Ulema have given different explanations of this statement of Abu Haniefah.

 

Hadith No. 47

( ) ( ) ()  

 

Narrated by Hadhrat Abdullah (RA)

The Prophet (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) said, "Abusing a Muslim is Fusuq (an evil doing) and killing him is Kufr (disbelief).

 

Comments

Abu Wayil (RA) says that Abdullah bin Mas'ood told him a Hadith in which Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) said that abusing a Muslim is Fisq (debauchery) and to quarrel with him is Kufr (infidelity).

Fisq literally means "debauchery, dissipate", but in Islamic Shariah Fisq means "disobedience, leave Allah's command and to get out of true path i.e., Shariah". Quarrelling with a fellow Muslim has been equated with Kurf in this Hadith so as to show the gravity of its sinfulness. Ulema say that it does not take one out of the fold of Islam but is a grave sin.

 

Hadith No. 48

 

 

Narrated 'Ubada bin As-Samit

"Allhs Apostle went out to inform the people about the (date of the) night of decree (Al-Qadr) but there happened a quarrel between two Muslim men. The Prophet said, "I came out to inform you about (the date of) the night of Al-Qadr, but as so and so and so and so quarreled, its knowledge was taken away (I forgot it) and may be it was better for you. Now look for it in the 7th, the 9th and the 5th (of the last 10 nights of the month of Ramadan).

 

Comments

One day Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) came out to inform people about Lailatul Qadr. There in Masjid-i-Nabwi, two people were quarrelling with each other on some matter. While Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) got engaged in ending up quarrel between them, the exact information regarding the night on which Lailatul Qadr falls was lifted from his memory. This shows that quarrelling becomes a means which deprives one from many blessings and that too particularly when it takes place in a Masjid. Quarrelling in Masjid-i-Nabwi makes it all the more sinful. Ibn Dehya says that these two people were Ka'ab bin Maalik and Abdullah bin Abi Hadhrad who were quarrelling about some debt.

Afterwards, Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) said to the people, that there may be good in this for you not to know the exact night, so that you can now search for it. He said, you should search during the odd night of the last ten days of the month of Ramadhan.

 

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Chapter (Bb) 38: Jibraeel questioning about Imn, Islm, Ahsn (benevolence) and the knowledge of the Hour (Dooms day) and clarifying these to Jibraeel (AS) by him (i.e., Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam). Then Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) said (to his companions), Jibraeel (AS) had come to teach you your religion. So the Prophet (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) regarded Allh that as Deen. And all that Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) explained to the delegation of Abdul Qais was a part of Imn and Allhs saying, And whoever desires a religion other than Islm, never will it be accepted of Him. (3:85)

 

Hadith No. 49

   

 

Hadith-i-Jibraeel

Narrated by Abu Hurairah (RA)

One day while the Prophet (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) was sitting in the company of some people, (The angel) Gabriel (AS) came and asked, "What is faith?" Allh's Apostle (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) replied, 'Faith is to believe in Allh, His angels, (the) meeting with Him, His Apostles, and to believe in Resurrection." Then he further asked, "What is Islm?" Allh's Apostle replied, "To worship Allh Alone and none else, to offer prayers perfectly to pay the compulsory charity (Zakh) and to observe fasts during the month of Ramadan."  Then he further asked, "What is Ahsn (perfection)?" Allh's Apostle replied, "To worship Allh as if you see Him, and if you cannot achieve this state of devotion then you must consider that He is looking at you." Then he further asked, "When will the Hour be established?" Allh's Apostle replied, "The answerer has no better knowledge than the questioner. But I will inform you about its portents.

When a slave (lady) gives birth to her master.

When the shepherds of black camels start boasting and competing with others in the construction of higher buildings. And the Hour is one of five things which nobody knows except Allh.

The Prophet  then recited: "Verily, with Allh (Alone) is the knowledge of the Hour--." (31:34) Then that man (Gabriel) left and the Prophet  asked his companions to call him back, but they could not see him. Then the Prophet said, "That was Gabriel who came to teach the people their religion." Abu 'Abdullah said: He (the Prophet) considered all that as a part of faith.

 

Status of Hadith

This Hadith is called Hadith-i-Jibraeel as it was Hadhrat Jibraeel (AS) who was asking questions to Rasulullah (AS) in this Hadith. Qurtubi says that this Hadith should be called Ummu-Sunnah (Mother of all Ahdith) in similar way as Surah Fatihah is called Ummul Qur'an. All other Ahdith seem to be the explanation of this Hadith, same way as whole Qurn is said to be the explanation of Surah-al-Fatihah. All authentic authorities of Hadith agree upon the authenticity of this Hadith. Imm Bukhari, Imm Muslim and authors of other Hadith books have quoted this Hadith from different Sahbah-al-Kirm and author of Mishkt has quoted it from Hadhrat Umar ibn al-Khatb (RA).

 

Purpose of Tarjamatul Bb

By establishing this Bb here Imm Bukhari wants to convey that Islm, Imn and Ahsn are synonymous and that these all constitute Deen as Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) told Sahbah after Jibra'eel (AS) left and Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) labelled all these as Deen.  Imm Bukhari also substantiates his point by quoting the verse of the Qur'an which says:

 

 

"If anyone desires a religion other than Islm (submission to Allh) never will it be accepted of him" (3:85)

 

Comments

There is consensus amongst Ulema that this incident took place in last part of the life of Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam), most probably after Haja-tul-Widah (last Hajj of Rasulullah). It was during this last Hajj that the following verse of the Qur'an was revealed,

"This day have I perfected your religion for you, completed my favor upon you and have chosen for you Islm as your religion." (5:3)

As this verse says that the Deen i.e., Islm has been perfected on that very day. Similarly this Hadith, which Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) stated during his last days, comprises of almost all aspects of Deen. Imn denotes all things related to beliefs, Islm denotes all Ibdt like Salh, Saum and Zakh etc. and Ahsn includes all things related to spiritual up-liftment with excellences what is called as Sulook.

Hadhrat Abu Hurairah (RA) says that one day they (companions of Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) were sitting around Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) when a stranger came dressed in shinning white dress with jet black hair and there were no signs of travelling upon him. He was not a local as no Sahbi recognised him, so he aught to have come from a far-off place either on foot or on camel (those days camel was the only means of transportation). Had he come on foot or on a camel, there would have been lot of dust on his clothes and hair and other signs of tiredness of long journey should have also been noticeable. When Sahbah saw none of these things, they were surprised. Imm Muslim, while narrating the background of this Hadith, says that once Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) asked the Sahbah to ask questions but they could not dare to ask anything because of fear and then Hadhrat Jibra'eel (AS) appeared. Abu Dawood quotes that the stranger came to Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) when Sahbah were sitting around by his side and while he was sitting on an elevated place of mud which the Sahbah had constructed for him. Imm Qurtubi derives a lesson from this that it is proper for an Aalim to sit on an elevated place for reverence. This stranger whom the Sahbah could not recognise was Hadhrat Jibra'eel (AS) who had come in the form of a human being resembling one of the most handsome Sahahbi namely Dhahya-al-Kalbi (RA) as is reported in a narration quoted in Nasaee Sharief.  Hadhrat Jibraeel (AS) came in the form of a young man dressed in white clean clothes, from this Ulema have derived the lesson that

The young age is most suitable for learning.

The student should stick to the cleanliness and

That the white clothes are preferable.

It is reported in Musnad-al-Imm-al-Azam on the authority of Hammad from Alqama from Ibn Masood (RA) that Jibra'eel (AS) came in the form of a young man dressed in white clothes and said, As-salm-u-Alikum Ya Rasulullah and Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) replied, Wa-Alaika-s-Salm. From this Ulema have derived the lesson that an incomer can first greet Salm to all those who are present and then can greet specific Salm to someone calling him by name. After entering, Hadhrat Jibra'eel (AS) came near Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) and sat in front of him on knees as one sits in Tashahud in Salh in such a way that his knees were touching the knees of Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam). Ulema say that this is the best way of sitting for a student and helps in concentration and also shows his for learning.

 

Tell me about Imn

This was the first question that Hadhrat Jibraþeel (AS) asked Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam). In reply to this question Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) said:

"Faith is to believe in Allh, His angels, (the) meeting with Him, His Apostles, and to believe in Resurrection."

This imperative sentence of Jibra'eel (AS) does not imply order but implies request. There is consensus amongst all Ulema that Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) is superior than angels and humans (Mirqat).

 

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Belief in Allh

It means to believe in Oneness and Uniqueness of Allh Tal both in His Essence and His Attributes. To believe in His Self Existence and that His Existence is not dependent upon the existence of any other thing whereas the existence of every other thing is dependent upon His Existence. Imn in Allh means to acknowledge His bounties, His Mercy and the extreme excellence of all His attributes as is worth His Jall and Jaml.

Different people have Imn of different grades. Common people recite the article of faith i.e., Kalimah by tongue while having faith in their hearts whereas the people possessing higher grade of Imn find themselves in the presence of Allh thus forgetting the world and remain busy in preparation for Hereafter. Those people having even higher state of Imn, get so much enlightenment from Allh that they even forget themselves and the dualism is lost to them.

Allh is the name of Essence of Allh, the other names like Ar-Rehmn, Ar-Rahim, Al-Gaffr are the names of His Attributes. So, in His name i.e., Allhall His Attributes are also included i.e., when one calls Him by the name of Allh, he is calling Him by all His Attributes. Allh alone is worth worshipping, as He alone is the Creator of every creature. He has no partners, no children and no parents, there is none like unto Him. He knows everything and listens everything at the same time. To listen one thing does not make Him unable from listening others. Similarly, seeing one thing does not make Him incapable to see others. He is Omnipotent and does not need any advisers or helpers. He is beyond human comprehension. He is present everywhere but cannot be seen in this world. He has no beginning or end, everything other than Him has a beginning and an end. Nothing happens in this universe out of His Knowledge and Will. He created things from nothing. He says, be and it becomes. He is the Real Creator, Designer, Planner and Operator of the whole universe and what is beyond that. No slumber seizes Him nor sleep. Nothing is beyond His kingdom. He is nearer to man than his jugular veins.

His Attributes are also beyond our comprehension. When we say Hand of Allh, it does not mean something like our hands, similarly when we say He sees, listens or speaks, it does not mean that He has eyes, ears and tongue like ours, but these words are used only for our easy understanding otherwise nobody can comprehend their real meaning, as the way He is Unique in His Essence so is He in His Attributes. His Attributes cannot be compared with that of His creatures. As is the difference between the Creator and the creation, so is the difference between the Attributes of the Creator and the creation, e.g., difference between our seeing and listening and His seeing and listening.

