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Ra'fatul Bri

Sharah Sahih Bukhari

Dr. Rafiq Ahmad

Kitabul Imaan - Chapter 23 - 34, Hadith 30 - 44

Contact:- drrafiqahmad@islaminkashmir.org

Chapter 23  
  Hadith No. 30
Chapter 24  
  Hadith No. 31
Chapter 25  
  Hadith No. 32
  Hadith No. 33
Chapter 26  
  Hadith No. 34
Chapter 27  
  Hadith No. 35
Chapter 28  
  Hadith No. 36
Chapter 29  
  Hadith No. 37
Chapter 30  
  Hadith No. 38
Chapter 31  
  Hadith No. 39
Chapter 32  
  Hadith No. 40
  Hadith No. 41
Chapter 33  
  Hadith No. 42
Chapter 34  
  Hadith No. 43
  Hadith No. 44
   

P


Kitabul Iman

 

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Chapter (Bb) 23:"If two parties among the Believers fall into a quarrel make ye peace between them:"(49:9)

 

Note: In some copies of Bukhari this Verse and this Hadith no. 30is mentioned with previous chapter that is and in some it is mentioned as a separate chapter along with the Hadith.

 

Purpose of Tarjamat ul Bb

 This verse also goes in favour of the view that Kufr has many grades and that some deeds are like Kufr but are not Kufr in actual. Allh Tal called those people as believers who fought with each other, otherwise, as per Hadith, we know that to fight  each other (Muslims) is Kufr .

                          

Hadith No. 30

  ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )  

 

Narrated by Al Ahnaf bin Qais

While I was going to help this man ('Ali Ibn Abi Talib), Abu Bakarah (RA) met me and asked, "Where are you going?" I replied, "I am going to help that person." He said, "Go back for I have heard Allh's Apostle saying, 'When two Muslims fight (meet) each other with their swords, both the murderer as well as the murdered will go to the Hell-fire.' I said, 'O Allh's Apostle! It is all right for the murderer but what about the murdered one?' Allh's Apostle replied, "He surely had the intention to kill his companion."

 

NarratorAl Ahnaf bin Qais (RA) 

He found the period of Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) but did not meet him, Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) had made Dua for him in his absentia. He was very famous for his humility and died in 67 Hijrah. May Allh be pleased with his soul.

 

Abu Bakarah (RA)

He is a famous Sahbi who embraced Islm during the time when the fort of Tif was being encircled by the Muslims and he escaped from the fort and joined the Muslims. Ibn Hajar says that he was from amongst the distinguished Sahbah. He died in 51 or 52 Hijrah, May Allh be pleased with his soul.

Comments

Al Ahnaf bin Qais says that one day he was going to help Hadhrat Ali (RA) and he met Abu Bakarah (RA) on the way. This incident took place during the period of battle of Jaml. Abu Bakarah (RA) asked Ahnaf bin Qais as to where he was going?, Ahnaf told him that he was going to help his brother i.e., Hadhrat Ali. Abu Bakarah (RA) told Ahnaf to retreat back and told him a Hadith of Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam), .'When two Muslims fight (meet) each other with their swords, both the murderer as well as the murdered will go to the Hell-fire.' I said, 'O Allh's Apostle! It is all right for the murderer but what about the murdered one?' Allh's Apostle replied, "He surely had the intention to kill his companion."

 

If Muslims fight with one another, what should  one do?

Sahbah and later learned scholars of Ummah have been of different opinion on this issue.

1.A good number of Sahbah which include Hadhrat Sa'd bin Abi Vaqqs, Hadhrat Abdullah bin Umar (RA), Hadhrat Abu Bakarah (RA), Hadhrat Abu Sa'eed Khudri and Hadhrat Imrn bin Husain are of the opinion that in such situation one should isolate oneself fully and should not participate in these mutual fights of Muslims  at any cost.

2.Some are of the opinion that one should migrate from that place.

3.Majority of Sahbah and Tbaeen are of the opinion that, if just and unjust is not known then remaining aloof is better but if it is clearly known as to who is right and who is wrong then one should help the right one and try to stop one who doing injustice, as Allh says:

"If two parties among the Believers fall into a quarrel make ye peace between them: but if one of them transgresses beyond bounds against the other then fight ye (all) against the one that transgresses until it complies with the command of Allh;" (49:9)

 

Mushajirat-i-Sahbah ( )

The learned scholars of Islm have always been of the opinion that one should never pass any bad remark against any Sahbi and should never hold any bad opinion about any of the Sahbah as all of them have been given certificate of being just ( ) and that Allh is pleased with all of them.