Allh is beyond time and space as these are created things. There is no present, past or future before Him, these are things for the creatures. One cannot attribute a particular direction to Him, as He is everywhere. It is not proper to attribute words like ascent or descent to Allh. It is narrated in some traditions that Allh descends to Aasman-i-Duniya (lowest heaven) during the last part of the night and also during Shabb-i-Qadr. By this descent it should not be understood that Allh descends physically down as ascent and descent are not worth His Excellency. This word descent again is from Mutashabiht and Ulema say that by this word descent is meant that Allh pays special attention towards the world.

Nothing can make him helpless or overpower him. Allh Tal says in Qurn:

It is Allh Who has created you, further, He has provided for your sustenance; then He will cause you to die; and again He will give you life. Are there any of your (false) partners who can do any single one of these things? Glory to Him! and High is He above the partners they attribute (to Him)! (30:40)

And Allh is not to be frustrated by anything whatever in the heavens or on earth: for He is All-Knowing, All-Powerful.(35:44)

For accomplishing any task one needs two things, power to do that task and the knowledge; Allh has both, hence can do anything and everything.

Our eyes can see material things only and our minds can understand those things only which are related to matter and can be felt. Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) said that Jannah is such a thing which no eye has seen, no ear has heard of and its idea has not passed through anybodys heart as to what it exactly looks like. When we cannot see or comprehend Jannah, which is material thing and also created one, how will we be able to see or comprehend Allh who has no material body? Hadhrat Junaid Baghddi (RA) has well said: Whatever idea come to your mind about the being of Allh, think that He is not like that, as He cannot come in our minds and is above all these imaginations.

Allh Tal says:

No vision can grasp Him (6:103)

And they shall not compass it with their knowledge (20:110)

There is nothing whatever like unto Him, and He is the one that hears and sees (42:11)

Nothing is like unto Him neither in essence nor in attributes, nor in deeds. His Knowledge is not like our knowledge, His seeing in not like our seeing, His listening is not like our listening. His being on throne is not like our being on throne, His laughing is not like our laughing and His power is not like our power. In short, there is nothing that can be compared with Him or can be given as an example.

 

Allh is the Creator free of wants

Allh Tal says:

 

() () ()

 

I have only created Jinns and men, that they may serve Me. No, sustenance do I require of them, nor do I require that they should feed me. For Allh is He Who gives (all) sustenance, Lord of Power, Steadfast (forever).

 

O ye men! it is you that have need of Allh: but Allh is the One free of all wants, worthy of all praise (35:15)

 

Allh provides sustenance to all with utmost ease

 

 

For Allh is He Who gives (all) sustenance, Lord or Power, Steadfast (forever) (51:58)

 

Allh Destroys Without Fear

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Then they rejected him (as a false prophet), and they hamstrung her. So, their Lord crushed them for their sins and leveled them. And for Him is no fear of its consequences. (91:14-15)

When creatures take some decision, they think of consequences that can be against them but Allh being the Creator, can create at will and there can be no question of any such apprehension in His case.

 

Resurrection is Easy for Allh

He says:

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It is He Who begins the creation; then repeats it; and for Him it is most easy, To Him belongs the loftiest similitude (we can think of) in the heavens and the earth; for He is Exalted in Might, full of Wisdom (30:27)

In the first instance Allh created every creature from nothing, when He can create everything from nothing, then how can it be difficult for Him to give life again to dead ones.

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The unbelievers think that they will not be Raised up (for Judgement), say: Yes, by my Lord, you shall surely be raised up: then shall you be told (the truth) of all that you did. And that is easy for Allh (64:7)

 

Allh is Qadeem so are His Attributes

Qadeem means without beginning, as His Essence is Qadeem so are His Attributes. His Attributes cannot be separated from His Essence. He was Creator (Khliq) even before creating anything. Act of creation did not add anything to His Essence or Attributes. He will remain Creator even after the creation is no more there. He did not become Creator after creating the creations. He was Creator before that as well. When He created or creates anything, at that time He is active Creator whereas before creating, He was potential Creator. A writer remains a writer even when he is not writing. When he is not writing, he possesses the potential or ability to write, so does not cease to be a writer. Similar is the case with all other attributes of Allh like seeing (Baseer), Listening (Samee) and Knowing (Aleem) etc. These all Attributes were with Him always even before creating the creation and there will be no loss in them even after the creations will remain no more.

 

Belief in angels

Malaikah or angels are very fine creation of Allh created from Noor (light). They are not visible to ordinarily naked eye and they also have the power to adopt different shapes. They have no evil instincts, hence cannot do any evil. They always obey the Divine Commands. They have no gender, we have to believe in their existence and not attribute any sex to them. They are innumerable and their number is known to Allh only. Names of four senior angels viz., Jibra'eel, Meeka'eel, Israfeel and Izraeel (AS) are famous and the rest of the angles are to be believed in general. Angels are honourable creatures who are always busy in carrying out the duties which Allh has decreed upon them. They never disobey Allh.

Hadhrat Jibra'eel (AS) brought the laws of Allh Tal to the Rusul (Messengers) through the medium of Divine Revelation. He was sometimes sent by Allh to assist the Ambiy fighting the enemies of Islm. At times he was sent by Allh to execute punishment to those who were disobedient to Allh.

Hadhrat Meeka'eel (AS) is the angel appointed in charge of rains, weather and providence. There are many angels under his supervision, some responsible for rain, some for clouds, some for winds and some for sustenance etc. They all act in accordance to Allh Tals Will and Commandments.

Hadhrat Israfeel (AS) is the angel whose task will be to sound the Soor or trumpet which will then lead to the destruction of the universe and the advent of Qiymah (dooms day).

Hadhrat Izra'eel (AS) is the angel of death commonly known as Malakal-Maut.  He is in charge of inflicting death to the various creations of Allh Tal. He also has many angels working under his supervision. Some angels are responsible for taking the souls of pious people while others are responsible for taking the souls of evil and disobedient people.

Amongst them are ( ) Kirman Ktibeen, the two angels who are posted with every human, one on each shoulder, from his birth up to death. The right one writes the good deeds and the left one writes the bad deeds of a person. Another special group of angels are those who hold the Throne. Every Muslim is accompanied by an angel who inspires in him Hidyat (Guidance to do good). The angels called the Nakeer () and Munker () question a person in grave soon after his death.

 

Belief in His books

It means to believe in all the divine books which were sent down by Allh to different prophets like Al-Qurn  was to Prophet Muhammad (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam), Injeel to Hadhrat Eis (AS), Zaboor to Hadhrat Dawood (AS) and Torah to Hadhrat Mus (AS). There are many other divine books, also called Suhuf, which were sent down to other Prophets but their exact number is not known. We believe in all of them with whatever their number had been. Belief in these books means that these books existed and were sent down by Allh, hence were divine in nature, The Qurn revealed to Prophet Muhammad (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) is the last revealed book of Allh and is the only divine book which is existing today in its original form without any addition or alteration and will remain in its original form up to the day of Judgement as Allh Himself has guaranteed its safety. Allh Tal says:

We have, without doubt, sent down the Message; And We will assuredly guard it (from corruption) (15:9)

The Qurn abrogated all earlier divine books, that means today we believe that all earlier books were divine but their commandments stand abrogated by the Qurn and now we have to follow the commandments of the Qurn only.

No divine book other than the Qurn is existing in its original form today as the safety of those books was not guaranteed by Allh.

Some narrations have stated that the number of divine books revealed to different Prophets was one hundred and four, out of them ten Suhuf were sent to Hadhrat Adam (AS), fifty to Hadhrat Sheeth (AS), thirty to Hadhrat Idrees (AS), ten to Hadhrat Ibrahim (AS) and four above mentioned books and out of these Qurn is the last and the best. (Mirqat)

 

The Qurn

It is the Last Revelation sent down by Allh to Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam). It is the Word of Allh, hence it is His attribute i.e., it is not created but the attribute of the Creator. Both the words and meaning of the Qurn are from Allh. Allh Tal says:

These are the signs of Allh: We rehearse them to thee in truth: verily thou art once of the Messengers (2:252)

But when We have recited it, follow thou its recital (as promulgated)(75:18)

Imm Tahwi says:

Thus, the Qurn is the spoken word of Allh except that we do not know how He speaks for His speech is not like our speech as His hearing is not like our hearing.

 

Allh Tal says:

It is not fitting for a man that Allh should speak to him except by inspiration, or from behind a veil, or by sending of a Messenger to reveal, with Allh's permission what Allh wills: for He is Most High, Most Wise (42:51)

This Aayat reveals that Allh speaks through Wahy and that Wahy is His speech. Allh Tal says:

The revelation of this Book is from Allh, The Exalted in Power, Full of Wisdom. (39:1)

The origin of words of Qurn is from the essence of Allh. What an excellent description by Imm Abu Haniefah in Fiqh-Akbar:

The Qurn is written in books, safely stored in hearts, recited by tongues, has been revealed on the Prophet, the words with which we recite the Qurn are created and the Qurn is not created (Makhlooq).

 

Allh Himself named the Qurn as the Word of Allh

If one amongst the pagans ask thee for asylum, grant it to him, so that he may hear the word of Allh; and then escort him to where he can be secure, that is because they are men without knowledge.(9:6)

Imm Tahwi says that one who says that the Qurn is the word of a human being and not the word of Allh, is a Kfir (Infidel) as Allh Himself calls it the Word of Allh in the above mentioned Aayat.

 

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Belief in Prophets sent by Allh

It means to believe in all the Prophets which were sent by Allh amongst whom Hadhrat Adam (AS) being the first and Hadhrat Muhammad (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) being the last prophet. Islm enjoins us to believe that all these prophets existed and preached whatever Allh revealed to them. There have been mentioned the names of only few prophets in Qurn and Hadith, Islm enjoins us to believe in them with specificity and in the rest of them in general. The number and the names of all the Ambiy is not known. The names of a few famous Ambiy are given below:

Hadhrat Adam, Hadhrat Sheeth, Hadhrat Idrees, Hadhrat Nuh, Hadhrat Ibrahim, Hadhrat Ismail, Hadhrat Ishq, Hadhrat Yaqoob, Hadhrat Yusuf, Hadhrat Dawood, Hadhrat Sulaimn, Hadhrat Mus, Hadhrat Haroon, Hadhrat Zakaria, Hadhrat Yahy, Hadhrat Ilys, Hadhrat Yunus, Hadhrat Loot, Hadhrat Sleh, Hadhrat Hood, Hadhrat Shuaib, Hadhrat Eis (AS) and Hadhrat Muhammad Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam).

All prophets were Masoom (innocent or free from sins), that means a prophet cannot commit a sin because they are divinely protected against committing any sin.

There is consensus amongst the whole Ummah over the innocence of Prophets and this is an important branch of Imn. It is better not to attribute any fixed number to the total number of Prophets sent by Allh. It is for this reason that Ulema say that it is better to say that I believe in all the Prophets sent by Allh, whatever be their number.

Imm Ahmad has quoted on the authority of Abu Ahamah that once Hadhrat Abu Dhar Gifri (RA) asked Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) about the total number of Prophets, Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) said, One Lakh and twenty-four thousand .

The ranks of some Prophets are higher than that of others and our beloved Prophet Muhammad (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) is the noblest and the highest in rank amongst the Prophets of Allh.

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Those Messengers We endowed with gifts, some above others: to some of them Allh spoke; others He raised to degrees (of honour); To Jesus the son of Mary We gave clear (signs), and strengthened him with the Holy Spirit. If Allh had so willed, succeeding generations would not have fought among each other, after clear (signs) had come to them but they (chose) to wrangle some believing and others rejecting. If Allh had so willed, they would not have fought each other; but Allh does what He wills. (2:253)

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Behold! Allh took the covenant of the prophets, saying: I give you a Book and Wisdom: then comes to you a Messenger, confirming what is with you; Do ye believe in him and render, him help. Allh said: Do you agree, and take this my covenant as binding on you? They said: We agree. He said: Then bear witness, and I am with you among the witness. (3:81)

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Ye are the best of people, evolved for mankind. Enjoining what is right, forbidding what is wrong, and believing in Allh. If only the people of the Book had faith, it were best for them: among them are some who have faith, but most of them are perverted transgressors. (3:110)

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We have, without doubt, sent down the Message; And We will assuredly guard it (from corruption). (15:9)

 

Prophethood of Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam)

Prophet Muhammad (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) was sent for all people of all times. Prophethood was sealed upon him.

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We have not sent thee but as a (Messenger) to all mankind, giving them glad tidings, and warning them (against sins), but most men know not. (34:28)

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Say: O men! I am sent unto you all, as the Messenger of Allh, to whom belongth the dominion of the heavens and the earth: there is no god but He: it is He that giveth both life and death. So believe in Allh and His Messenger. The unlettered Prophet, who believeth in Allh and His Words: follow him that (so) ye may be guided. (7:158)

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Blessed is He Who sent down the criterion to His servant, that it may be an admonition to all creatures (25:1)

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Say: it has been revealed to me that a company of jinns listened ( to the Qurn) they said, We have really heard a wonderful recital. (72:1)

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Muhammad is not the father of any of your men, but (he is) the Messenger of Allh, and the seal of the Prophets: and Allh has full knowledge of all things. (33:40)

 

Prophethood (Nubuwat) is a gift of Allh

Allh chooses whomsoever He wills for this great task. It is not achieved by ones struggle and effort in His cause. Allh Tal says:

 

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It is never the wish of those without faith among the people of the book nor of the polytheists. That anything good should come down to you from your Lord. But Allh will choose for His special Mercy whom He will-for Allh is Lord of grace abounding. (2:105)

 

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Allh chooses Messengers from angels and from men for Allh is He Who hears and sees (all things). (22:75)

 

Belief concerning the resurrection

Along with the teachings of Tawheed (Oneness) and Rislat (Prophethood) all the Ambiy (AS) were unanimous in their teaching regarding the concept of a physical Qiymah and a physical resurrection. Qiymah refers to the period which will follow the destruction of the present order of the universe. The entire universe as is known to us will come to an end. On this day, the stage for the affairs of reckoning will be set up. Man will be rewarded for his good deeds and punished for his evil actions.

 

The life hereafter has two stages

From death to resurrection known as Aalam-i-Barzakh.

From resurrection to eternity known as Aalam-i- Mahshar.

The Qurn and Hadith inform us that man is sometimes punished during the time between death and resurrection. Death means the separation of the soul from the body. The soul is then transmitted to another world.

 

Question

Everyday many people die in different parts of the world. How is it possible for only two angels to question them at one and the same time?

 

Answer

Just as Hadhrat Izraeel (AS) has many angels working under his supervision, similarly Munkar and Nakeer (AS) are a group of angels.

 

Tell me about Islm

This was the second question of Hadhrat Jibra'eel (AS) to Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam).

 

Tawheed (Oneness of Allh)

Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) once when asked about Islm by Hadhrat Jibraeel (AS) said that Islm means to testify the article of faith, La-ilaha-il-lal-lah Muhammad-ur-Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) ( ), which means that there is no god but Allh and Muhammad (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) is His Messenger. First step in Islm is La which means nothing i.e., first step in Islm is to achieve the state of nothingness. There are some religions like Buddhism which talk of nothingness. They, after shunning away the world, meditate in solitude to achieve this state of nothingness but they achieve nothing  except some illusive imaginations. On the other hand a Muslim has to achieve state of nothingness practically while living an active practical life. A Muslim, by way of this article of faith, believes very firmly that there is nothing but Allh, He is the only being Who has His own existence and the existence of everything other than His, is dependent upon His existence. No one has any power, strength or existence of its own and whatever anything has, that has been given to it by Allh. So a Muslim observes the hand of Allh in the essence of everything and in every action. He sees that any deed performed by anyone is actually commanded by Allh, so, he gets so much engrossed in the thought of Allh that he thinks, he feels and he sees that there is none but Allh. At this stage it is said that this Muslim is tasting the Tawheed. Imm al-Ghzali (RA) says that there are two outer kernels and two inner fruits of Tawheed. To utter the faith of article, the Kalimah, with the tongue is the outermost kernel and to have its firm faith in the heart is the next kernel. One fruit of Tawheed is that the secret of Tawheed gets manifest with the help of Divine Noor (illumination) to such an extent that such a person sees Allh as the Ultimate cause of all actions that are taking place around him and sees His Ultimate Causative Hand in all the effects. The other inner fruit of Tawheed is that one does not appreciate existence of anything except that of Allh and such a person gets engrossed in Allh to such an extent that he forgets every other thing.

Imm-al-Ghzali (RA) gives an example of this as, there was a clean sheet of white paper and something was written on it with a black pen. Someone asked this sheet of paper as to what made your face black, you were just now clean white and now you look black. The paper replied that I was all done by ink and better ask the ink. The ink was asked as to why you blackened the face of white paper. Ink said, I was at rest in my home (i.,e inkpot), the pen came and pierced my body and took me away from my home and then spread me on the paper. You better ask the pen. The pen was asked about the complaint of the ink. It replied, I was at my home (i.e., tree), a hand came, brutally broke me away from my parent (tree) and skinned me off and cut my tongue with a sharp knife (the tip of wooden pen is cut in the centre). Now the same hand is making me to walk on the paper headlong. What is my fault, you better ask the hand. The hand was asked about the pens complaint against it. The hand replied, I was resting quietly and the will (Iradha) came and asked me to do it. I dont do anything unless commanded by will to do that. I am helpless, what is my fault, you better ask the will. The chain of these question - answers continues till it ends with Allh Tal. The person, who has been bestowed upon with the blessing of Tawheed (of higher degree), observes Allh Tal even in the ink which is being spread on a sheet of paper with a pen. Same way such a person observes Allh Tal as the Ultimate cause of every deed that is being executed by him or around him.

 

Fan and Baq

There comes a time when I (self) is lost in He (Allah). I no more remains there and there is only He. Sufis call it Fan and Baq. Fan means that I no more commands, that means - that such a person does not act as per the commands of I. Baq means that one acts as per the commands of He and not I. It does not mean that I is replaced by He in body and soul as some ignorant pseudo mystics believe, such a belief is Kufr (infidelity). It simply means that evil instincts of I or baser self get completely suppressed and it no longer incites for evil. These evil instincts are replaced by pious instincts and it becomes very easy for such a person to do good deeds, rather it becomes his nature to do good and to follow the commands of Shariah in letter and spirit.

 

Wahdat-ul-Wujud (Unity of Existence)

When it is said that nothing exists other than Allh, ignorant people take it as if everything is god, so they worship everything, which is an evident Kufr. These people call it Wahdat-ul-Wujud (Unity of Existence); such an interpretation is totally wrong and unfounded. One may ask a question as to what is the meaning of nothing exists other than Allh? Well, it means that nothing exists itself other than Allh. The existence of every other thing is dependant upon the existence of Allh and latter is not dependant on anything other than Himself. We see millions of stars in the sky during night, when sun rises in the morning, we see no stars. Where have they gone? They are very much there but in the presence of the sun they become invisible, though they do exist during day as well. Similarly, we can say that the existence of creatures becomes insignificant in the presence of the existence of Allh, though all living creatures do have their existence. So, to say that creatures are actually creator is not correct.

Some saintly people sometimes experience a wonderful state in which they loose all demarcations of self and non-self and get absorbed in the Reality to such an extent that it becomes difficult for them to differentiate between the one who looks and the one who is looked upon. This state is a momentary state and does not last long. Such an experience is something extra-ordinary and cannot be described in words, only those who experience it can understand it, for others it is wastage of time to discuss such things.

 

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Salh

Establishment of Salh is next to the article of  faith i.e., Kalimah. After having firm faith in Allh and His Messenger (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam), the next most important constituent of Islm is the establishment of Salh. Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) said in a Hadith that one who deliberately leaves Salh, does an act of Kufr and that Salh distinguishes a Muslim from a non-Muslim. Salh is the most complete and the best form of worship one can think of. It involves all faculties viz., mental and spiritual for the act of worship in the real form. Best way of asking somebody about Mercy and Kindness is to stand in front of him quietly, nicely with folded hands and one may bow before him in reverence and extreme form of physical respect is shown by prostrating before him, placing ones head of pride on the ground. Since Islm teaches that the only Helper, Merciful and Benevolent is Allh, so it has banned from bowing in front of any other being other than Allh. Islm teaches that Allh alone fulfills all needs from the smallest to the biggest, so a Muslim is asked to bow before Allh only and this he does in Salh, in the form of Qiym, Ruku and Sajdah. The contents of Salh, the Qurn and other words which one is supposed to recite in Salh, express greatness of Allh, His countless bounties and gratefulness for the same with Tawheed (monotheism) and Ikhlas (sincerety) and in the remaining part the bondsman, the performer of Salh, prays to Almighty Allh with full respect from the core of his heart and asks His help and Mercy. The wording is such that it looks as if the bondsman is having a direct conversation with Almighty Allh. It is for this reason that Salh is called Meraj-ul-Mumineen. In Meraj Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) was taken up into the Heavens even above them where he got the highest nearness to Allh and talked to Allh at the closest range, it was at this moment that Allh gave Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) Salh as a gift for his Ummah, so that the Ummah can get nearness of Allh and His pleasure in Salh.