"Allh well pleased with them and they with Him" (98:8)

There is consensus amongst Ulema of Ahli Sunnah Wal Jamt that one should remain silent about those differences amongst the Sahbah which led to the wars like that of Jaml and Sufaiyn as it is very difficult for us to imagine the status and sincerity of Sahbah. All of them were extremely sincere, there were some misunderstandings created by some mischievous elements which led to all this.

From this Hadith it seems that one would get punishment even for bad intention even if he has not committed that bad deed. Allh says in the Qur'an:

On no soul doth Allh place a burden greater than it can bear. (2:286)

A Hadith of Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) says that when a believer intends some good deed, one Thawb is written for him even if he does not do that good deed and if one intends to do a sin, it is not written unless and until he commits that sin. But this Hadith says that 'When two Muslims fight (meet) each other with their swords, both the murderer as well as the murdered will go to the Hell-fire' because both have intention to kill the other one. Does that mean that one will be punished for his bad intention even if he does not commit that sin? To understand this we need to know the following terms:

1. Hjis: This is the first grade of intention, it means that some idea came to mind and left immediately.

2. Khtir: It is the second grade, it means that some idea came to mind and stayed for some time but mind could not decide whether to do that deed or not.

3. Hadeeth-i-Nafs: It is the third grade, it means that an idea came, stayed there but mind remained in the state of confusion whether to do that or not.

4. Hum: It is the fourth grade; In this there is tendency towards doing or not doing but there is no firmness in decision.

5. Azam: It is the last grade of intention in which there is not only tendency of doing the deed but there is also firmness in the decision, it is this grade of intention which will be punishable and the first four grades are forgiven (Allh knows the best).

 

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Chapter (Bb) 24: Injustice beyond oppression

 

Purpose of Tarjamatul Bb

Here Imm Bukhari (RA) wants to say that Zulm (injustice) also has many grades and its highest grade is Shirk.

 

Hadith No. 31 

( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )  

 

Narrated by Hadhrat Abdullah (RA)

When the following Verse was revealed: "It is those who believe and confuse not their belief with wrong (worshipping others besides Allh.)" (6.82), the companions of Allh's Apostle asked, "Who is amongst us who has not done injustice (wrong)?" Allh revealed: "No doubt, joining others in worship with Allh is a great injustice (wrong) indeed." (31.13)

 

NarratorHadhrat Abdullah bin Masood (RA)

Hadhrat Abdullah bin Mas'ood (RA) belongs to the scholarly group of Sahbah who embraced Islm before Hadhrat Umar (RA) and participated in all the battles in which Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) took part. Great Sahbah like Abu Mus Ash'ari, Abu Hurairah, Ibn Abbas, Ibn Umar, Anas, Jbir (RA) and many others have quoted Hadith from him. Hadhrat Alqamah was his distinguished student among the Tbaeen. His mother had also embraced Islm and they were very close to the family of Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam),  so much so that Abu Mus Ash'ari (RA) says that when he came from Yemen,  he saw them so close to Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) that he thought that they (Ibn Mas'ood and his mother) belong to the family of Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam). He used to be in charge of shoes, miswak, bedding and the Wudhu of Rasulullah  (RA) during all his journeys. He killed Abu Jahal after the latter was wounded by the two young boys in the battle of Badr.

Hadhrat Hudhaifa (RA) says that Ibn Mas'ood  (RA) resembled Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) in his morals, decisions and speeches (Khutbah).

Hadhrat Umar (RA) used to say that Ibn Mas'ood (RA) is like a pot which is filled with knowledge upto the brim.

There are about eight hundred Ahdith narrated on the authority of Ibn  Mas'ood (RA). He died in 32 or 33 Hijrah, may Allh be pleased with his soul and elevate his rank.

 

Comments

When the following verse was revealed:

"It is those who believe and confuse not their beliefs with wrong  that are (truly) in security for they are on (right) guidance". (6:82)

Sahbah-al-Kirm were highly perturbed by this as they thought that it would be highly improbable for anyone of them to have committed some or the other injustice in their lives. But this verse says that only those are in security and on true guidance who do not mix up their belief with injustice. They took the word  Zulm in its literal meaning, and got perturbed and expressed their concern in front of Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam). He  told them that here Zulm means Shirk and substantiated his answer with the verse of the Qur'an which says,

 

"No doubt, joining others in worship with Allh is a great injustice (wrong) indeed." (31:13)

 

 

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Chapter (Bb) 25 : Sign of the Hypocrite.

 

Hadith No. 32

( ) ( ) ( ) ( )  

 

Narrated by Abu Hurairah (RA)

The Prophet (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) said, "The signs of a hypocrite are three:

1.  Whenever he speaks, he tells a lie.

2. Whenever he promises, he always breaks it (his promise ).

3. If you trust him, he proves to be dishonest. (If you keep something as a trust with him, he will not return it.)"

 

Hadith No. 33

( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )  

 

Narrated by Abdullah bin Amr (RA)

The Prophet (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) said, "Whoever has the following four (characteristics) will be a pure hypocrite and whoever has one of the following four characteristics will have one characteristic of hypocrisy unless and until he gives it up.

1.   Whenever he is entrusted, he betrays.

2.   Whenever he speaks, he tells a lie.

3.   Whenever he makes a covenant, he proves treacherous.

4.  Whenever he quarrels, he behaves in a very imprudent, evil and insulting manner."

 

Comments

What is Nifq (Hypocrisy)

Nifaq mean when someone pretends to believe something that he does not really believe or that is the opposite of what he does or says at another time. In Shari'ah it means to behave as Muslim externally when actually one is Kfir internally. This word has been derived from "Nafaq" ( ) which means an underground tunnel. Since the tunnel has two ends, one deceives by entering the tunnel and people think that he is in there whereas he has already left from the other end.

 

Types of Nifq

Allmah Kirmni says that there are two types of Nifq.

Nifq-i-Sharee ( ): It means that one is actually Kfir but poses to be a Muslim. It is a hypocrisy as regards to the beliefs.

  Nifq-i-Urfi ( ): It means that the external deeds of a believer are not matching to his internal ones. It is a hypocrisy as regards to the deeds.

Imm Tirmidhi says that this Hadith points towards the second type of Nifq i.e., the Nifq-fil-Amal (  ) and not the the Nifq-fil-Aqeedah (  ) - (Fathul Bri). Imm Qurtabi and Hfiz Ibn Hajar have appreciated this explanation.

In these two Ahdith five characteristics of a hypocrite are mentioned in total, viz.,

Whenever he speaks, he tells a lie.

Whenever he promises, he always breaks it (his promise ).

If you trust him, he proves to be dishonest. (If you keep something as a trust with him, he will not return it).

Whenever he quarrels, he behaves in a very imprudent, evil and insulting manner.

Whenever he makes a covenant, he proves treacherous.

Will a believer possessing these characteristics become a Munfiq (Hypocrite)?

Imm Ibn Taymiya says that a believer will not become a real hypocrite by having these characteristics of Hypocrisy. It is like  ( ) - Kufr below Kufr; as you have grades of Kufr so are there grades of Nifq. (Faidhul Bri)

Imm Nawawi says that resemblance of a believer to a Munfiq is directly proportional to the number of signs he will be having of Nifq, more the signs of Nifq more will he resemble a Munfiq.

 

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Chapter (Bb) 26 : To establish Salh on the night of Qadr is a part of Imn.

 

Hadith No. 34

( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )  

Narrated by Abu Hurairah (RA)

Allhs Apostle (RA) said, "Whoever establishes prayers on the night of Qadr out of sincere faith and with the hope to attain Allh's rewards (and not to show off) then all his past sins will be forgiven."

Comments

What is meant by Qadr?

The word Qadr in Arabic has the following meanings viz.,

1. Taqdeer (Fate)

If its meaning is taken as taqdeer then here in this Hadith it would mean that during this night the angels are informed about the fate of the people they are going to face that year like death, illness, misfortunes, blessings and other such things.

2. Honour

If its meaning is taken as honour then it would mean that this night is the night of honour or that this night brings honour to those who worship sincerely during this night.

 

Out of sincere faith and hope to attain Allhs rewards ( )

The reason for keeping Imn as a precondition is obvious that for Magfirat (forgiving of sins by Allh) true faith is a must. What does Ahtisb () mean? It means to keep the intention of Ikhls (sincerity) and attainment of Allh's pleasure in constant view while performing the religious deeds. One thing is to do the worship with automatism while having mind engaged in something else and other thing is to do it with absolute presence of mind. So, if one establishes Salh during this night (i.e, Qadr) with true faith and keeping Allh's pleasure and fear in complete view, it is promised that his all sins will be forgiven.

 

Sins that will be forgiven

Majority of Ulema are of the opinion that only Gunnah-i-sagheerah (small sins) will be forgiven and not the Gunnah-i-Kabeera (big sins) as for the latter Toabah is a must. Some Ulema say that it is not far from the Mercy of Allh that he may forgive all sins, small as well as big.