 

Aqeem-us-Salh

Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) used the word Aqeem-us-Salh which means to establish the Salh and did not say to offer the Salh. Ulema say that establishment of Salh means to offer Salh along with all its ideal conditions, for example, to offer Salh in time with proper cleanliness of mind,  soul, body, clothes and place. To offer Salh slowly with grace and not in haste manner, and with presence of mind humility, with fear and love of Allh and in Jamat (congregational) etc.

 

Zakh

Third constituent of Islm after Salh is to pay Zakh (poor tax). Every Muslim is supposed to pay two and a half percent of his/her yearly savings as poor tax if that exceeds the prescribed limit. Zakh is an Arabic word which means purity, so this tax has been imposed on wealthy Muslims so that the rest of their wealth gets purified from the impurities of sins etc. The tax is so much less that it becomes very easy to pay. The main difference of Islmic Tax of Zakh and that of modern taxation is that former is on saving while the latter is on income. It is easy to pay from saving than from that income which has already been spent.

For those who strive for higher states of Imn, the word Zakh means something more. For them it means to purify the exterior (Zhir) and interior (Btin) by shunning away wealth and spending that for the pleasure of Allh and to purify the Qalb from everything other than Allh so that it can perceive the rays of Divine light.

 

Saum

Fourth constituent of Islm is to observe fast (Saum), during the month of Ramadhan. It is obligatory for Muslims to observe fast from dawn to sunset for the whole month of Ramadhan every year. The benefits of Saum for the physical health are numerous which can be seen in the books written on this subject. It has immense spiritual benefits as well. It weakens the bestial instincts in man and strengthens in him the Angelic instincts. Man comes closer to the Angels and his Qalb begins appreciating the fine subtleties of nature.  The one who observes fasts is very much loved by Allh to the extent that Allh has promised that He will Himself reward the doer of this act

 

Haj

The fifth constituent of Islm which Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) stated in this Hadith is Haj. Hajj is obligatory once in a life time for those Muslims who can go to Makkah-al-Mukarramah either on foot, camel or horse etc or have enough money to arrange for other means of transportation, accommodation and meals and can support their dependants monetarily back home. Hajj is performed once in a year from 8th to 12th Zil-Hajj at Makkah-al-Mukarramah. The details can be seen from the various books on Haj.

 

What is Ahsn?

This was the third question asked by Jibra'eel (AS). Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) told him that Ahsn means to worship Allh in such a way as if one is seeing Allh and if one cannot do that then one should at least have this strong conviction that Allh is seeing him all the time. It is only after getting this strong conviction that Allh is seeing, one can worship the way it is desired by Allh. Allmah Shabir Uthmni says that man is constituted of two parts, body and soul. If one exercises his body parts repeatedly his body parts become stronger and stronger, Similarly if one exercises his spiritual faculties repeatedly, his spiritual power becomes stronger and stronger. When one works on Imn and Islm properly and regularly he gets spiritual upliftment by which it becomes easy for him to understand and act upon Islm and Imn, and that is the state of Ahsn, so, to say that Ahsn is something different than Shari'ah is absolute ignorance.

Then he further asked, "When will the Hour be established?" Allh's Apostle replied, "The answerer has no better knowledge than the questioner. But I will inform you about its portents.

When a slave (lady) gives birth to her master.

When the shepherds of black camels start boasting and competing with others in the construction of higher buildings. And the Hour is one of five things which nobody knows except Allh.

The Prophet then recited:

"Verily, with Allh (Alone) is the knowledge of the Hour ......". (31: 34)

This was the fourth question of Jibra'eel ¡.

 

Beliefs concerning the signs of Qiymah

Allh Tal will command Hadhrat Israfeel (AS) to blow the trumpetSoor. The thunderous and destructive sound emitting from the Soor will destroy the entire universe. At the appointed time, forty years later Hadhrat Israfeel (AS) will again sound the Soor. The second sounding of the Soor will restore the creation to life. This restoration of life will be  The Day of Resurrection.

The exact date of Qiymah is known only to Allh Tal. He has not revealed to anyone the actual date and day of Qiymah. There is also absolutely no way or means by which anyone can come to know about its time. However Allh has informed His Ambiy (AS) about some signs and events that will appear before Qiymah.

Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) has mentioned some events and signs by means of which the proximity of Qiymah may be deduced. The signs of Qiymah are of two kinds.

 

The lesser signs

These are the events which will take place from the time of Rasulullahs (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) birth to the appearance of Imm Mahdi. Amongst these the first sign is the honourable birth of Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam).

Imm Bukhari  narrates a Hadith that Rasulullah  (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) reported to have said:

"The following six things are most certainly to occur before Qiymah."

My demise.

Baitul Maqdis will be conquered.

A general plague.

Abundance of wealth.

A Fitnah (affliction) will appear and enter the house of every Arab (this affliction was the martyrdom of Hadhrat Uthmn (RA).

You will be in peace with the Christians, they will then deceive you and attack you with a force of eighty flags and with each flag will be an army of twelve thousand.

Similarly there are many more signs of Qiymah foretold by Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) in the Ahdith,

Ignorance of Deen will increase greatly.

Knowledge of Deen will rapidly decrease.

Alcohol will be consumed in public.

Fornication will become rampant.

Shame and modesty will be eliminated.

Female population will increase.

Dancing, singing and musical instruments will become rampant.

Telling lies will be regarded as a profession.

People will disobey their mothers and regard their fathers as strangers while considering friends to be their close associates.

Children will be disobedient to mothers and subservient to their wife.

Immoral, evil and the worst in character will assume the reigns of power and government.

Public funds will be regarded as private property.

Oppression will become rampant.

People will desire death due to the evil and false practices that will become rampant.

 

The major signs

These are the events which will take place after the appearance of Imm Mahdi to the sounding of the trumpet. These will appear when Qiymah will be very close.

 

The advent of Imm Mahdi

Mahdi in Arabic means rightly guided. Many Mahdis (rightly guided people) have come and will continue to come. But the Mahdi whose mention is made in the Ahdith will make his appearance very close to Qiymah as foretold by Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam). He will be from the progeny of Hadhrat Fatimah (RA). His name will be Muhammed (AS). His fathers name Abdullah and his mothers name Aminah. He will very closely resemble Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam). He will be a tall person. He will have a bright and broad forehead, and will have a long high bridged nose. He will speak with a stutter. Sometimes due to difficulty in speech he will hit his hands on his thighs. His knowledge will be an inspiration from Allh. He will be a resident of Madinah. He will appear at the age of forty in Makkah. The Ulema of Syria and Iraq will pledge allegiance to him. Mahdi will remove the treasures buried in the Kabah and distribute it amongst the Muslims. He will first rule over the Arabs and then the entire world will be under his leadership. He will restore peace and justice in the entire world. All his actions will be in accordance to the Shari'ah of Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam). During his lifetime Dajjl will also appear and Hadhrat Esa (AS) will descend from the heaven and alight on the eastern minaret of the Jama-i-Masjid of Damascus and will perform his Salh behind Imm Mahdi (RA). In the same year during the month of Ramadhan there will be two eclipses. An eclipse of the sun and an eclipse of the moon. During his reign Islm will flourish in the world.

Imm Mahdi will go for the Ziyarat of Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) and then proceed to Damascus. There he will be confronted by a Christian army comprising of eighty groups. Imm Mahdi (RA) will prepare an army from Damascus and fight the Christians. In this battle the Muslims will be divided into three groups. One will turn their backs on the Christian army and flee, their repentance will not be accepted and they will die as non believers. Another group will be rewarded with martyrdom. The third group will be victorious and will always be saved from destruction and all forms of evil.

 

Up to this day, whoever has claimed to be Mahdi was a liar

During the time of emperor Akbar, Sayed Muhammad Johnpuri claimed to be Mahdi. During the British rule of India, Ahmed Qadyni also claimed to be Mahdi. Presently there is one claiming this post in Sudan.

They are all liars, since none of them conforms to the description of Imm Mahdi (RA) as reported by Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam).

 

Second major signthe appearance of Dajjl ()

The word Dajjl is derived from the Arabic word Dajal (), which means to deceive, dupe, cheat etc. Hence Dajjl means imposter, swindler, cheat. Many Dajjls of this meaning have appeared. Imm Abu Dawood and Imm Tirmizi (RA) report the following Hadith of Rasulullah (RA)

There will be Thirty liars in my Ummah, each one will claim to be a Nabi- whereas I am the seal of Nubuwat.

The Dajjl mentioned in the Ahdith that will appear during the reign of Imm Mahdi, will be from the Jewish tribe. He will be known as Maseeh. He will be one-eyed. His hair will be curly. On his forehead the letters, Kf, F, R ( ) will be inscribed, which true believers will be able to read. This is the stamp of Kufr  which appears on his forehead. He will appear between Syria and Iraq and claim to be a Nabi. He will thereafter go to Isfahn where 70,000 (seventy thousand) Jews will become his followers. Here he will lay claim to divinity, and will spread mischief on earth. Two years before his appearance there will be a severe drought. To test the believers. Allh will allow him to demonstrate many supernatural feats. He will burn a large fire and call it Jahannam. He will also have a garden called Jannah.

With a large army he will move around and cause pillage and plunder in many lands. He will then attempt to gain entry into Makkah, but the angels protecting it will not allow him to enter. He will then proceed to Madina and halt on the outskirts of Madina at Mount Uhud. During that time Madinah will have seven gates. Two angels will be standing guard over these gates and Dajjl will be unable to enter Madina as well. He will then travel towards Damascus where Imm Mahdi (AS) will be living. Imm Mahdi (AS) will prepare a Muslim army to fight Dajjl. On this occasion, while making preparation for the battle against Dajjl, Hadhrat Esa (AS), resting his hands on the shoulders of two angels will descend from the heaven. He will alight on the eastern Minaret of the Jama-i-Masjid of Damascus.

 

The descent of Hadhrat Eis (AS)

The third major sign of Qiymah is the descent of Hadhrat Eis (AS) and the killing of Dajjal.

The descent of Hadhrat Esa (AS) is substantiated from Quran, Hadith and consensus of opinion. It is incumbent to hold this belief regarding Hadhrat Eis (AS).