 

 

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Chapter (Bb) 27: The holy struggle is a part of Imn

 

Hadith No. 35

( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )  

 

Purpose of Tarjamatul Bb

Ulema have discussed in detail as to why Imm Bukhari has got the chapter of Jihd after Lailatul Qadr. Ibn Hajar says that as there is a lot of struggle (Mujhadah) to keep standing in the Salh during Lailatul Qadr, similarly there is great Mujhadah in the Jihd. Former is a Jihd with one's own enemy i.e., Nafs and the latter is a Jihd with the enemies of Islm.

 

Narrated by Hadhrat Abu Hurairah (RA)

The Prophet (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) said, "The person who participates in (Holy battles) in Allh's cause and nothing compels him to do so except belief in Allh and His Apostles, will be recompensed by Allh either with a reward, or booty (if he survives) or will be admitted to Paradise (if he is killed in the battle as a martyr). Had I not found it difficult for my followers, then I would not remain behind any Sariyah going for Jihd and I would have loved to be martyred in Allh's cause and then made alive, and then martyred and then made alive, and then again martyred in His cause."

 

Comments

Ulema have given many meanings of the word , viz.,

1. It means that one who leaves his home for Jihd, Allh will suffice him for his all needs i.e., his all needs will be taken care of by Allh.

2. Allh answers, one who leaves for Jihd in His way, with Magfirat for that person  ( )(An-Nihayah)

 

And nothing compels him to do so except belief in Allh and His apostle

Ikhls i.e., to do everything for the sake of Allh with absolute sincerity, is an important pre-requisite for acceptance of any deed by Allh. A great deed like sacrificing one's life for the sake of Allh i.e., Jihd will also be rewarded only if it is for His sake. If someone participates in it for worldly gains, he will get no reward. Secondly one should have firm Imn in Allh and His Messenger (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam), no deed without this is acceptable to Allh.

Will be recompensed by Allh either with a reward or booty (if he survives) or will be admitted to paradise

A true believer who participates in Jihd for the sake of Allh will never return unrewarded, he will either return as victorious with a lot of booty, a lot of reward () or will earn martyrdom thereby confirming his abode in Jannah.

 

What is Sariyah?

Sariyah means a group of army comprising of up to four hundred persons.

 

What is Gazwah?

Gazwah is that Sariyah in which Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) participated himself.

 

The reasons behind Rasulullahs (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) not participating in all the Sariyahs

Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) said: had I not found it difficult for my followers, I would not remain behind any Sariyah going for Jihd. Irrespective of this statement he did participate because of the following reasons:

1. It would have become compulsory for all followers to participate in Jihd, and at least for the Ameer-ul-Mumi'neen it would have become a must.

2. There would have arisen difficulties for the administration at Madinah.

 

I would have loved to be martyred again and again

And I would have loved to be martyred in Allh's cause and then made alive, and then martyred and then made alive, and then again martyred in His cause.

This statement is to highlight the significance of Jihd.

 

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Chapter (Bb) 28: To establish optional Salh during Ramadhan is a part of Imn

 

Purpose of Tarjamatul Bb

Here Imm Bukhari wants to convey that to offer optional deeds like Nawfil and Mustahibt  ( )  are also part of Imn. Secondly he wants to say that Qiym (standing during night Salh) during Ramadhan is Sunnah and not Wjib

 

Hadith No. 36

( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )  

 

Narrated by Hadhrat Abu Hurairah (RA)

Allhs Apostle (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) said: "Whoever establishes prayers during the nights of Ramadhan faithfully out of sincere faith and hope to attain Allh's rewards (not for showing off), all his past sins will be forgiven."

 

 

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Chapter (Bb) 29 : To fast during the month of Ramadhn seeking Allahs reward is a part of Imn.

 

Hadith no. 37

( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )  

 

Narrated by Hadhrat Abu Hurairah (RA)

Allhs apostle (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) said, "whoever observes fasts during the month of Ramadan out of sincere faith and hope to attain Allh's rewards, then all his past sins will be forgiven."

 

Comments

This subject has already been discussed.

 

 

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Chapter  (Bb) 30: Religion is easiness, and the saying of prophet "the most beloved religion before Allh is that which is Hanifiyah (to worship him alone) and easy"

 

Purpose of Tarjamatul Bb

In previous chapters, Imm Bukhari mentioned about night prayers, fasting and Ramadhan, all these things are difficult and demand lot of courage and hard work. By looking at these things one may consider Islm a difficult religion. In order to remove that notion, Imm Bukhari introduced this chapter in between, which clearly states that the Deen is very easy. Here he follows the Qura'nic pattern. Allh Tal says:

()

Ramadan is the (month) in which was send down the Qur'an as a guide to mankind, also clear (Signs) for guidance and judgment (between right and wrong).  So everyone of you who is present (at his home) during that month should spend it in fasting but if anyone is ill or on a journey the prescribed period (should be made up) by days later.  Allh intends every facility for you He does not want to put you to difficulties.  (He wants you) to complete the prescribed period and to glorify Him in that He has guided you; and perchance ye shall be grateful (2:185)

Here in this verse easiness is mentioned after the command for fasting, "He does not want to put you to difficulties".