Hadhrat Eis (AS) is a Nabi amongst the Ambiy of the Bani Israel. He had a miraculous birth, i.e. without the agency of a father. His mother Hadhrat Maryam (AS) never married. He was engaged in propagating the Message and Deen of Allh. Due to hatred and jealously the Jews conspired to murder him, and thus locked him up in a room.

Allh Tal sent an angel to raise Hadhrat Eis (AS) physically i.e. with his body while he was alive. A person among the Jews entered the room to see Hadhrat Eis (AS). Allh transformed his appearance to the like of Hadhrat Eis (AS). The Jews took him as Hadhrat Eis (AS) and murdered him. Thus he was saved snf raised physically to the heaven while he was still alive. He remains there alive to this day.

He will descend from heaven during the reign of Imm Mahdi (AS). Imm Mahdi (AS) will propose to hand over all control to Nabi Eis (AS) who will decline saying that his special duty is to slay Dajjl. Allh will aid him with such power and strength that whenever a non-believer touches his breath will die. Hadhrat Eis (AS) will pursue and kill Dajjl at a place called Bb Lud which is in Shm. After destroying Dajjl and his army Hadhrat Eis (AS) and Imm Mahdi (AS) will console those who had suffered under the hands of Dajjl.

Finally, the whole world will come under Islmic domination. During this glorious Islmic reign the whole world will be filled with justice and piety.

Imm Mahdi (AS) will rule over the world for seven years before his death in Baytul Maqdis. His age at the time of his death will be between 47 and 50. Hadhrat Eis (AS) will perform his Janzah (funeral prayers) and bury him in Baytul Maqdis.

After his death the leadership of Islm will pass over to Hadhrat Eis (AS). He will adhere fully to the Shari'ah of Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam). (Beliefs concerning the Qiymah have been quoted from the bookAqidul Islm)

 

The appearance of Yajooj and Majooj (gog and magog)

Yajooj and Majooj is a tribe from the progeny of Yafas the son of Hadhrat Nuh (AS).

They have been imprisoned behind a wall built by Zul Qarnain between two mountain ranges. They will emerge and wreak great destruction and turmoil on earth. Hadhrat Eis (AS) will go away to the mountains and pray to Allh for their destruction. Allh Tal will finally eliminate them by a natural disaster. Thereafter Allh will create birds with long necks who will their bodies and throw their remains into the sea. There will be a great flood thereafter that will cleanse the earth of the smell and diseases that will result from the destruction of this tribe. After the destruction of this tribe, there will be great bounties and blessing of Allh on earth.

This prosperity will remain for seven years. Thereafter, Hadhrat Eis (AS) will die a physical death after accomplishing his duty. He will be buried in a grave next to Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam). In his lifetime Hadhrat Eis (AS) will appoint his Khalifah (successor), a man named Jahjaf of Yemen from the tribe of Quhtn. He will rule with great justice and piety. After him will follow several rulers and slowly evil and corruption will once again set in.

During this time the heavens will be covered with a dense fog which will envelope the earth for forty days. All Muslims will develop cold as a result of the fog and all non believers will lapse into unconsciousness, some will recover after a day while others after two or three days.

 

Proof

Wait for that day when a smoke will appear from the heavens. (44:11)

 

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The rising of the sun in the west

Among the major signs of Qiymah is the rising of the sun in the West.

It is reported in a Hadith that the night preceding the rising of the sun in the West will become extremely extended. The duration of the night will instill restlessness and fear into people and animals. Children will awaken crying, travellers will tire, people will repent for their sins on seeing these signs. Eventually the sun will rise the following morning from the West. On this occasion the rays of the sun will be very dull. The sun will rise from the West until it reaches more or less the meridian and then again set in the West thereafter it will rise in the East as normally.

When this event will occur, neither Imn nor Tawbah   will be valid. If any non believer repents and accepts Imn thereafter his repentance and belief will not be acceptable.

 

First proof

The day that certain of the signs of Allh do come, believing shall not profit anyone who had not believed before or had not earned some good in his belief. (6:158)

It is stated in Bukhari and Muslim that the words certain of the signs means the rising of the sun from the West.

 

Second proof

Hadhrat Abu Hurairah (RA) reports that Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) said:

Qiymah will not appear but after the Rising of the sun from the West. On seeing this people will ,accept Imn but their acceptance will be of no use to them. (Bukhari Muslim)

After the rising of the sun in the West, an earthquake will grip mount Safa in Makkah. The mountain will split open and a strange animal will emerge. This animal will speak to people.

 

Third proof

And when the word is fulfilled concerning them, we shall bring forth a beast of the earth, who will speak unto them for mankind did not believe." ( 27:82)

After the disappearance of this creature an extremely fresh and fragrant breeze will commence from the South. This breeze will cause all the believers to die, and there will remain no person to differentiate between virtue and evil.

 

The reign of africans

After the death of all Muslims (in the way mentioned above) the world will be filled with non believers. The world will be under the domination of the Kuffr and the Habashies (Africans) will rule. They will destroy the Kabah Sharief, and remove the treasures buried under it.

The world will be plunged in immorality, evil and corruption. People will satisfy their sexual desires like animals in public. The Qurn will be raised, there will remain no believers and the worst epoch of moral degeneration and oppression will be witnessed. There will also be severe sicknesses and diseases.

 

First Proof

Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) has said that a short legged Habshi (negro) will remove the treasure of the Kabah.

 

Second proof

Hadhrat Abu Hurairah (RA) reports that Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) has said:

Qiymah would not occur until the women of the tribe of Daus would worship their idols.

Thereafter peace will prevail in Shm. It would be the greatest period of technology and science.

 

The last sign of Qiymah

The last sign of Qiymah is that a large and raging fire will burn in Adan (Yemen) which will turn the people towards the plains of congregation. Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) has made mention of this fire to be among the major signs of Qiymah.

After all these signs appear Allh will command Hadhrat Israfeel (AS) to sound the Soor (trumpet). The Soor is a gigantic horn shaped trumpet. It will bring about the destruction of the entire universe and the creation will die. The souls of those who have died will become unconscious. However, those whom Allh wishes to save will be saved.

A period will pass in this condition. Thereafter, Hadhrat Israfeel (AS) will be again commanded to sound the trumpet, which will result in all the dead to be resurrected. The period between the two soundings of the trumpet will be forty years or 40 months.

After this resurrection everybody will gather on the plains of congregation. Experiencing the difficulties of this day, people will go to the Ambiy for intercession. Finally Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) will intercede. and the scales of deeds will be set up. Deeds of every person will be weighed. The pious and virtuous will receive their book of records in their right hand and the evil will receive it in their left hand, On this occasion Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) will offer water from Haudhi Kawther (the well of blessing and intercession) to his followers . This water will be whiter than milk and sweeter than honey.

 

First proof

And you will see men drunken, yet they will not be drunken but the chastisement of Allh will be severe on them. (22:2)

 

Second proof

It is He who has created this the first time and it will be Him who will create it the second time. And the second creation is easier than the first for Him" (30:27)

 

Third proof

And the hour will come, there is no doubt thereof and Allh will raise those who are in the graves. (22:7)

 

The nature and condition of Qiymah

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When the Sun is overthrown, and when the stars fall. (81:1-2)

() () ()

And when the trumpet will sound one blast, and the earth and the mountains shall be lifted up and crushed with one crash. Then on that day will the event befall. (69:14-15)

() () () () () () () ()

When the event befalleth -there is no denying that it will befall - abasing (some) exalting (others) when the earth is shaken a shock and the hills are ground to powder -so that they became a scattered dust. And ye will be three kinds -(first) those on the right hand, what of those on the right hand? And (then) those on the left hand, what of those on the left hand? (56:1-8)

 

There are many such verses regarding Qiymah. After the first sounding of the trumpet everything will perish. Only Allh will remain. Allh will then ask:

Whose kingdom is it today? (40:16)

And then Allh will reply Himself:

It is the kingdom of Allh most Powerful. (40:16)

Forty years hence Allh will give life to Hadhrat Israfeel (AS) who will be commanded to sound the trumpet once more.

The angels who carry the Throne of Allh will be resurrected first. Thereafter Hadhrat Jibraeel (AS), Meekaeel (AS) and Israeel (AS) will be resurrected. Then the earth, sky, sun and the moon will be restored.

A rain will fall due to which all living things and people will be resurrected with body and soul.

When the second trumpet will sound people will raise from their graves and go towards their Allh. (36:51)

On the day when the earth will be changed to other than the earth." (15:48)

Hence the plain of congregation and reckoning will not be the earth we live in.

After waiting a very long period on the plains of reckoning and after becoming disturbed and frustrated due to the heat and thirst there, people will turn towards Hadhrat Adam (AS) and request him for intercession so that the task of reckoning may commence. Hadhrat Adam (AS) will send all the people to Hadhrat Nuh (AS). Hadhrat Nooh (AS) will send them to Hadhrat Ebrahim (AS). Hadhrat Ebrahim (AS) will send them to Hadhrat Mus (AS). Hadhrat Mus (AS) will send them to Hadhrat Eis (AS). Hadhrat Easa (AS) will guide all the creation and to Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) and request for intercession.

Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) will then intercede and ask Allh Tal to begin the reckoning.

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The distribution of deeds

After this intercession of Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) the distribution of deeds will take place. Those who were obedient, virtuous and pious will receive their book of deeds in their right hands whereas the disobedient with evil deeds will receive their book of deeds in their left hands.

Those who will receive their book of deeds in the right hand will be pleased and in comfort and shall gain entrance into Jannah and those who will receive their book of deeds in their left hand will be in grief and pain. They shall be sent to Jahannam.

 

First proof

() () () () () ()

Then he who is given his record in his right hand. Soon will his account be taken by an easy reckoning and he will turn to his people rejoicing but he who his given his record behind his back soon will he cry for Protection and he will enter a blazing fire. (84-7-12)

 

Second proof

(It will be said to him) Read your (own) record- sufficient is your soul this day to make out an account against you." (17:14)

At this juncture the Ambiy and the two angels Kirman Ktibeen will be summoned. Allh Tal says:

And the Ambiy and the witnesses will be brought forward and a just decision pronounced between them. (39:69)

The Ambiy will say we have delivered the message but the non believers refused to accept. The non believers will deny and reject the Ambiys testimony. Allh Tal will then ask the Ambiy to produce witness.

Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) and his Ummah will bear witness for the Ambiy (AS) that they had delivered the message. The angels Kirman Ktibeen will present their records of deeds. The non believers will deny this too. Allh will give the organs of the human body power to speak and they will testify against the non believers.

 

Third proof

On the day when their tongues, their hands and their feet will bear witness against them.(24:24)

 

And if there be (no more than) the weight of a mustard seed we will bring it (to account) and sufficient are we to take account. (21:47)

Hadhrat Aisha (RA) reports that Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) used to recite the following Dua in his prayers.