 

Religion is easiness ( )

Allh likes the religion which is really easy, and Islm is a very easy religion when compared to other religions. Followers of Hadhrat Mus (AS) were asked to offer Salh fifty times a day. They had to pay one-fourth of their savings as Zakh and they had to cut off that part of the cloth which would get Najas (impure). They were being punished for their sins in this world as well. The Shari'ah for this Ummah is very easy to follow, just five times Salh in a day and just two and a half percent of savings to be paid as Zakh. The clothes become clean and pure just by washing only, no need to cut them off and throw away. This Ummah will not get the punishment of getting disfigured like pigs and monkeys as happened to some earlier people.

 

What is Hanifiyah ()?

Hanief means one who worships Allh alone and seeks only and only His help in all matters. That is why Hadhrat Ibrahim (AS) was also called Hanief. He left his home, got ready to sacrifice his son for Allh's sake and when angels offered him their help while he was being put to fire, he said:

If it (help) is from youthen no, if it is from Allhthen  yes.

So following the path of Hadhrat Ibrahim (AS) is Hanifiyah.

 

What is Samhah ()?

It means easiness. Allh, being Merciful to His bondsmen, wants easiness for them.

 

Taleeqat-i-Bukhari ))

It is a very important and interesting part of Sahih Bukhari. Many times Imm Bukhari mentions a Hadith or part of a Hadith under the title (Bb) as Tarjamatul Bb, these are called Taleeqat-i-Bukhari as is mentioned in this Bb:

 

"Religion is easiness, and the saying of Prophet (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) "The most beloved religion to Allh is that which is  Hanifiyah (To worship him alone ) and easy."

 

Ta'leeqat are of two kinds

1. Those types of Ahdith which Imm Bukhari mentions in his book Sahih Bukhari at other places and also gets them in a particular Bb just to defend his point. These are 1341 Ahdith in total. (Kashful Bri).

2. There are a good number of Ahdith which Imm Bukhari mentions in Tarjamatul Bb but does not mention them in his book. The reason is that Imm Bukhari has set a very strict criteria for any Hadith to be so authentic as to be worthy of being included in his book. These types of Ahdith, which he gets in Tarjamatul Bb and does not mention them in his book, do not meet that criteria necessary for inclusion in his book, though these were authentic near Imm Bukhari as well. These are one hundred and fifty nine in total. (Kashful Bri).

 

Hadith no. 38

( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )  

 

Narrated by Abu Hurairah (RA)

the Prophet (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) said, "Religion is very easy and whoever overburdens himself in his religion will be overpowered by it (not be able to continue in that way). so take the right path of perfection and try to be near to perfection and receive the good tidings that you will be rewarded; and gain strength by worshipping in the mornings, afternoons and the last hours of the nights."

 

Comments

Religion is very easy and whoever overburdens himself in his religion will not be able to continue in that way.

We  have seen above as to how Deen is very easy. We can take any aspect of Deen and will definitely find it very easy. The most important deed i.e., Salh just five times, Zakh just two and a half percent that too only on savings and only once in a year, fasting just for one month and that too during day only and Hajj just once in a life time and that too if you have enough money otherwise not. If one falls ill or becomes is weak, many things get waved off.

Allh likes those deeds which are done with consistency even if less in number. Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam), being very kind to his Ummah, advises not to overburden oneself with too much of load of worship which one cannot continue later on. Suppose somebody says that he would always wake up for the night prayer, he may do it for some nights but will not be able to do it later on and this is not needed in our Shari'ah.

So take the right path of perfection and try to be near to perfection

:

"as-Sidd means balanced deeds (without any exaggeration or subtraction)". (Fathul Bri)

It is very difficult to comment on the beauty of this statement of Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam). It is his utmost affection for his Ummah with which he has given us such great teachings. Firstly, he advises us to choose an ideal path devoid of any extremism, a path which is right one and perfect too. Then he knows that it is always difficult to tread on the ideal and perfect path, so, he advises us to be at least near to it, that will also suffice. One who takes to extremism, usually does not reach the destination but slow and steady always wins the race.