O Allh ease my reckoning.

Hadhrat Aisha (RA) says, once when Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) completed his Salh she asked him What is ease of reckoning? Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) replied that Allh forgives you on receipt of your actions of reckoning.

It is reported in a Hadith that Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) has said: Allh will execute justice between animals also. If an animal with horns had hurt another animal without horns, justice will be executed between them also. All animals will be commanded to perish thereafter.

After that the actions of everyone will be weighed. Allh will erect a bridge over Jahannam called Pul-i-Sirt. The believers will cross it and enter into Jannah and the people destined for Jahannam will fall over into Jahannam while crossing it.

Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) will be the first to cross this bridge with his followers. Some believers will cross it with the speed of lightening others slower and others even slower depending on their deeds. There will be complete darkness over the bridge but for the believers there will be a light (the light of Imn) with which they will see.

 

Haudhi Kawther

On the day of Qiymah every Nabi will be given a gift as a special mark of his Nubuwat. Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) will be given the Haudhi Kawther. It will be the most distinguished gift on this day. The Qurn speaks of this in the following manner.

Verily we have given you kawthar (abundance). (108:1)

There are also may Ahdith which speak about this great gift.

In another Hadith it is reported that those parts of the body of a Mumin that he used to wash while making Wudhu, will glitter on this day as a mark of being the followers of Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam).

 

When people will rise from their graves they will be extremely thirsty.

Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) is reported to have said the length of my Haudh will be the equal to the distance covered in a months journey. Its water will be whiter than milk and sweeter than honey. There will be goblets to the magnitude of the stars in the sky. Whoever drinks of it once will never be thirsty again.

Some are of the opinion that attendance at this well will be before reckoning while others are of the opinion it will take place after reckoning.

It seems that some will drink from it as they rise from their graves whilst others will be delayed due to their sins. While some believers will drink after getting salvation from Jahannam and before entrance into Jannah.

 

What will Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) intercede for?

Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) will intercede for the following:

For the commencement of the reckoning.

For ease of reckoning.

Salvation for those destined for Jahannam.

Salvation for those who have been entered into Jahannam.

Elevation in the ranks of many of his followers:

The Ambiy (AS), Ulema, Awliy, Shuhad, Huffz and the pious will be granted permission to intercede for the unfaithful believers who have been destined for Jahannam. Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) will be first to be allowed to intercede.

Hadhrat Anas (RA) reports that Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) has said:

When the Last Day will dawn and all the former and latter ones will be gathered together on the plain of reckoning, there will be great anxiety among the people. Thus, they (i.e., some of their representatives)  will approach Hadhrat Adam (AS) to intercede on their behalf, and Hadhrat Adam (AS) will reply, I am not worthy of it. You better go to Hadhrat Ibrahim (AS), he is the friend of Allh and may be able to help you. They will accordingly approach Hadhrat Ibrahim (AS) and make the request of intercession to him. He too, will reply, I am not worthy of it. You better go to Hadhrat Mus (AS), he is the speaker with Allh and may help you. They will accordingly approach to Hadhrat Mus (AS)  and make the request to him. But he again, will reply, I am not worthy of it. You better go to Hadhrat Eis (AS), he is the spirit of Allh and may be able to help you. They will accordingly approach to Hadhrat Eis (AS) and place same request to him. But he will also say I am not worthy of it. You better go to the Last Divine Ambiy (AS), Muhammad (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam). They will thereupon, come to me and ask me to intercede, I will say, This is my task.

I will then, seek an audience  with the Al-Merciful which will be conceded. Allh will communicate  to me the knowledge of some of His praises (which are not known to me at present). I shall Glorify Him through those praises and bow low, touching the ground with the forehead in reverence.

(According to report in Musnad-i-Ahmad), Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) will remain in this posture for a week. It will then be said to me, O Muhammad! Raise your head and ask what you want. Your prayer will be heard. Ask for anything and it will be granted. Make what ever intercession you wish to make and it will be allowed. I shall say, My followers, (Meaning mercy be shown to them today, and they may be forgiven). I will be told to go and take them out of Jahannam even those who have faith equivalent to weight of  a mustard  seed. I shall go and do so. After wards, I shall return to the benevolent presence of Allh Tal, and again praise Him with the words inspired  to me and fall into prostration before Him, It will, once more, be said to me, O Muhammad! Raise your head and say what you want. Your prayer will be heard. Ask for anything you like and it will be granted. Make whatever intercession you wish to make and it will be allowed. I shall say My followers. I will be told to go and take them out of Jahannam in whose hearts there is faith even of the weight of a dust particle. I shall go  and do so. Afterwards, I shall  return to the benevolent presence of Allh Tal and again praise Him in the words inspired to me and fall in prostration before Him. It will once more be  said to me. "O Mohammad raise your head and say what you want . Ask for anything you like and it will be granted. Make whatever intercession you wish to make and it will be allowed. I shall  say  My Followers. I will thereupon, be told to go and take them out of Jahannam in whose hearts there is faith even of a lesser weight than a dust-particle. I shall go and do it. After it, I shall return for the fourth time, to the benevolent presence of Allh Tal and praise Him in the words inspired in me and fall in prostration before Him. It will be said to me, O Muhammad! Raise your head and say what you want. your prayer will  be heard.  Ask for anything you like and it will be granted. Make any intercession you wish to make and it will be granted. Make any intercession you wish to make and it will be allowed. I  will then say O Allh allow me to intercede on behalf of all those who may have  said la-illaha-illalah . Allh will thereupon, remark. It is not your task. By my Power and Glory and by My Majesty and Magnificence, I shall take out of Jahannam  all those who have said La-illaha-illAllh .

It is reported by Hadhrat Abu Huriarah (RA) that Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) said:

On the Day of Qiymah such people will also benefit from my intercession who have committed major sins".

On the Day of Qiymah Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) will be crowned with the position of Maqme Mahmood ( ),  the status that all the Ambiy (AS) wished for. On this day Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam), on being implored by his followers and moved by  their pathetic state will step forward with fullest faith in the Mercy of Allh and entreat Him humbly that the state of anxious uncertainty be ended and judgment be pronounced. On  this day the high and elevated position of Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) will be manifested.

Once the door of intercession will be opened by Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) and other Ambiy (AS), angels and pious servants of Allh will also be allowed to intercede for the believers.

Hadhrat Abu Saeed Khudri (RA) reports that Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam)  said: Among my followers there will be some people who will intercede on behalf of nations and communities and some will intercede on behalf of groups, and some who will intercede on behalf of one person and Allh will accept the intercession of everybody, eventually all the believers shall enter Jannah.

In some Ahdith it is also indicated that even the children who have died in their infancy will intercede on behalf of their parents.

Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) assured intercession for the following  people:

The believer who visits the grave Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam).

He who sends Durood and Salm abundantly on Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam).

He who passes away in Makkah and Madinah thereby regarding dying in these two blessed places as a reward.

Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) will not intercede for non-believers, similarly he had indicated not to intercede for certain sinful Muslims e.g., oppressive ruler and those who transgress the boundaries of Shariah.

May Allh bestow us death with Imn and may all the Muslims benefit from Rasulullahs (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) intercession.

 

A'rf

There is a place called Arf between Jannah and Jahannam where the dwellers of Jannah and Jahannam will converse with the one another. Allh Tal says in Qurn:

Between them shall be a veil. (7:46)

And on the height will be men who would know every one by his marks. (7:46)

The Ulema are of the opinion that the dwellers of Arf will be those who have good and evil actions in equal. These people will express their wish to entered Jannah. Allh will finally order their entrance into Jannah.

Enter into Jannah no fear shall be on your nor shall ye grieve. (7:49)

 

Jahannam has been already created

Allh Tal says in the Qurn:

It (Jahannam) has been prepared for the Non-believers (3:131)

It comprises of severe physical and spiritual chastisements and tortures. The dwellers of Jahannam who posses a little bit of Imn will gain entrance into Jannah after being punished for their sins while the non-believers and Mushrikeen will remain in Jahannam eternally. Allh Tal says in Qurn:

Allh forgives not that partners should be set up with Him but He forgive  anything  else (4:48)

For those who reject their Allh  is the penalty of Jahannam and evil is such destination (67:6)

() () () ()

Verily the tree of Zaqqom will be the food of the sinful like molten brass; it will  boil in their insides, like the boiling of scalding water. (44:43-45)

In front of such a one is Jahannam and he is given for drink  boiling water. (14:16)

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And verily Jahannam is the promised abode for them all  to it are seven gates. (15:43-44)

It is related  in Bukhari that the mildest punishment to be inflicted to a person in Jahannam is that he will be made  to wear a pair of sandals of fire and due to its intense heat his brain will boil up.

Non believers will not get salvation from Jahannam. The Qurn is replete with the words:

Those who reject (the Truth) among the people of the Book and among the polytheists will be in hell-fire, to dwell there in (forever). They are worst of creatures (98:6)

 

Proofs for the physical existence of Jannah

Allh Tal says in Qurn:

It (Jannah) has been  prepared for the pious. (55-46)

The incident of Hadhrat Adam (AS) and Hadhrat Hawa (AS), when they were taken out of Jannah and placed on earth proves the physical existence of Jannah.

Also, Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) himself saw Jannah and Jahannam on the occasion of Meraj.

 

Deedr () of Allh Tal

The greatest blessing in Jannah will be the Deedr of Allh Tal. ( i.e. the dwellers of Jannah will be able to see (Allh Tal).

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That day will faces be resplendent. Looking towards their Allh. (75:22-23)

Hadhrat Suhaib (RA) narrates that he heard Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) saying, when the people of Jannah will arrive there, Allh will enquire from them Do you wish that We may grant one more favour to you (i.e. bestow upon you a blessing in addition to what you have already received)? They will answer You have  bestowed so  many favours on us and you saved us from Jahannam and granted us Jannah. What more can we ask for ? The veil will then be lifted and they will be able to see Allh Tal. This blessing will surpass all other favours that had been conferred on them.

Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) thereafter recited the following verse of the Qurn:

 

 

Or those who do good is the best place  and more there to. (10:26)

Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) is reported to have said:

 

You will see your Allh Tal  clearly. (Bukhari and Muslim)

Hadhrat Jareer Ibn Abdullah (RA) narrated that one night we were sitting with Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam), and he looked at the moon. It was the fourteenth night of the month, and the full moon was shining in the sky. Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) then turned towards us and said:

"Surely you will see Allh Tal as you are seeing the moon. You will have to make no special effort to see Him, nor will there be any other difficulty. (Bukhari and Muslim)

 This Hadith has been narrated by twenty one Sahbah (RA).