 

And receive the good tidings that you will be rewarded

Every word of this Hadith needs to be engraved on heart and mind. Usually you will see people depressed and worried, here the real doctor of the mankind prescribes the best medicine for depression i.e., to remain happy after doing the handful of good deeds and receive the good tidings that you will be rewarded. Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) wants his followers to be happy.

 

And gain strength by worshipping in the mornings, afternoon and the last hours of the nights

This is the practical part of the medicine. Allmah Shabir Uthmni says if someone wants to be a Wali (beloved believer of Allh), this Hadith is enough. One does not need to shun the world and go to jungles to achieve salvation but it is enough if one can devote some time for the remembrance of Allh in the mornings up to sunrise, in the afternoons and in last part of the nights. This is quite practicable, relatively easy and of tremendous spiritual benefit if one understands and practices it with faith and consistency. The timings of Salh have also been framed during these times only as these are the times when man finds freshness in his mind and is relatively less distracted by the worldly engagements. These are the times chosen by Allh for showering maximum spiritual benefits to His bondsmen.

So, Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) tells his followers to adopt the balanced approach, not to be extremists, be happy, do worldly work without any hesitation or worry and give some time of the day and night to the remembrance of Allh.

 

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Chapter (Bb) 31: Praying is a part of faith and the saying of Allh Tal And never would Allh make your faith of no effect i.e., your prayers (Salh) which you offered while facing Baitul Maqdis (Jerusalem)

 

Purpose of Tarjamatul Bb

In these chapters Imm Bukhari is mentioning the requisites of faith and here he wants to convey his point that Salh is also part of Imn as in this verse the word Imn is used for Salh.

 

Shn-i-Nuzool of this verse

It is narrated by Hadhrat Ibn Abbas (RA) that some people had already died before Kabah was again decreed as Qiblah of Muslims at a time they were facing Baitul Maqdis during Salh. At this point a question aroused in the minds of some Sahbah as to what would happen to the prayers of those Sahbah who had already died and had offered their prayers towards Baitul Maqdis? They came to Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) and asked him about this, on this Allh Tal sent this verse:

"And  never would Allh make your faith of no effect". (2:143)

 

( ) i.e., the prayers you offered while facing Baitul Maqdis (Jerusalem)

This statement of Imm Bukhari ( ) is one of the difficult statements of Sahih Bukhari which Ulema find difficult to explain, as to what is the meaning of "Al Bait" here. There is consensus amongst Muhadditheen that Imn in this verse means Salh but there is no satisfactory explanation of the word "Al Bait" used by Imm Bukhari. Some say that by it he means Baitul Maqdis, others object to it by saying that "Al Bait" is usually used for Kabah. Some say that by it he means Kabah but then its meaning here does not fit.

 

Hadith No. 39

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Narrated by Al Bara bin Azib (RA)

When Prophet (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) came to Medina, he stayed first with his grandfathers or maternal uncles from Ansar. He offered his prayers facing Baitul-Maqdis (Jerusalem) for sixteen or seventeen months, but he wished that he could pray facing the Kabah (at Makkah). The first prayer which he offered facing the Kabah was the 'Asr prayer in the company of some people. Then one of those who had offered that prayer with him came  across some people in a mosque who were bowing down during their prayers (facing Jerusalem). He said addressing them, "By Allh, I testify that I have prayed with Allh's Apostle while facing Kabah (Makkah).' Hearing this, they changed their direction towards the Kabah immediately. Jews and the people of other scriptures used to get pleased to see the Prophet facing Jerusalem in prayers but when he changed his direction towards the Ka'ba, during the prayers, they disapproved of it.

Al-Bara' added, "Before we changed our direction towards the Kabah (Makkah) in prayers, some Muslims had died or had been killed and we did not know what to say about them (regarding their prayers.) Allh then revealed: And Allh would never make your faith (prayers) to be lost (i.e. the prayers of those Muslims were valid).' " (2.143).

 

Narrator: Al Bara (bin Azib)

He is a famous Sahbi who participated in all Gazwas (wars) except that of Badr as that time he was too young. As per Abu Umru Shaibani, he was the conqueror of Ray. There are three hundred and five Ahdith narrated on his authority. He died in 71 or 72 Hijrah, peace be upon his soul.

 

Comments

When the Prophet came to Medina, he stayed first with his grandfathers or maternal uncles from Ansar.

Madina was the Nanihal (maternal home) for Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam). It was actually the maternal home of his grandfatherAbdul Mutallib, whose mother namely Salma Bint Umru was from Madinah from the clan of Banu Adi bin Najar. The mother of Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) was from Qarshi clan. Abdul Mutallib's father Hashim bin Abd Manaf came to Madinah and married this lady and she gave birth to a baby boy whose actual name was Sheebat ul Hamd. His father Hashim died in his journey of Syria and then his uncle, Mutallib bin Manaf, got his nephew, Sheebat ul Hamd, to Makkah where this boy got known by the name of Abdul Mutallib when his actually he was nephew of Mutallib and not the son. (Kashful Bri)

 

He offered his prayers facing Baitul-Maqdis (Jerusalem) for sixteen or seventeen months.