 

 

Nay, but surely on that Day they will be covered from their Allh Tal (and prevented from seeing Him)  (pertaining to the non-believers). (83:15)

 

It is impossible to see Allh Tal

In this world in a state of wakefulness, it is not possible to see Allh Tal with the naked eye.

 

First proof:

The eyes cannot comprehend Him but He comprehends everything. (6:103)

This means that in this world the creation is unable to see Allh Tal with the naked eye. However Allh comprehends everything.

 

Second proof:

It is reported that Hadhrat Abdullah Bin Shaqeeq (RA) said to Hadhrat Abu Zar Gafari (RA), If I had met Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam), I would have certainly asked him a question. Hadhrat Abu Zar (RA) asked: What is it that you wished to ask? He replied: I would have asked, did you (i.e., Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam)) see your Allh? Hadhrat Abu Zar (RA) said: I asked Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) this question and he replied: Allh is Nur, how could I have seen him. (Tirmidhi)

To have seen Allh Tal by Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) on the night of Meraj is not contradictory to this Hadith, since Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) saw Allh in Jannah and not in this world. This proves that Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) did not see Allh Tal in this world.

However pious people are sometimes most privileged to see Allh Tal in their dreams. It is reported that Imm Abu Haniefah (RA) and Imm Ahmed bin Hambal (RA) saw Allh Tal in their dream.

 

Punishment and reward in the Hereafter

Punishment and reward in the Hereafter is dependent on the condition of man at the time of his death.

 

First proof:

Hadhrat Abdullah Ibn Masood (RA) reports that Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) said: You may do good deeds which take you towards Jannah, you will only be a foot away from Jannah and you may do evil that ultimately leads you into Jahannam.

 

Second proof:

Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) has said in a Hadith:

Your deeds are judged by your condition at the time of your death.

 

Allh Tal accepts his repentance

Whenever a person repents sincerely, Allh Tal accepts his repentance and forgives him. However at the time of death, when he becomes able to see the angels of death and punishment, his repentance and Imn is not accepted.

First proof:

Of no effect is the repentance of those who continue to do evil, until death faces them and he says now have I repented indeed. (4-8)

Second proof:

Say! O my servants who have transgressed against their souls- Despair not of the mercy of Allh; for Allh forgives all sins, for He is All Forgiving Most Merciful. (39-53)

 

Third proof:

Allh accepts the repentance of those who do evil in ignorance and repent soon afterwards, to them will Allh turn in mercy, for Allh is full of knowledge and wisdom. (4:17)

 

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Chapter (Bb) 39 : Without Tarjamatul Bb.

 

Purpose of Tarjamatul Bb

Imm Bukhari has not established any title (Tarjamatul Bb) for this chapter. In some copies of Bukhari Sharief even the word "Bb" is not there which can imply that this Hadith will be included in the previous chapter. In previous chapter Imm Bukhari said that Imn, Islm and Ahsn are all Deen, Here tries to convey that Deen has different grades  as in the Hadith quoted here, the Heraclius uses the word "Deen" when he asks Ibn Sufyn, "Does any body leave this Deen after entering into it? Abu Sufyn answers in negative. In response to the answer of Abu Sufyn, Heraclius says, "That is Imn when a small bit of it enters into the hearts, no one hates it" What Heraclius called as "Deen" in his question, he called the same as "Imn" in his answer, thereby meaning that both are same.

Sheikh-ul-Hind says: In this chapter Imm Bukhari is compensating the thing which he said in the chapter titled "Fear of a believer that his deeds may be nullified". In that chapter Imm Bukhari said that a believer should live in a constant fear of losing his Imn. In this Hadith, he is saying that once Imn gets incorporated in heart then it never leaves.

 

Hadith No. 50

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Narrated by Abdullah bin Abbas (RA)

I was informed by Abu Sufyn that Heraclius said to him, "I asked you whether they (followers of Muhammad) were increasing or decreasing. You replied that they were increasing. And in fact, this is the way of true Faith till it is complete in all respects. I further asked you whether there was anybody, who, after embracing his (the Prophets) religion (Islm) became displeased and discarded it. You replied in the negative, and in fact, this is (a sign of) true faith. When its delight enters the heart and mixes with them completely, nobody can be displeased with it."

 

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Chapter (Bb) 40 : "The superiority of that person who leaves all doubtful things for the sake of his religion.

 

Purpose of Tarjamatul Bb

Here Imm Bukhari wants to say that not only Imn has grades, but "Taqw" also has grades. Taqw means to refrain from sins because of fear of Allh. Its first grade is to refrain from Kufr and Shirk, second grade is to refrain from major sins, third grade is to refrain from minor sins and fourth grade is to refrain from doubtful things.

 

Hadith No. 51

( ) ( ) ( ) ( )  

 

Narrated by an-Noman bin Bashir (RA)

I heard Allh's Apostle (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) saying, 'Both legal and illegal things are evident but in between them there are doubtful (suspicious) things and most of the people have no knowledge about them. So whoever saves himself from these suspicious things saves his religion and his honor. And whoever indulges in these suspicious things is like a shepherd who grazes (his animals) near the Hima (private pasture) of someone else and at any moment he is liable to get in it. (O people!) Beware! Every king has a Hima and the Hima of Allh on the earth is His illegal (forbidden) things. Beware! There is a piece of flesh in the body if it becomes good (reformed) the whole body becomes good but if it gets spoilt the whole body gets spoilt and that is the heart.

 

NarratorHadhrat Noman bin Bashir

An-No'man bin Bashir (RA) is the son of Bashir bin Sa'd (RA) who embraced Islm in 'Aqba-Thania'. He participated in all Gazwas including Badr. His mother was the sister of a famous suhabi namely Abdullah bin Rawaha (RA). Noman bin Bashir (RA) was born in 3nd year of Hijrah and is called   (First born child in Islm) after Hijrah of Ansr from Madinah as Abdullah bin Zubair (RA) was the first born child in Islm after Hijrah of Muhjireen. Hadhrat No'man bin Bashir (RA) was the governor of Hamas and Kofa during Khilfat of Hadhrat Mwiyah (RA). There are one hundred  and fourteen Ahdith narrated on his authority, of which five are agreed upon. He died in 64 Hijrah, may Allh be pleased with his soul and elevate his rank.

 

Status of the Hadith

This Hadith is one of the great Ahdith. Some people say that it is one third of Islm. Imm Abu Dawood has chosen four Ahdith from a total of five lac Ahdith, which he thinks are enough for one's Deen and this is one among these Ahdith. These Ahdith are:

1)

2)

3)

4)

Comments

Hadhrat No'man bin Bashir (RA) says that he heard Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) as saying that Hall (Permissible things in the Shariah) is quite evident and Harm (forbidden things in Shari'ah) is also evident. A believer is supposed to act upon Hall and to refrain from Harm. But there are a good number of things where one gets confused whether these are Hall or Harm. It is these things which are labelled as "Mushtabiht" . In this Hadith Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) says that one who keeps himself away even from doubtful things or Mushtabiht, he will definitely save his Deen.

 

Hall and Harm is evident

This means that a particular thing being Hall is proved beyond any doubt by the four sources of Fiqh i.e., the Qur'an, Hadith, consensus of the Ummah (Ijma-) and Qayyas (juristic reasoning). There is no difference of opinion in the Ummah about these things being Hall or Harm. Such doubtless Hall things are to be taken and acted upon without any hesitation and such doubtless Harm things are to be abstained from. This is the common man's grade of Taqw (Piety).

 

Mushtabiht

There are many things which fall between the two groups i.e., clear-cut Hall and clear-cut Harm, and these are called Mushtabiht or doubtful things. There are many things which make them doubtful. Allmah Khattabi says that one should not understand that there is nothing known about these things in Shariah because Allh has ordained about everything. But the thing is that the statement of Shari'ah about a particular thing is sometimes not told in clear terms and common people do not find easy answers to such things and hence become doubtful as regards the common man but are not doubtful near Allh or Shari'ah or the learned people. This thing is clear from the wording of this Hadith only which says that many people do not know it, which indirectly means that some people know it. Then the message of this Hadith would be that anyone who does not know the status of a particular thing as regards to Hall or Harm, should remain away from it till he comes to know about its true nature from the learned scholars of Islm. If it turns to be Hall, he can go for it and if it turns to be Harm than he should leave it.

Imm Nawawi says that Mushtabiht are those things about which the proofs of being Hall or Harm, are contradictory. He says that it will be better to leave them  even if some Mujtahid grants its permission. This type of Taqw is called Vara ().

 

Some examples of Mushtabiht

The rulings applicable in Dharul-Harb ( ) and Dharul-Islm ( ) are different . There are certain things which become permissible in Dharul-Harb but are forbidden in Dhar-ul-Islm. Now, if it is not clear whether a particular country should be called Dharul-Harb or Dharul-Islm, it is better not to consider those things permissible which otherwise become permissible.

Women have been asked not to visit grave yards but there is another Hadith which says that not going to grave yards has not been made obligatory on them. There seems to be a contradiction, in such an event going of women to grave yards has become doubtful, so it would be better for them not to go.

Some times a thing is quite Hall but others get confused about it, and there is every apprehension that they may put false allegations against the doer, that time it is better to avoid such situations, though one is doing quite permissible job. Once Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) was accompanying his wife Safiyah during night, two men from Ansr passed by, Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) at once told them that she is my wife Safiya. By doing this Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) closed any opportunity of Satan to put wrong thing in their minds.

So whoever saves himself from these suspicious things saves his religion and his honour

By leaving doubtful things one saves both his religion as well as his honour. People take in high esteem a person who avoids even a doubtful thing and regard him as a pious man. For example, any person who avoids a particular medicine which contains alcohol is considered very pious by the people. One who takes pains to avoid even doubtful things he is very unlikely to commit sins and as such he will definitely save his Deen. And whoever indulges in these suspicious things is like a shepherd who grazes his cattle near the Hima (private pasture) of someone else and at any moment his cattle is liable to get in it.

 

What is Hima?

In olden days the kings used to select a fertile piece of green pasture as their private pasture and would punish any one grazing his cattle therein. So, the shepherds usually grazed their cattle far away from it fearing that that they might be punished as there is every possibility that these cattle may get in the forbidden pasture.

 

Hima of Allh is His forbidden things

Allmah Shabir Uthmni says that man is like a shepherd and his Nafs is like cattle and the doubtful things are like the surroundings around the Hima (private pasture of Allh i.e., His Forbidden things). So, the Nafs which takes the forbidden things is likely to indulge in Harm things.