There are different narrations regarding the time period during which Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) offered Salh towards Baitul Maqdis. Imm Bukhari and Imm Muslim mention with uncertainty sixteen or seventeen months whereas in some narrations sixteen and in some seventeen is mentioned with certainty.

 

The Mosque where change of Qiblah took place

There are various opinions about it, Ibn Hajar says that this change of Qiblah from Baitul Maqdis towards Kabah was ordered by Allh Tal to Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) while offering the Zuhr Salh in Masjid Banu Salma, commonly now known as Masjid Zu-Qiblatain ( ). Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) while offering Salh turned from Baitul Maqdis towards Ka'ba. He offered first two Raka'ts towards Baitul Maqdis and the remaining two towards Ka'ba. Then the first Salh which was offered towards Kabah in Masjid Nabawi was the Asr Salh. One of the persons, Ubd bin Bisher, who offered Asr Salh after Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) in Masjid Nabawi facing Ka'ba, passed by the Masjid Banu Hrisah where people were offering Asr Salh towards Baitul Maqdis, He said addressing them, "By Allh, I testify that I have prayed with Allh's Apostle facing Makkah (Ka'ba).' Hearing this, they changed their direction towards the Kabah immediately. People of Quba came to know about the change of Qiblah in next Fajr Salh as Quba is at some distance from Madinah. (see Tabaqt Ibn Sa'd, Fathul Bri, Kashful Bri).

 

 

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Chapter (Bb) 32: Beauty of Islm of a person.

 

Purpose of Tarjamatul Bb and its relation with previous Bb:

Allmah Aini says in Umdatul Qri that in previous chapter Imm Bukhari mentioned that Salh is from faith and that as we know that beauty of Islm is because of Salh, so, after Salh he got the chapter on the beauty of Islm. The purpose here again is the same that is to prove that Imn has grades. Here he says that beauty is part of Islm, as we know that beauty has grades, so naturally Imn will also have different grades.

 

Hadith  No. 40

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Narrated Abu Sa'eed al Khudri

Allhs Apostle (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam)  said ,"If a person embraces Islm and beautifies his Islm (by following it sincerely), then Allh will expiate all his past sins, and after that starts the sanction. The good deeds will be rewarded ten times to seven hundred times of it overlooks and an evil deed will be recorded as it is unless Allh forgives it."

 

Hadith  No. 41

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Narrated  by Abu Hurairah

Allhs Apostle said, "If any one of you improve (follows strictly) his Islmic religion then his good deeds will be rewarded ten times to seven hundred times for each good deed and a bad deed will be recorded as it is."

 

Comments

In this Hadith Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) says that whosoever embraces Islm with absolute sincerity, all his previous sins will be expiated. Another Hadith says,

"Islm waves off (raises to ground) all the past sins". Muslim)

After entering into the fold of Islm the deeds will be treated as per their merit which has been labelled as "Qisas" in this Hadith. A good deed will be rewarded ten times and the reward can go up to seven hundred times and even more if Allh wishes, whereas the bad deed will be recorded as it is.

 

What about the past good deeds of one who embraces Islm?

whosoever embraces Islm with absolute sincerity, all his previous sins will be expiated. Will he be rewarded for his good deeds or not? There is difference of opinion amongst the Ulema on this. As per Imm Nawawi, he will be rewarded for his good deeds (Umdatul Qri, Sharah Nawawi on sahih Muslim), but Imm Bukhari seems to differ on this point that is probably why he has omitted the other part of this Hadith, which has been quoted by Imm Dhar-i-Qutni from Imm Mlik, which says that the his past good deeds are recorded (Nawawi). But the question is that what will happen to good deeds of that person who does not embrace Islm? Allmah Kashmiri says that good deeds of non believer will be of two types, Ibdt and Qurbt. For Ibdt, Niyyat or intention is necessary and for Niyyat Islm is a precondition, so, there is no question of these deeds becoming Ibdat. But these good deeds of a non believer will definitely help him in this world and there is every possibility that these will lead to the reduction in the severity of punishment in the Hereafter, i.e., a non believer with bad deeds will get more chastisement than one with good deeds.

 

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Chapter (Bb) 33: The best deed (in religion)  in the sight of Allah (the Exalted and Almighty) is one which is done continuously.

 

Hadith No. 42

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Narrated by Aisha (RA)

Once the Prophet came while a woman was sitting with me. He said, "Who is she?" I replied, "She is so and so," and told him about her (excessive) praying. He said disapprovingly, "Do (good) deeds which is within your capacity (without being overtaxed) as Allh does not get tired (of giving rewards) but (surely) you will get tired and the best deed (act of Worship) in the sight of Allh is that which is done with consistency."

 

Comments

One day a lady namely Hawla bint Tuweet was sitting with Hadhrat Aisha (RA) and Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) passed by from there. Hadhrat Aisha (RA) started praising the Salh of that lady. It is said that she was famous for her lengthy Salh and also for her night Salh. Rasulullah (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) forbade Hadhrat Aisha (RA) from saying so. He told her," Do (good) deeds which is within your capacity (without being overtaxed) as Allh does not get tired (of giving rewards) but (surely) you will get tired and the best deed (act of Worship) in the sight of Allh is that which is done with consistency."

From this Hadith we learn that one should try to do good deeds with consistency which are within one's capacity even if these are less in number. This is all about the optional Ibadt (nawafil) and not about obligatory Ibadt (Faraidh) as the latter are always in man's capacity because in Shariah, Allh has not put any burden on man which he cannot bear.

 

 

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Chapter (Bb) 34: Faith increases and decreases and the saying of Allh," We increased them in guidance", "And that believers may increase in faith", and Allh said , This day I have perfected your religion for you". So, A person will suffers loss if he leaves anything of perfection.

 

Purpose of Tarjamatul Bb

Previous chapter was about the consistency in deeds and this chapter says that faith can increase and decrease as one may either be consistent or inconsistent. Secondly, in this chapter the verse of the Qur'an about the perfection of Deen is quoted which also implies that anything that is perfect can increase or decrease in perfection. Ulema have given different explanations as to why Imm Bukhari has repeated this Bb.

 

Hadith No. 43

 

 

Narrated by Anas (RA)

The Prophet said, "Whoever said "None has the right to be worshipped but Allh and has in his heart good (faith) equal to the weight of a barley grain will be taken out of Hell. And whoever said: "None has the right to be worshipped but Allh and has in his heart good (faith) equal to the weight of a wheat grain will be taken out of Hell. And whoever said, "None has the right to be worshipped but Allh and has in his heart good (faith) equal to the weight of an atom will be taken out of Hell."

 

Comments

This Hadith also shows that Imn has different grades, which has been compared to things like barley grain, wheat grain and an atom.

 

What is a Zarrah (atom)?

There are various opinions about it ,viz.,

It means a single dust particle among those which are seen floating in air in sun light that passes through window or some opening.

It means the smallest scalar quantity which can be weighed.

Ibn Abbas says that it means a single dust particle among those which fall down when you strike hands together in order to clean them from dust.

Four (04) zarrahs (atoms) make one Khardhal.

 

Rislat

Ibn Hajar says that Rislat (faith in Prophethood of Muhammad (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) is included and understood in so one should not be think that faith in Prophethood of Muhammad (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam) is not part of Imn.

 

Significance of Imn

This Hadith also shows the significance of faith that even a small part of it equal to an atom is enough to get one ultimately out of Hell.

 

Hadith No. 44

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Narrated by Umar bin al-Khattab (RA)

Once a Jew said to me, "O the chief of believers! There is a verse in your Holy Book Which is read by all of you (Muslims), and had it been revealed to us, we would have taken that day (on which it was revealed as a day of celebration." 'Umar (RA) bin Al-Khattab asked, "Which is that verse?" The Jew replied, "This day I have perfected your religion For you, completed My favor upon you, And have chosen for you Islm as your religion." (5.3) 'Umar (RA) replied, "No doubt, we know when and where this verse was revealed to the Prophet. It was Friday and the Prophet was standing at 'Arafat (i.e. the Day of Hajj)"

 

Comments

A Jew wanted to convey that it is really a matter of great honour and pride for Muslims that Allh has chosen Islm as His religion and has completed His favour for Muslims. Allh says,

"This day have I perfected your religion for you completed my favor upon you and have chosen for you Islm as your religion."(5:3)

By this answer  Hadhrat Umar (RA) meant that these two days i.e., Friday and the day of Arfa (day preceding Eid uz Zuha) are already days of celebration for us and that Muslims are fully aware of the significance of these verses of the Qur'an.

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DARUL ULOOM ILAHIYAH
INSTITUTE OF ISLAMIC RESEARCH
ILAHI BAGH, BUCHPORA, SRINAGAR, 190011, KASHMIR, INDIA