 

Beware! There is a pice of flesh

Beware! There is a piece of flesh in the body if it becomes good (reformed) the whole body becomes good but if it gets spoilt the whole body gets spoilt and that is the heart.

In this Hadith it is said that one can save his religion and honour if one avoids the forbidden things and in this part of the Hadith it is said that one can achieve this thing by concentrating on the Qalb. If the Qalb becomes purified from all the worldly filth then it would be easy to achieve higher grades of Taqw.

 

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Chapter (Bb) 41 : "To pay one fifth of the war booty (in the name of Allh) is a part of faith.

 

Purpose of Tarjamatul Bb

Imm Bukhari is enumerating the branches of Imn and he has kept this thing as last probably because some people sometimes get the booty after death.

 

Hadith No. 52

 

 

Narrated by Hadhrat Abu Jamra (RA)

I used to sit with Ibn 'Abbas and he made me sit on his sitting place. He requested me to stay with him in order that he might give me a share from his property. So I stayed with him for two months. Once he told (me) that when the delegation of the tribe of  'Abdul Qais came to the Prophet, the Prophet asked them, "Who are the people (i.e. you)? (Or) who are the delegate?" They replied, "We are from the tribe of Rabi'a." Then the Prophet said to them, "Welcome! O people (or O delegation of 'Abdul Qais)! Neither will you have disgrace nor will you regret." They said, "O Allh's Apostle! We cannot come to you except in the sacred month and there is the infidel tribe of Mudar intervening between you and us. So please order us to do something good (religious deeds) so that we may inform our people whom we have left behind (at home), and that we may enter Paradise (by acting on them)." Then they asked about drinks (what is legal and what is illegal). The Prophet ordered them to do four things and forbade them from four things. He ordered them to believe in Allh Alone and asked them, "Do you know what is meant by believing in Allh Alone?" They replied, "Allh and His Apostle know better." Thereupon the Prophet said, "It means:

To testify that none has the right to be worshipped but Allh and Muhammad is Allh's Apostle.

To offer prayers perfectly

To pay the Zakh (obligatory charity)

To observe fast during the month of Ramadan.

And to pay Al-Khumus (one fifth of the booty to be given in Allh's Cause).

Then he forbade them four things, namely, Hantam, Dubba,' Naqir Ann Muzaffat or Muqaiyar; (These were the names of pots in which alcoholic drinks were prepared) (The Prophet mentioned the container of wine and he meant the wine itself). The Prophet further said (to them): "Memorize them (these instructions) and convey them to the people whom you have left behind."

 

Comments

Al-Khumus means one fifth of the booty one gets after participating in the war fought in the way of Allh. Imm Bukhari wants to convey that paying of this Khumus is also part of faith. Allh Tal says in the Qur'an:

"And know that out of all the booty that ye may acquire (in war) a fifth share is assigned to Allh and to the apostle and to near relatives orphans the needy and the wayfarer if ye do believe in Allh and in the revelation We sent down to Our servant on the day of testing the day of the meeting of the two forces.  For Allh hath power over all things." (8:41)

 

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Chapter (Bb) 42 : What came in the saying The reward of deeds depends upon the intention and seeking the reward from Allh. And every person will have reward according to what he has intended. And this includes Faith, Ablution, Salh, Fasting, Zakh, Hajj and other commands of Allh and Allh Tal said: Each one does (deeds) according to his intentions and the spending of a man for his family with the intention of having reward from Allh, will be rewarded as alms (Sadqah). And the Prophet (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) said: But Jihd and intention.

 

Purpose of Tarjamatul Bb

As per Imm Bukhari a deed will fetch reward only if it is done with sincere intention (Niyyat) with the sole aim of seeking reward from Allh (Hisbat).

 

Hadith No. 53

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Narrated by Hadhrat Umar bin Khattab (RA)

Allhs Apostle (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam)  said, "The reward of deeds depends upon the intention and every person will get the reward according to what he has intended. So whoever emigrated for Allh and His Apostle, his emigration was for Allh and His Apostle. And whoever emigrated for worldly benefits or for a woman to marry, his emigration was for what he emigrated for."

 

Hadith No. 54

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Narrated by Hadhrat Abu Masud (RA)

The Prophet (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) said, "If a man spends on his family (with the intention of having a reward from Allh) sincerely for Allh's sake then it is a (kind of) alms-giving in reward for him.

 

Hadith No. 55

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Narrated by Sad bin Abi Waqqas (RA)

Allhs Apostle (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) said, "You will be rewarded for whatever you spend for Allh's sake even if it were a morsel which you put in your wife's mouth."

 

Comments

What came in the saying the reward of the deeds depends upon the intention and seeking the reward from Allh.

This is the first part of Tarjamatul Bb. al-Hisbah     () means to do a deed with the intention of seeking reward from Allh. Ibn Hajar says that Imm Bukhari considers Imn as a deed, so according to him Niyyat or intention is necessary for it (Imn) as well as it is required for rest of the deeds like Salh, Zakh and Hajj etc. Ibn Hajar further says that if Imn is taken as testifying by heart (Tasdeeq), then Niyyat is not needed for it as one does not make intention for fear and love of Allh. The same view is held by Hanafi school of thought that Niyyat is not needed for Imn.

There is consensus among the Ummah that Niyyat is important for deeds like Salh, Zakh, Saum (fasting) and Hajj etc., but there is difference of opinion as to whether it is important for Wudhu or not. Imm Bukhari has included Wudhu also in those deeds for which Niyyat is a must while as according to Hanafi school of thought actual deed is Salh for which Niyyat is a must and since Wudhu is for Salh and is not aimed primarily, hence it is not necessary to make Niyyat for it i.e., they say that Wudhu is not independent purpose ( ).

Ibn Hajar says that Niyyat is important in all those deeds which are done mutually like trade, Nikah and Talq etc. Allmah Aini does not agree with Ibn Hajar on this point.

Say: "Everyone acts according to his own disposition: but your Lord knows best who it is that is best guided on the Way." (17:84)

In this verse the word Shakilatihi () has been translated by Imm Bukhari as intention. Then the meaning of the verse would be that everyone acts as per his intention. Same translation has been quoted from Hasani Bisri and Qatdah whereas Mujhid translates it as nature (). In short it would mean that every one acts as per his intention, nature and religion and Allh, being all knowing, knows the best as to who is on the right path.

 

Spending on ones family

And the spending of a man on his family with the intention of having a reward from Allh, will be rewarded as alms (Sadqah).

This is related to the second part of the Tarjamatul Bb i.e., Al-Hisbah. It means that if one feeds his family and at the same time makes the intention of seeking reward from Allh, it will fetch him more reward.

 

"But Jihd and intention."

This is related to the third part of the Tarjamatul Bb. This is the part of a Hadith from Ibn Abbas (RA) in which he says that after the victory of Makkah, when people embraced Islm they felt regretted not having embraced Islm earlier so that they could also have got the reward of Hijrah (migration). On this Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam)  said:

"There is no Hijrah (migration) after victory (of Makkah), but Jihd and intention."

Ulema say that it means that though there is no Hijrah now but one can still get reward by making the Niyyat for his deeds and also by participating in Jihd in which also one has to leave the home.

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Chapter (Bb) 43 : The saying of the Prophet (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) religion is exhortation to Allh, to Allhs Apostle (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam), to the leaders of Muslims and to the common Muslims. And the saying of Allh, If they are sincere (in duty) to Allh and His Apostle (9:91)

 

Purpose of Tarjamatul Bb and its status

Imm Bukhari has ended the Kitab-ul-Imn (chapter on faith) with a very comprehensive and great Hadith. The words of the Tarjamatul Bb are the words of Hadith but Imm Bukhari has not included this Hadith in his book whereas Imm Muslim has mentioned this Hadith in Muslim Sharief. Imm Muhammad bin Aslam al-Toosi has included this Hadith in those four Ahdith which he believed enough for one's Deen. Imm Nawawi says that this Hadith alone is enough.

 

Hadith No. 56

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Narrated by Hadhrat Jarir bin Abdullah (RA)

I made the pledge of allegiance to Allh's Apostle (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam)  for the following:

offer prayers perfectly

pay the Zakh (obligatory charity)

and be sincere and true to every Muslim.

 

Hadith No. 57

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Narrated by Ziyb bin Ilqa (RA)

I heard Jarir bin 'Abdullah (Praising Allh). On the day when Al-Mughira bin Shu'ba died, he (Jarir) got up (on the pulpit) and thanked and praised Allh and said, "Be afraid of Allh alone Who has none along with Him to be worshipped. (You should) be calm and quiet till the (new) cheif comes to you and he will come to you soon. Ask Allh's forgiveness for your (late) cheif because he himself loved to forgive others." Jarir added, "Amma badu (now then), I went to the Prophet and said, 'I give my pledge of allegiance to you for Islm." The Prophet conditioned (my pledge) for me to be sincere and true to every Muslim so I gave my pledge to him for this. By the Lord of this mosque! I am sincere and true to you (Muslims). Then Jarir asked for Allh's forgiveness and came down (from the pulpit).

 

Comments

To be sincere to Allh

Ibn Hajar quotes in Fathul Bri that once the Disciples of Hadhrat Eis (AS) asked him ,"O! Roohullah, who is Nsih () to Allh?" (When this word "An-Naseehah" is used in relation to Allh, it does not mean advice, as Allh needs no adviser.) Hadhrat Eis (AS) said, "One who gives preference to the rights of Allh over the rights of people. Being sincere to Allh means to believe in Him as taught by Rasulullah not to attribute any partners to Him, to follow His commands sincerely, to refrain from His forbidden things and to love and fear Him.

 

To be sincere to al-Qurn

To believe that it is the word of Allh, its every word is guarded by Allh from any addition or alteration and that it is not like the word of creation. To recite it with Imn and Ahtesb and to take lessons from it.

 

To be sincere to Allhs Apostle (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam)

It means to believe in everything that Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) came with. To believe him as the seal of Prophethood and to follow his Sunnah sincerely.

 

To be sincere to the Imms (leaders and rulers) of Muslims

It means to obey them as long as they do not order that thing which is sinful in Shari'ah, to offer Salh behind them and to advise them if found to be negligent.

Ulema and Mujtahideen can also be included in this category.

 

To be sincere to the common Muslims

It means to teach them Deen, be kind to them, wish for them as one wishes for one's own self and to exhort them for the right things and to stop them from bad things etc.

 

٢٢ ١٤٢٥

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DARUL ULOOM ILAHIYAH
INSTITUTE OF ISLAMIC RESEARCH
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